Agalmatophilia is a paraphilia involving sexual attraction to a statue, mannequin or other similar figurative object. The attraction may include a desire for actual sexual contact with the object, a fantasy of having sexual encounters with an animate or inanimate instance of the preferred object, the act of watching encounters between such objects, or sexual pleasure gained from thoughts of being transformed or transforming another into the preferred object. Agalmatophilia may encompass Pygmalionism, which denotes love for an object of one's own creation. Agalmatophilia became a subject of clinical study with the publication of Richard von Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing recorded in 1877 the case of a gardener falling in love with a statue of the Venus de Milo and being discovered attempting coitus with it. An important fantasy for some individuals is being transformed into the preferred object and experiencing an associated state of immobility or paralysis; such fantasies may be extended to role-playing, the self-coined term used by fetishists who enjoy being transformed into what appears to be a "rubber doll" or "latex doll" or trapped within a statue and displayed in a museum.
Sexualised life-size dolls have extensively featured in the work of famous art photographers such as Hans Bellmer, Bernard Faucon, Helmut Newton, Morton Bartlett, Katan Amano, Kishin Shinoyama and Ryoichi Yoshida and Five Hargreeves Agalmatophilia features prominently in Luis Buñuel's L'Âge d'Or, in which the female protagonist sucks a statue's toe. The romantic comedy film Mannequin is about a window dresser who has a relationship with an animated mannequin, which he had found at a department store; the character Number Five in the superhero web television series The Umbrella Academy falls in love with a mannequin named Dolores. "Just Like a Woman" - Salon.com article describing cultural phenomenon of RealDolls "Real Dolls: Love in the Age of Silicone" - original, more detailed version of the Salon article The Technosexuality, Pygmalionist & Mind Control Fetish FAQ 3.0 Lars and the Real Girl at IMDB. A delusional young guy strikes up an unconventional relationship with a doll he finds on the Internet
Smith Ely Jelliffe
Smith Ely Jelliffe was an American neurologist and psychoanalyst. He practiced in New York City nearly his entire life. Trained in botany and pharmacy, Jelliffe switched first to neurology in the mid-1890s to psychiatry, to psychoanalysis, he graduated from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in 1886, received his M. D. in 1889 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He received a Ph. D. from Columbia in 1900, for which he did a Flora of Long Island for his thesis. Jelliffe was instructor in materia medica in Columbia University and professor of pharmacognosy in the same university, he was clinical professor of mental diseases at Fordham University, president of the New York Psychiatric Society, the New York Neurological Society, the American Psychopathological Association, editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. He was a corresponding member of the French and Brazilian neurological societies, he was author of more than four hundred articles. His book, The Modern Treatment of Nervous and Mental Diseases, which he co-authored with lifelong collaborator William Alanson White, has been a classic in the field, with many reprintings.
With White, Jelliffe in 1913 founded Psychoanalytic Review, the first English-language publication devoted to psychoanalysis. In it, he wrote a number of articles on psychoanalytic technique and transference. A quite heterodox journal, the Psychoanalytic Review continued to publish translations of work by dissidents such as C. G. Jung and Alfred Adler long after they had seceded from orthodox Freudianism. Jelliffe is credited with important contributions in the field of psychosomatic medicine, of which he is regarded as one of the founders, he began publishing papers about it as early as 1916. These were collected in his Sketches in Psychosomatic Medicine, his only book explicitly on this subject. One of the earliest Freudian adherents in the United States, Jelliffe produced after the turn-of-the-century numerous translations of European works in psychopathology, neurology and psychotherapy. From about 1902 he owned and edited for the next forty years the influential Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.
In 1907 he, in his first collaboration with White and edited the Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, which published the earliest translations of Freud, Jung and other European psychoanalysts, as well as monographs in psychiatry and neurology. His and White's Diseases of the Nervous System: A Text-Book of Neurology and Psychiatry was a standard period textbook, the first American textbook to devote substantial space to psychopathology and psychoanalysis. Jelliffe's 1918 The Technique of Psychoanalysis was the first book in any language explicitly devoted to analytic technique. Not an important theoretician in any of the fields in which he practiced, Jelliffe was significant more as a behind-the-scenes mover through his translations and the serials that he owned and edited. Jelliffe was the first notable, self-identified American book collector in neuroscience and psychoanalysis, he amassed an enormous library of books and offprints, which must have been the largest and most important collection in private hands in North America in the early 20th century.
Jelliffe's savings were wiped out by the stock market crash in 1929, so he was forced to continue working into his late seventies. In 1942 he sold the bulk of his book and journal collection to The Institute of Living in Hartford, though he still retained thousands of books, which Nolan D. C. Lewis inherited after Jelliffe's death. Sigmund Freud Carl Jung Herbert Silberer The principal sources for Jelliffe's life are: John C. Burnham and William McGuire's Jelliffe: American Psychoanalyst and Physician & His Correspondence with Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung Nolan D. C. Lewis's "Smith Ely Jelliffe 1866-1945: Psychosomatic Medicine in America," pages 224-234 in Franz Alexander et al.'s Psychoanalytic Pioneers Works by Smith Ely Jelliffe at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Smith Ely Jelliffe at Internet Archive
Charles Samson Féré was a French physician. He studied medicine in Rouen, where he subsequently served at the Hôtel-Dieu under surgeon Achille Flaubert, an older brother of writer Gustave Flaubert. Afterwards, he relocated to Paris. In 1881 he began work as an assistant to Jean-Martin Charcot, a profound influence to Féré's career. In 1887, he was appointed chief medical officer at the Hospice Bicêtre, remaining there for the rest of his career. Féré's wide-ranging research covered subjects such as medicine, criminology, hypnosis, heredity, et al; the following are a few of his principal written works: Le Magnétisme animal, 1887 - Animal magnetism. Dégénérescence et criminalité, 1888 - Degeneration and criminality. La Pathologie des émotions, 1892 - The pathology of emotions. La Famille névropathique, 1894 - The neuropathic family. L'instinct sexuel: évolution et dissolution, 1899 - The sexual instinct and dissolution. Féré is credited with introducing the term "hallucination altruiste" to denote a hallucination depicting a person to whom a sensation, wish, or feeling is conveyed or attributed.
A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière Les biographies de neurologues Les internes de JM. Charcot
Henry Havelock Ellis, known as Havelock Ellis, was an English physician, progressive intellectual and social reformer who studied human sexuality. He co-authored the first medical textbook in English on homosexuality in 1897, published works on a variety of sexual practices and inclinations, as well as on transgender psychology, he is credited with introducing the notions of narcissism and autoeroticism adopted by psychoanalysis. Ellis was among the pioneering investigators of psychedelic drugs and the author of one of the first written reports to the public about an experience with mescaline, which he conducted on himself in 1896, he served as president of the Eugenics Society. Ellis, son of Edward Peppen Ellis and Susannah Mary Wheatley, was born in Surrey, he had none of whom married. His father was a sea captain, his mother the daughter of a sea captain, many other relatives lived on or near the sea; when he was seven his father took him on one of his voyages, during which they called at Sydney and Antwerp.
After his return, Ellis attended the French and German College near Wimbledon, afterward attended a school in Mitcham. In April 1875, Ellis sailed on his father's ship for Australia. After the discovery of his lack of training, he was fired and became a tutor for a family living a few miles from Carcoar, he spent a year there and obtained a position as a master at a grammar school in Grafton. The headmaster had died and Ellis carried on the school for that year, but was unsuccessful. At the end of the year, he returned to Sydney and, after three months' training, was given charge of two government part-time elementary schools, one at Sparkes Creek, near Scone, New South Wales and the other at Junction Creek, he lived at the school house on Sparkes Creek for a year. He wrote in his autobiography, "In Australia, I gained health of body, I attained peace of soul, my life task was revealed to me, I was able to decide on a professional vocation, I became an artist in literature these five points covered the whole activity of my life in the world.
Some of them I should doubtless have reached without the aid of the Australian environment, scarcely all, most of them I could never have achieved so if chance had not cast me into the solitude of the Liverpool Range." Ellis returned to England in April 1879. He had decided to take up the study of sex, felt his first step must be to qualify as a physician, he studied at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School now part of King's College London, but never had a regular medical practice. His training was aided by a small legacy and income earned from editing works in the Mermaid Series of lesser known Elizabethan and Jacobean drama, he joined The Fellowship of the New Life in 1883, meeting other social reformers Eleanor Marx, Edward Carpenter and George Bernard Shaw. The 1897 English translation of Ellis's book Sexual Inversion, co-authored with John Addington Symonds and published in German in 1896, was the first English medical textbook on homosexuality, it describes the sexual relations including men with boys.
Ellis wrote the first objective study of homosexuality, as he did not characterise it as a disease, immoral, or a crime. The work assumes. In 1897 a bookseller was prosecuted for stocking Ellis's book. Although the term homosexual is attributed to Ellis, he wrote in 1897, "'Homosexual' is a barbarously hybrid word, I claim no responsibility for it." In fact, the word homosexual was coined in 1868 by the Hungarian author Karl-Maria Kertbeny. Ellis may have developed psychological concepts of autoerotism and narcissism, both of which were developed further by Sigmund Freud. Ellis's influence may have reached Radclyffe Hall, who would have been about 17 years old at the time Sexual Inversion was published, she referred to herself as a sexual invert and wrote of female "sexual inverts" in Miss Ogilvy Finds Herself and The Well of Loneliness. When Ellis bowed out as the star witness in the trial of The Well of Loneliness on 14 May 1928, Norman Haire was set to replace him but no witnesses were called.
Ellis studied. Together with Magnus Hirschfeld, Havelock Ellis is considered a major figure in the history of sexology to establish a new category, separate and distinct from homosexuality. Aware of Hirschfeld's studies of transvestism, but disagreeing with his terminology, in 1913 Ellis proposed the term sexo-aesthetic inversion to describe the phenomenon. In 1920 he coined the term eonism, which he derived from the name of a historical figure, Chevalier d'Eon. Ellis explained: On the psychic side, as I view it, the Eonist is embodying, in an extreme degree, the aesthetic attitude of imitation of, identification with, the admired object, it is normal for a man to identify himself with the woman. The Eonist carries that identification too far, stimulated by a sensitive and feminine element in himself, associated with a rather defective virile sexuality on what may be a neurotic basis. Ellis found eonism to be "a remarkably common anomaly", "next in frequency to homosexuality among sexual deviations", categorized it as "among the transitional or intermediate forms of sexuality."
As in the Freudian tradition, Ellis postulated that a "too close attachment to the mother" may encourage eonism, but considered that it "probably invokes some defective endocrine balance". In November 1891, at the age of 32, still a virgin, Ellis married the English writer and proponent of women's righ
Mortification of the flesh
Mortification of the flesh is an act by which an individual or group seeks to mortify, or put to death, their sinful nature, as a part of the process of sanctification. In Christianity, common forms of mortification that are practiced to this day include fasting, abstinence, as well as pious kneeling. Common among Christian religious orders in the past were the wearing of sackcloth, as well as flagellation in imitation of Jesus of Nazareth's suffering and death by crucifixion. Christian theology holds that the Holy Spirit helps believers in the "mortification of the sins of the flesh." Although the term'mortification of the flesh', derived from Romans 8:13 and Colossians 3:5 in the Bible, is used in a Christian context, other cultures may have analogous concepts of self-denial. Old Testament precursors include Zechariah 13:6 and I Kings 18:28-29; some forms unique to various Asian cultures are carrying heavy immersion in water. The term "mortification of the flesh" comes from the Book of Romans in the Christian Bible: "For if you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body you will live."
The same idea is seen in the following verses: "Put to death what is earthly in you: fornication, passion, evil desire, covetousness, idolatry". Support for such behavior in the Old Testament is found here: "Blows; the Apostle Paul, who authored Romans, expected believers to "put to death" the deeds of the flesh. This is because the word in Koine Greek, the language in which the New Testament was written, for flesh is sarx; this word denotes the fallen or sinful elements and proclivities of humanity. This word is juxtaposed in Romans 8:13, cited above, with body, which more refers to the physical body of a human, thus in Romans 8:13 Paul is drawing a parallel between fallen people, with proclivities to sin without chance of redemption, redeemed people who are so changed that mortification of their fleshly sin can turn to bodily life, from σάρξ to σῶμα. In its simplest form, mortification of the flesh can mean denying oneself certain pleasures, such as permanently or temporarily abstaining, from food, alcoholic beverages, sexual relations, or an area of life that makes the person's spiritual life more difficult or burdensome.
It can be practiced by choosing a simple or impoverished lifestyle. Among votarists, traditional forms of physical mortification are hair-shirts. In some of its more severe forms, it can mean using a discipline to flagellate oneself. In Christianity, the Rev. Michael Geisler, a Catholic priest of the Opus Dei Prelature in St. Louis, wrote two articles explaining the theological purpose behind corporal mortification. "Self-denial helps a person overcome both psychological and physical weakness, gives him energy, helps him grow in virtue and leads to salvation. It conquers the insidious demons of softness and lukewarm faith that dominate the lives of so many today"; some theologians explain that the redemptive value of pain makes pain lovable in its effects though by itself it is not. Pain is limited, thus to undergo it is worthwhile to gain the real benefits. For those with this viewpoint, pain is seen as a means to an end. Thus, a modern Catholic saint, Josemaria Escriva said, while consoling a dying woman, suffering in a hospital, "Blessed be pain!
Glorified be pain! Sanctified be pain!" The root of the modern-day perplexity over mortification, according to some theologians, is the "practical denial of God," a refusal to accept any but material realities. The early Christian evangelist and church-planter Paul wrote, "I chastise my body and bring it into subjection: lest when I have preached to others I myself should be castaway". Through the centuries, some Christians have practiced voluntary penances as a way of imitating Jesus who, according to the New Testament, voluntarily accepted the sufferings of his passion and death on the cross at Calvary in order to redeem humankind; some Christians note that the cross carried by Jesus is the crossbar or patibulum, a rough tree trunk, which weighed between 80 and 110 pounds. Christ fasted for 40 days and 40 nights, an example of submission to the first person of the Trinity, God the Father, as a way of preparing for ministry; the early Christians mortified the flesh through martyrdom and through what has been called "confession of the faith": accepting torture in a joyful way.
As Christians experienced persecution, they embraced their fate of suffering due to their love for Christ and the transformation they said they experienced from following him. Saint Jerome, a Western church father and biblical scholar who translated the Bible into Latin, was famous for his severe penances in the desert; some canonized Catholic saints and founders of Roman Catholic religious organizations practiced mortification in order to imitate Christ. Another way of self-denial that developed in the ea
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system. Since they allow to check the reliability of chosen mathematical models, computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, climatology, chemistry and manufacturing, human systems in economics, social science, health care and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model, it can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions. Computer simulations are realized by running computer programs that can be either small, running instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers; the scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible using traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling.
Over 10 years ago, a desert-battle simulation of one force invading another involved the modeling of 66,239 tanks and other vehicles on simulated terrain around Kuwait, using multiple supercomputers in the DoD High Performance Computer Modernization Program. Other examples include a 1-billion-atom model of material deformation; because of the computational cost of simulation, computer experiments are used to perform inference such as uncertainty quantification. A computer model is the algorithms and equations used to capture the behavior of the system being modeled. By contrast, computer simulation is the actual running of the program that contains these equations or algorithms. Simulation, therefore, is the process of running a model, thus one would not "build a simulation". Computer simulation developed hand-in-hand with the rapid growth of the computer, following its first large-scale deployment during the Manhattan Project in World War II to model the process of nuclear detonation, it was a simulation of 12 hard spheres using a Monte Carlo algorithm.
Computer simulation is used as an adjunct to, or substitute for, modeling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many types of computer simulations; the external data requirements of simulations and models vary widely. For some, the input might be just a few numbers, while others might require terabytes of information. Input sources vary widely: Sensors and other physical devices connected to the model. Lastly, the time at which data is available varies: "invariant" data is built into the model code, either because the value is invariant or because the designers consider the value to be invariant for all cases of interest; because of this variety, because diverse simulation systems have many common elements, there are a large number of specialized simulation languages. The best-known may be Simula. There are now many others. Systems that accept data from external sources must be careful in knowing what they are receiving. While it is easy for computers to read in values from text or binary files, what is much harder is knowing what the accuracy of the values are.
They are expressed as "error bars", a minimum and maximum deviation from the value range within which the true value lie. Because digital computer mathematics is not perfect and truncation errors multiply this error, so it is useful to perform an "error analysis" to confirm that values output by the simulation will still be usefully accurate. Small errors in the original data can accumulate into substantial error in the simulation. While all computer analysis is subject to the "GIGO" restriction, this is true of digital simulation. Indeed, observation of this inherent, cumulative error in digital systems was the main catalyst for the development of chaos theory. Computer models can be classified according to several independent pairs of attributes, including: Stochastic or deterministic – see external links below for examples of stochastic vs. deterministic simulations Steady-state or dynamic Continuous or discrete Dynamic system simulation, e.g. electric systems, hydraulic systems or multi-body mechanical s
Autosadism, or automasochism, is behaviour inflicting pain or humiliation on oneself. It may be related to a paraphilia involving sexual arousal, it can be viewed as a form of masochism, a sublimated form of sadism, or a means to experiencing algolagnia, a sexual tendency, defined by deriving sexual pleasure and stimulation from physical pain. Self-defeating personality disorder Self-destructive behaviour