Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
The "Shirazi era" refers to a mythic origin in the history of Southeast Africa, between the 13th century and 15th century. Many Swahili in the central coastal region claim that their towns were founded by Persians from the Shiraz region in the 13th century. Once accepted as fact, modern research has disproved a Shirazi origin for the Swahili towns, instead emphasizing various social factors that induced claiming this identity; the most origin for the stories about the Shirazi is from Muslim inhabitants of the Lamu archipelago who moved south in the 10th and 11th centuries. They brought with them localized form of Islam; these Africans migrants seem to have developed a concept of Shirazi origin as they moved further southwards, near Malindi and Mombasa, along the Mrima coast. The longstanding trade connections with the Persian Gulf gave credence to these myths. In addition, because most Muslim societies are patrilineal, one can claim distant identities through paternal lines despite phenotypic and somatic evidence to the contrary.
The so-called Shirazi tradition represents the arrival of Islam in these eras, one reason it has proven so long lasting. Extant mosques and coins demonstrate that the "Shirazi" were not Middle Eastern immigrants, but northern Swahili Muslims, they moved south, founding mosques, introducing coinage and elaborately carved inscriptions and mihrabs. They should be interpreted as indigenous African Muslims who played the politics of the Middle East to their advantage; some still use this foundation myth a millennium to assert their authority though the myth's context has long been forgotten. The Shirazi legend took on new importance in the 19th century, during the period of Omani domination. Claims of Shirazi ancestry were used to distance locals from Arab newcomers, since Persians are not viewed as Arabs but still have an exemplary Islamic pedigree; the emphasis that the Shirazi came long ago and intermarried with indigenous locals ties this claim to the creation of convincing indigenous narratives about Swahili heritage without divorcing it from the ideals of being a maritime-centered culture.
One of the most important archeological sites is that of Kaole, north of Dar es Salaam. The remains of the oldest mosque in Southeast Africa can be found there. There is an extant Imperial Persian royal line that retain the title of Wa-Shirazi Sultans including the Sultanate of Hamamvu of the Comoros and the Sultanate of Aldabra. Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi Shirazi people History of Tanzania Anna Rita Coppola, La storia di Kilwa dai primi insediamenti all'arrivo dei portoghesi
Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia; as of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi over the Somali Sea. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited by hunter-gatherers; these were joined by Cushitic-speaking agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Muzaffar dynasty, the Ajuran Sultanate, it subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Sultanate of the Geledi. The city became the capital of Italian Somaliland in the colonial period. After the Somali Republic became independent in 1960, Mogadishu became known and promoted as the White Pearl of the Indian Ocean.
After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing Somali Civil War, various militias fought for control of the city to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid-2000s. The ICU thereafter splintered into more radical groups, notably al-Shabaab, which fought the Transitional Federal Government and its African Union Mission to Somalia allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, government troops and their military partners had succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab by August 2011. Mogadishu has subsequently experienced a period of intense reconstruction; as Somalia's capital city, many important national institutions are based in Mogadishu. It is the seat of the Federal Government of Somalia established in August 2012, with the Somalia Federal Parliament serving as the government's legislative branch. Abdirahman Omar Osman has been the Mayor of Mogadishu since January 2018. Villa Somalia is the official residential palace and principal workplace of the President of Somalia, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.
In May 2012, the First Somali Bank was established in the capital, which organized Mogadishu's first Technology, Design conference. The establishment of a local construction yard has galvanized the city's real-estate sector. Arba'a Rukun Mosque is one of the oldest Islamic places of worship in the capital, built circa AH 667; the Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region. Mogadishu Cathedral was built in 1928 by the colonial authorities in Italian Somalia in a Norman Gothic style, served as the traditional seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mogadiscio; the National Museum of Somalia holds many culturally important artefacts. The National Library of Somalia is undergoing a US$1.5 million Somali federal government funded renovation, including a new library complex. Mogadishu is home to a number of media institutions; as part of the municipality's urban renewal program, 100 schools across the capital are scheduled to be refurbished and reopened. The Somali National University was established in the 1950s, professors from the university founded the non-governmental Mogadishu University.
Benadir University was established in 2002 with the intention of training doctors. Various national sporting bodies have their headquarters in Mogadishu, including the Somali Football Federation and the Somali Olympic Committee. Mogadishu Stadium was constructed in 1978 during the Siad Barre administration, with the assistance of Chinese engineers, it hosts football matches with teams from the Somalia Cup. Additionally, the Port of Mogadishu serves as a major national seaport and is the largest harbour in Somalia. Mogadishu International Airport, the capital's main airport, is the hub of the national carrier Somali Airlines; the origins of the name Mogadishu has many theories including from the Somali word Muuq Disho meaning sight-killer, or the Persian word Maq'ad-i-Shah, which means "the seat of the Shah". It is known locally as Xamar. Another theory is that it is derived from the Arabic root'mqds', which means "hallowed".. The 16th century explorer Leo Africanus knew the city as Magadazo. Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited early by hunter-gatherers of Khoisan descent.
Although most of these early inhabitants are believed to have been either overwhelmed, driven away or, in some cases, assimilated by migrants to the area, physical traces of their occupation survive in certain ethnic minority groups inhabiting modern-day Jubaland and other parts of the south. The latter descendants include relict populations such as the Eile, the Wa-Ribi, the Wa-Boni. By the time of the arrival of peoples from the Cushitic Rahanweyn clan confederacy, who would go on to establish a local aristocracy, other Cushitic groups affiliated with the Oromo and Ajuuraan had formed settlements of their own in the sub-region. During the antiquity times. Mogadishu was part of the Somali city-states that in engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Parthian Persia, Saba and the Roman Empire. Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo; the ancient city of Sarapion is believed to have been the predecessor state of Mogadishu.
It is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greek travel document dating from the
Abyssinian people, more known as the Habesha or Abesha, is a common term used to refer to the culturally Ethiosemitic-speaking people inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia or Eritrea. They include a few linguistically and ancestrally related ethnic groups from the Ethiopian Highlands. Members' cultural, in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt and the Kingdom of Aksum; some Scholars have classified the Amhara and the Tigrayans as Abyssinians proper under the Ultra-Conservative theory. The Ge'ez speaking people, are believed to be agents Sabaean influence, formed a part of the ethnic and cultural stock for both the pre-Axumite and Axumite states as per most Western sources. Ge'ez, related to Tigrinya and Tigre, is believed to be the ancestor of the diverse southern Ethiopian Semitic languages including Amharic; the Abyssinians are believed to be descendants of the Axumites, who spoke the ancient Ge'ez language. Ge'ez is most related to Tigrinya and Tigre languages; the Aksumites inhabited Eritrea.
They lived in this area by the early 1st millennium BC, founded the Axumite empire, which succeeded the pre-Aksumite Kingdom of D'mt. These people formed the basic ethnocultural stock of both the pre-Axumite and Axumite states. Before the adoption of Christianity in fourth century the religion of the Axumites was a polytheistic religion derived from the Arabic religion which believed that many gods controlled the natural forces of the universe. By the medieval period, the Semitic languages would have spread southward as far as southern Shewa, eastward into the Hararghe highlands, westward up to eastern Damot. Linguistic analysis further indicates that the Ethiopian Semitic languages have retained a Cushitic substratum, which belongs to the Afro-Asiatic family; the Ge'ez language and Tigrinya spoken in the north were influenced by Beja and Saho-Afar substrates, with Amharic and Gafat in the south partially influenced by these substrates. The Amharic, Argobba and Gurage tongues spoken in central Ethiopia are characterized by an Eastern Sidamo or Highland East Cushitic substratum, as well as Oromo and Somali influences.
Overall, the linguistic impact of the Cushitic languages is more marked toward the south. In Arabic, the elevated plateau on the east of the Nile, from which most of the waters of that river are derived, is called Habesh, its people Habshi; the modern term derives from the vocalized Ge'ez: ሐበሣ Ḥabaśā, first written with a script that did not mark vowels as ሐበሠ ḤBŚ or in "pseudo-Sabaic as ḤBŠTM". The earliest known use of the term dates to the second or third century Sabaean inscription recounting the defeat of the nəgus GDRT of Aksum and ḤBŠT; the term "Habashat" appears to refer to a group of peoples, rather than a specific ethnicity. A Sabaean inscription describes an alliance between Shamir Yuhahmid of the Himyarite Kingdom and King `DBH of Aksum in the first quarter of the third century, they had lived alongside the Sabaeans, who lived across the Red Sea from them for many centuries: Shamir of dhū Raydān and Himyar had called in the help of the clans of Habashat for war against the kings of Saba.
The term "Habesha" was thought by some scholars to be of Arabic descent because the English name Abyssinia comes from the Arabic form.. South Arabian expert Eduard Glaser claimed that the hieroglyphic ḫbstjw, used in reference to "a foreign people from the incense-producing regions" used by Queen Hatshepsut c. 1460 BC, was the first usage of the term or somehow connected. Based on the inscriptions the Aksumites left behind, they did not regard themselves or their territory as Habesha. For them, Habeshas meant people who collected incense in South Arabia. Cosmas Indicopleustes, the Greek-speaking Egyptian traveler who visited the Kingdom of Aksum in 525 made no reference to Habesha. According to Dr. Eduard Glaser, an Austrian epigraphist and historian, "Habesha" was used to refer to a kingdom in southeastern Yemen located east of the Hadhramaut kingdom in what is now Al Mahrah Governorate, he believed the etymology of Habesha must have derived from the Mehri language, which means “gatherers”.
It was not until long after Aksumite kingdom had ended that Gulf Arab travelers and geographers began to describe the Horn region as Al-Habash. The first among these travelers were Al-Mas ` Al-Harrani. Al-Masudi, a tenth-century Gulf Arab traveler to the region, described Habesha country in his geographical work The Meadows of Gold, he wrote that "the chief town of the Habasha is called Kuʿbar, a large town and the residence of the Najashi, whose empire extends to the coasts opposite the Yemen, possesses such towns as Zayla and Nasi." Al-Harrani, another Gulf Arab traveler asserted in 1295 CE that "one of the greatest and best-known towns is Kaʿbar, the royal town of the najashi... Zaylaʿ, a town on the coast of the Red Sea, is a populous commercial center.... Opposite al-Yaman there is a big town, the sea-port from which the Habasha crossed the sea to al-Yaman, nearby is the island of ʿAql."By the end of the 8th century, most of the prominent Yemeni kingdoms ended and areas they once controlled were under foreign occupation.
Yemen’s turbulence, coupled with its ecological volatility shifted the international trade of
The Kilwa Sultanate was a Medieval sultanate, centered at Kilwa, whose authority, at its height, stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast. It was founded in the 10th century by a Persian prince of Shiraz. By 13th century, the Swahili coast came under the sphere of influence of the Ajuran Empire; the story of Kilwa begins around 960-1000 AD. According to legend, Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi was one of seven sons of a ruler of Shiraz, his mother an Abyssinian slave. Upon his father's death, Ali was driven out of his inheritance by his brothers. Setting sail out of Hormuz, Ali ibn al-Hassan, his household and a small group of followers first made their way to Mogadishu, the main commercial city of the East African coast. However, Ali failed to get along with the city's Somali elite and he was soon driven out of that city as well. Steering down the African coast, Ali is said to have purchased the island of Kilwa from the local Bantu inhabitants. According to one chronicle, Kilwa was owned by a mainland Bantu king'Almuli' and connected by a small land bridge to the mainland that appeared in low tide.
The king agreed to sell it to Ali ibn al-Hassan for as much colored cloth as could cover the circumference of the island. But when the king changed his mind, tried to take it back, the Persians had dug up the land bridge, Kilwa was now an island. Rather than being a literal retelling of events, this legendary history serves to legitimize the dynasty through ties to Islam. According to Horton and Middleman, "the descent from a noble Islamic family and an Abyssinian slave'explains' why the rulers were both black but with royal Muslim descent, it began to attract many merchants and immigrants from further north, including Persia and Arabia. In just a few years, the city was big enough to establish a satellite settlement at nearby Mafia Island. Kilwa's emergence as a commercial center challenged the dominance once held by Mogadishu over the East African coast. Suleiman Hassan, the ninth successor of Ali, wrested control of the southerly city of Sofala. Wealthy Sofala was the principal entrepot for the gold and ivory trade with Great Zimbabwe and Monomatapa in the interior.
The acquisition of Sofala brought a windfall of gold revenues to the Kilwa Sultans, which allowed them to finance their expansion and extend their powers all along the East African coast. At the zenith of its power in the 15th century, the Kilwa Sultanate owned or claimed overlordship over the mainland cities of Malindi and Sofala and the island-states of Mombassa, Zanzibar, Mafia and Mozambique - what is now referred to as the "Swahili Coast". Kilwa claimed lordship across the channel over the myriad of small trading posts scattered on the coast of Madagascar. To the north, Kilwa's power was checked by the independent Somali city-states of Barawa and Mogadishu. To the south, Kilwa's reach extended as far as Cape Correntes, below which merchant ships did not dare sail. While a single figure, the Sultan of Kilwa, stood at the top of the hierarchy, the Kilwa Sultanate was not a centralized state, it was more a confederation of commercial cities, each with its own internal elite, merchant communities and trade connections.
The Sultan might appoint a governor or overseer, but his authority was not consistent - in some places he was a true governor in the Sultan's name, whereas in more established cities like Sofala his powers were much more limited, more akin to an ambassador to the city, than its governor. To of those who Despite its origin as a Persian colony, extensive inter-marriage and conversion of local Bantu inhabitants and Arab immigration turned the Kilwa Sultanate into a veritable melting pot, ethnically indifferentiable from the mainland; the mixture of Perso-Arab and Bantu cultures is credited for creating a distinctive East African culture and language known today as Swahili. Nonetheless, the Muslims of Kilwa would refer to themselves as Shirazi or Arabs, to the unconverted Bantu peoples of the mainland as Zanj or Khaffirs; the Kilwa Sultanate was wholly dependent on external commerce. It was a confederation of urban settlements, there was little or no agriculture carried on within the boundaries of the sultanate.
Grains and other necessary supplies to feed the large city populations had to be purchased from the Bantu peoples of the interior. Kilwan traders from the coast encouraged the development of market towns in the Bantu-dominated highlands of what are now Kenya, Tanzania and Zimbabwe; the Kilwan mode of living was as middlemen traders, importing manufactured goods from Arabia and India, which were swapped in the highland market towns for Bantu-produced agricultural commodities for their own subsistence and precious raw materials which they would export back to Asia. The exception was the coconut palm tree. Grown all along the coast, the coconut palm was the mainstay of Kilwan life in every way - not only for the fruit, but for timber and weaving. Kilwan merchant ships - from the large lateen-rigged dhows that plie
Somali are an ethnic group belonging to the Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family, they are predominantly Sunni Muslim. Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Somali diasporas are found in parts of the Middle East, African Great Lakes region, Southern Africa, North America and Western Europe. Samaale, the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans, is regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali; the name "Somali" is, in turn, held to be derived from the words soo and maal, which together mean "go and milk" — a reference to the ubiquitous pastoralism of the Somali people. Another plausible etymology proposes that the term Somali is derived from the Arabic for "wealthy", again referring to Somali riches in livestock. Alternatively, the ethnonym Somali is believed to have been derived from the Automoli, a group of warriors from ancient Egypt described by Herodotus, who were of Meshwesh origin according to Flinders Petrie.
Asmach is thought to have been their Egyptian name, with Automoli being a Greek derivative of the Hebrew word Semoli. An Ancient Chinese document from the 9th century CE referred to the northern Somalia coast —, part of a broader region in Northeast Africa known as Barbara, in reference to the area's Berber inhabitants — as Po-pa-li; the first clear written reference of the sobriquet Somali, dates back to the 15th century. During the conflict between the Sultanate of Ifat based at Zeila and the Solomonic Dynasty, the Abyssinian emperor had one of his court officials compose a hymn celebrating a military victory over the Sultan of Ifat's eponymous troops. Simur was an ancient Harari alias for the Somali people. Somalis overwhelmingly prefer the demonym Somali over the incorrect Somalian since the former is an endonym, while the latter is an exonym with double suffixes; the hypernym of the term Somali from a geopolitical sense is Horner and from a ethnic sense, it is Cushite. Ancient rock paintings, which date back 5000 years, have been found in the Northern Somalia.
These engravings depict early life in the territory. The most famous of these is the Laas Geel complex, it contains some of the earliest known rock art on the African continent and features many elaborate pastoralist sketches of animal and human figures. In other places, such as the northwestern Dhambalin region, a depiction of a man on a horse is postulated as being one of the earliest known examples of a mounted huntsman. Inscriptions have been found beneath many of the rock paintings, but archaeologists have so far been unable to decipher this form of ancient writing. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here with their respective industries and factories; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to 4th millennium BC. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in northern Somalia are said to be the most important link in evidence of the universality in palaeolithic times between the East and the West.
In antiquity, the ancestors of the Somali people were an important link in the Horn of Africa connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense and spices, items which were considered valuable luxuries by the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians and Babylonians. According to most scholars, the ancient Land of Punt and its native inhabitants formed part of the ethnogenesis of the Somali people; the ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. The pyramidal structures and ancient houses of dressed stone littered around Somalia are said to date from this period. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have been ancestral to the Automoli or ancient Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia, they were reputed for their longevity and wealth, were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men".
The Macrobians were warrior seafarers. According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II, upon his conquest of Egypt, sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission; the Macrobian ruler, elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country. The Macrobians were a regional power reputed for their advanced architecture and gold wealth, so plentiful that they shackled their prisoners in golden chains. After the collapse of Macrobia, several ancient city-states, such as Opone, Sarapion, Malao and Mosylon near Cape Guardafui, which competed with the Sabaeans and Axumites for the wealthy Indo-Greco-Roman trade flourished in Somalia; the birth of Islam on the opposite side of Somalia's Red Sea coast meant that Somali merchants and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners.
With the migration of fleeing Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam, the peaceful conv