Ségou is a town and an urban commune in south-central Mali that lies 235 kilometres northeast of Bamako on the River Niger. The town is the capital of the Ségou Region. With 130,690 inhabitants in 2009, it is the fifth-largest town in Mali; the village of Ségou-Koro, 10 km upstream of the present town, was established in the 17th century and became the capital of the Bambara Empire. In the middle of the 19th century there were four villages with the name of Ségou spread out over a distance of around 12 km along the right bank of the river, they were, starting from Ségou-Koro, Ségou-Bougou, Ségou-Koura and Ségou-Sikoro. The present town is on the site of Ségou-Sikoro; the village of Ségou-Koro prospered after Biton Mamary Coulibaly became king in 1712 and founded the Ségou Empire. Mungo Park became the first European known to have visited the village in 1796; the empire declined and was conquered by El Hadj Umar Tall's Toucouleur Empire in 1861 by the French Army Colonel Louis Archinard in 1890.
Ségou has contested origins. Some claim. Others argue that it was named after Cheikou, a marabout who founded the city, while still other theories support the claim that Ségou was founded by the Bozo fishermen coming from the north, who established their villages along the Niger River; the 11th century CE saw an influx of the Soninke people, who were trying to escape from the expansion of the Ghana Empire, with Mandinka populations following. It is believed that Kaladjan Koulibaly, founder of the Bambara Kingdom's Koulibaly dynasty established the first sedentary villages here at his time; the Diarra dynasty moved the capital of the Bambara Kingdom to Ségou. Ségou Koro is located about ten kilometres on the road to Bamako. Segou Koro was created by the founder of the Bambara dynasty. During the 17th century, Bambara coming from Djenné, led by Kaladjan Koulibaly settled along the Niger River. Danfassari, Koulibaly's son continued his father's work by building his city there. After Koulibaly's death, his eldest grandson Mamari—also known as Biton—ruled the city and made it flourish.
Today the town in some ways conserves the architecture of the ancient city. The Bambaras from Djenné with Kaladjan Koulibaly established their nation along the Niger River and founded the town of Ségou-Koro, the capital of the Bambara state. Bortolot says that Ségou evolved from a simple social structure, characterized by hunting and farming, to a more complex city dominated by a dynasty system. One of Koulibaly's descendants, Mamary Coulibaly, became the chief of the Bi-Ton and took the name Biton. Biton spread terror, organised the army, restructured the association into a city, he expanded the territory from Segou Koro to Timbuktu. Under his rule, the Macina and Djenné trading centers became a part of Ségou. Timbuktu was not part of Ségou, it paid tribute to Biton. After Biton's death in 1755, one of the Coulibaly family slaves, Ngolo Diarra, obtained power to control the Bambara kingdom and established the Diarra dynasty. Ngolo Diarra ruled Ségou until the 19th century, he moved the kingdom's capital from Segou-Koro to Ségou-Sikoro, close to the site of the current city.
Diarra extended the kingdom from Guinea to Timbuktu. In March 1861, the Muslim Toucouleur leader, El Hadj Oumar Tall, conquered the town. On his death in 1864, he was succeeded by his son Ahmadu Tall. Ahmadu had to deal with Bambara rebellions and challenges from his brothers but he continued to rule until 1890 when the town fell to French forces led by Colonel Louis Archinard. Ségou is situated 235 km on the right bank of the Niger River; the urban commune is bordered to the east by the commune of Pelengana, to the west by the commune of Sébougou and to the south by the commune of Sakoïba. The commune is subdivided into 15 quartiers: Alamissani, Angoulême, Bougoufié, Dar Salam, Hamdallaye, Médine, Mission Catholique, Missira, Ségou Coura, Sido Soninkoura, Sokalakono, Bananissabakoro. Ségou has a hot semi-arid climate; the city is irrigated by two important waterways: the Bani River. Ségou has two seasons: a dry season; the rainy season lasts about four months until September. Ségou's dry season includes a period of heat.
The average yearly rainfall is about 513 mm. The harmattan is the dominant wind in the dry season and it blows from north to south; the monsoon blowing from south to north-west is more frequent during rainy season. The Ségou Region's population was about 2,338,349 in 2009. With a rural population, nomadic semi-sedentary or sedentary, the population consists of many ethnic groups, such as Bambara, Fulani, Soninke and Toucouleur. Bambaras are farmers and are the most numerous ethnic group, their language is Djoula. The Bozos are the second most populous ethnic group, they live near the shore of the Niger river, in small towns of small houses. The Bozo economy is based on fishing. Bozo people have a monopoly on the transport system because of their knowledge of the Niger, its shallows and seasonal lakes, are regarded as the masters of water; the Somono fishermen, are not a distinct ethnic group but a mixture of Bambara and Soninke. The Malinké, Mandinka are related to Bambaras: They share costumes, religious beliefs, practices with the Bambaras.
The Marka, Saracollé or Soninke are warriors. The Soninke people are great travelers and Muslims, have conse
Animism is the religious belief that objects and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Animism perceives all things—animals, rocks, weather systems, human handiwork and even words—as animated and alive. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples in contrast to the more recent development of organised religions. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives; the animistic perspective is so held and inherent to most indigenous peoples that they do not have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism". Due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether animism refers to an ancestral mode of experience common to indigenous peoples around the world, or to a full-fledged religion in its own right; the accepted definition of animism was only developed in the late 19th century by Sir Edward Tylor, who created it as "one of anthropology's earliest concepts, if not the first".
Animism encompasses the beliefs that all material phenomena have agency, that there exists no hard and fast distinction between the spiritual and physical world and that soul or spirit or sentience exists not only in humans, but in other animals, rocks, geographic features such as mountains or rivers or other entities of the natural environment, including thunder and shadows. Animism may further attribute souls to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology; some members of the non-tribal world consider themselves animists. Earlier anthropological perspectives, which have since been termed the "old animism", were concerned with knowledge on what is alive and what factors make something alive; the "old animism" assumed that animists were individuals who were unable to understand the difference between persons and things. Critics of the "old animism" have accused it of preserving "colonialist and dualist worldviews and rhetoric"; the idea of animism was developed by the anthropologist Sir Edward Tylor in his 1871 book Primitive Culture, in which he defined it as "the general doctrine of souls and other spiritual beings in general".
According to Tylor, animism includes "an idea of pervading life and will in nature". That formulation was little different from that proposed by Auguste Comte as "fetishism", but the terms now have distinct meanings. For Tylor, animism represented the earliest form of religion, being situated within an evolutionary framework of religion which has developed in stages and which will lead to humanity rejecting religion altogether in favor of scientific rationality. Thus, for Tylor, animism was fundamentally seen as a mistake, a basic error from which all religion grew, he did not believe that animism was inherently illogical, but he suggested that it arose from early humans' dreams and visions and thus was a rational system. However, it was based on unscientific observations about the nature of reality. Stringer notes that his reading of Primitive Culture led him to believe that Tylor was far more sympathetic in regard to "primitive" populations than many of his contemporaries and that Tylor expressed no belief that there was any difference between the intellectual capabilities of "savage" people and Westerners.
Tylor had wanted to describe the phenomenon as "spiritualism" but realised that would cause confusion with the modern religion of Spiritualism, prevalent across Western nations. He adopted the term "animism" from the writings of the German scientist Georg Ernst Stahl, who, in 1708, had developed the term animismus as a biological theory that souls formed the vital principle and that the normal phenomena of life and the abnormal phenomena of disease could be traced to spiritual causes; the first known usage in English appeared in 1819. The idea that there had once been "one universal form of primitive religion" has been dismissed as "unsophisticated" and "erroneous" by the archaeologist Timothy Insoll, who stated that "it removes complexity, a precondition of religion now, in all its variants". Tylor's definition of animism was a part of a growing international debate on the nature of "primitive society" by lawyers and philologists; the debate defined the field of research of a new science: anthropology.
By the end of the 19th century, an orthodoxy on "primitive society" had emerged, but few anthropologists still would accept that definition. The "19th-century armchair anthropologists" argued "primitive society" was ordered by kinship and was divided into exogamous descent groups related by a series of marriage exchanges, their religion was the belief that natural species and objects had souls. With the development of private property, the descent groups were displaced by the emergence of the territorial state; these rituals and beliefs evolved over time into the vast array of "developed" religions. According to Tylor, the more scientifically advanced a society became, the fewer members of that society believed in animism. However, any remnant ideologies of souls or spirits, to Tylor, represented "survivals" of the original animism of early humanity. In 1869, the Edinburgh lawyer
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
The Bambara are a Mandé ethnic group native to much of West Africa southern Mali, Burkina Faso and Senegal. Today they make up the largest Mandé ethnic group in Mali, with 80% of the population speaking the Bambara language, regardless of ethnicity. According to the Encyclopedia of Africa, "Bambara means "unbeliever" or "infidel"; the Bamana originated as a royal section of the Mandinka people. They are founders of the Mali Empire in the 13th Century. Both Manding and Bambara are part of the Mandé ethnic group, whose earliest known history can be traced back to sites near Tichitt, where urban centers began to emerge by as early as 2500 BC. By 250 BC, a Mandé subgroup, the Bozo, founded the city of Djenne. Between 300 AD and 1100 AD, the Soninke Mandé dominated the Western Mali; when the Mandé Songhai Empire dissolved after 1600 AD, many Mandé-speaking groups along the upper Niger river basin turned inward. The Bamana appeared again in this milieu with the rise of a Bamana Empire in the 1740s, when the Mali Empire started to crumble around 1559.
While there is little consensus among modern historians and ethnologists as to the origins or meaning of the ethno-linguistic term, references to the name Bambara can be found from the early 18th century. In addition to its general use as a reference to an ethno-linguistic group, Bambara was used to identify captive Africans who originated in the interior of Africa from the upper Senegal-Niger region and transported to the Americas via ports on the Senegambian coast; as early as 1730 at the slave-trading post of Gorée, the term Bambara referred to slaves who were in the service of the local elites or French. Growing from farming communities in Ouassoulou, between Sikasso and Ivory Coast, Bamana-age co-fraternities began to develop a state structure which became the Bambara Empire and Mali Empire. In stark contrast to their Muslim neighbors, the Bamana state practised and formalised traditional polytheistic religion, though Muslim communities remained locally powerful, if excluded from the central state at Ségou.
The Bamana became the dominant cultural community in western Mali. The Bambara language, mutually intelligible with the Manding and Dyula languages, has become the principal inter-ethnic language in Mali and one of the official languages of the state alongside French. Although most Bamana today adhere to Islam, many still practise the traditional rituals in honoring ancestors; this form of syncretic Islam remains rare allowing for conversions that in many cases happened in the mid to late 19th century. This recent history, contributes to the richness and fame of Bamana ritual arts. Bamana share many aspects of broader Mandé social structure. Society is patrilineal and patriarchal, though no women wear a veil. Mandé culture is known for its strong fraternal orders and sororities and the history of the Bambara Empire strengthened and preserved these orders; the first state was born as a refashioning of youth Tons into a warrior caste. As conquests of their neighbors were successful, the state created the Jonton, or slave warrior caste, replenished by warriors captured in battle.
While slaves were excluded from inheritance, the Jonton leaders forged a strong corporate identity. Their raids fed the Segu economy with goods and slaves for trade, bonded agricultural laborers who were resettled by the state. Traditionally, Mandé society is caste-based, with nobility and vassals. Bamana political order created a small free nobility, set in the midst of endogamous caste and ethnic variation. Both castes and ethnic groups performed vocational roles in the Bamana state, this differentiation increased with time. For instance, the Maraka merchants developed towns focused first on desert side trade, latter on large-scale agricultural production using slaves captured by the state; the Jula specialised in long-distance trade, as did Fula communities within the state, who added this to cattle herding. The Bozo ethnicity were created out of war captives, turned by the state to fishing and ferrying communities. In addition to this, the Bamana maintained internal castes, like other Mandé peoples, with Griot historian/praise-singers, priests and other specialist vocations remaining endogamous and living in designated areas.
Like most other African societies, they held slaves war prisoners from lands surrounding their territory. With time, the collapse of the Bamana state, these caste differences have eroded, though vocations have strong family and ethnic correlations; the Bamana have continued in many places their tradition of caste and age group inauguration societies, known as Ton. While this is common to most Mandé societies, the Ton tradition is strong in Bamana history. Tons can be by age, or vocation. While these societies continue as ways of socialising and passing on traditions, their power and importance faded in the 20th century; the Bamana people adapted many artistic traditions. Artworks were created both to define cultural and religious difference. Bamana artistic traditions include pottery, weaving, iron figures, masks. While the tourist and art market is the main destination of modern Bamana a
Millet beer known as Bantu beer, pombe "Tchouk" or opaque beer, is an alcoholic beverage made from malted millet, common throughout Africa. Its production process varies across regions and in the southern parts of Africa is more known as umqombothi. Millet Beer varies in taste and alcoholic content between ethnic groups, it is served in calabash gourds. This type of beer is common throughout Africa. Related African drinks include sorghum beer. In the Balkans and Turkey a form of millet beer named. In the U. S. Sprecher Brewery produces a type of beer that contains a mix of millet and sorghum known as Shakparo. A form of millet beer is produced by the Ainu. Millet kernels are soaked in warm water until they sprout, with the goal to increase the content of maltose in the grain; the millet is dried out to arrest the germination process. The malted grain is pulverized and mixed with water; this mixture is known as wort. The wort is boiled in order to remove any potential bacterial threat. Once the boiling process is complete and the wort cools down yeast is added.
The mixture is allowed to ferment. The entire process takes five days. In many cultures of West Africa, millet beer is involved in every aspect of daily life, such as: Sacrifices. In some West African cultures, village women open their homes as'pubs' one day a week, to sell millet beer; this gathering point provides social cohesion in the village. The millet beer is served in a calabasch. Drinkers hold the calabash with the right hand, pouring a few drops on the ground in honor of ancestors before drinking. After drinking, drinkers pour the dregs on the ground in a straight line. Ajon - Ateso. Malwa - Luganda Tchouk Chibuku - Southern and Central Africa. Pito Tella Ikupasuy Millet wine Haggblade and Wilhelm H. Holzapfel.. "Industrialization of Africa's Indigenous Beer Brewing", Industrialization of Indigenous Fermented Foods, 2nd ed. New York City: CRC Press. Millet beer production in Africa
The Bamana Empire was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali. This state was established after the fall of the Mali Empire and the Keita dynasty, as a smaller Bambara Empire founded by other Bambara families related to the Keita clan, it was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established c. 1640 by Kaladian Coulibaly known as Fa Sine or Biton-si-u. The empire existed as a centralized state from 1712 to the 1862 invasion of Toucouleur conqueror El Hadj Umar Tall. In around 1640, Fa Sine became the third Faama of a small kingdom of Bambara people in the city of Ségou in Mali. Though he made many successful conquests of neighboring tribes and kingdoms, he failed to set up a significant administrative framework, the new kingdom disintegrated following his death. In the early 18th century, Mamari Kulubali settled in Ségou and joined an egalitarian youth organization known as a tòn. Mamari soon reorganized the tòn as a personal army, assumed the title of bitòn, set about subduing rival chiefs.
He established control over Ségou. Fortifying the capital with Songhai techniques, Bitòn Kulubali built an army of several thousand men and a navy of war canoes to patrol the Niger, he proceeded to launch successful assaults against his neighbors, the Fulani, the Soninke, the Mossi. He attacked Tomboctou, though he held the city only briefly. During this time he founded the city of Bla as an armory. Mamari Coulubali was the last ruler to be called Bitòn. All future rulers were titled Faama. Bakari, the first Faama after Mamari reigned from. Faama De-Koro ascended in 1712 reigning until 1736; the kingdom had three more faamas with unstable 4-year reigns until falling into anarchy in 1748. In 1750, a freed slave named Ngolo Diarra seized the throne and re-established stability, reigning for nearly forty years of relative prosperity; the Ngolosi, his descendants, would continue to rule the Empire until its fall. Ngolo's son Mansong Diarra took the throne following his father's 1795 death and began a series of successful conquests, including that of Timbuktu and the Macina region.
The Bamana Empire was structured around traditional Bambara institutions, including the kòmò, a body to resolve theological concerns. The kòmò consulted religious sculptures in their decisions the four state boliw, large altars designed to aid the acquisition of political power; the economy of the Bamana Empire flourished through trade that of the slaves captured in their many wars. The demand for slaves led to further fighting, leaving the Bambara in a perpetual state of war with their neighbors. Mungo Park, passing through the Bambara capital of Ségou two years after Diarra's 1795 death, recorded a testament to the Empire's prosperity: The view of this extensive city, the numerous canoes on the river, the crowded population, the cultivated state of the surrounding countryside, formed altogether a prospect of civilization and magnificence that I little expected to find in the bosom of Africa. At the Battle of Noukouma in 1818, Bambara forces met and were defeated by Fula Muslim fighters rallied by the jihad of Cheikou Amadu of Massina.
The Bamana Empire was irreversibly weakened. Seku Amadu's forces decisively defeated the Bambara, taking Djenné and much of the territory around Mopti and forming into a Massina Empire. Timbuktu would fall as well in 1845; the real end of the empire, came at the hands of El Hadj Umar Tall, a Toucouleur conqueror who swept across West Africa from Dinguiraye. Umar Tall's mujahideen defeated the Bambara, seizing Ségou itself on March 10, 1861, declaring an end to the Bamana Empire. Bambara language: a Mande language, spoken by 6 million people in Mali. Bambara people: an ethnic group who represent 40% of Mali's population. Kaarta, another Bambara kingdom of the same epoch Djata, Sundiata A. K.. The Bamana Empire by the Niger: Kingdom and Colonization 1712–1920. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener. ISBN 1-55876-131-4. Condé, Maryse. Segu. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-025949-X. Roberts, Richard L.. Warriors and slaves: the state and the economy in the Middle Niger Valley, 1700-1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
ISBN 0-8047-1378-2. Segu Kingdom rulers, from Host Kingdoms Mali traditional states from World Statesman Epics about the Segou Kingdom