Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park
Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park near Brownsville, Texas is a National Park Service unit which preserves the grounds of the May 8, 1846, Battle of Palo Alto. It was the first major conflict in a border dispute; the United States Army victory here made the invasion of Mexico possible. The historic site portrays the battle and the war, its causes and consequences, from the perspectives of both the United States and Mexico; the National Park Service has acquired a little more than a third of the authorized land for the park, including the 300 acres southern core battlefield tract, which served as the location for Mexican forces during the Battle of Palo Alto. Private landowners still control some 2,000 acres of the battlefield. Honey Mesquite, although a native plant, is present in an unusually high concentration, altering the cultural landscape and threatening the natural and cultural resources at the park; the park's visitor center features exhibits about the battle and the Mexican–American War, as well as a 15-minute video titled "War on the Rio Grande".
A half-mile trail includes interpretive panels. Palo Alto Battlefield was designated a National Historic Landmark on December 19, 1960, it became Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site on November 10, 1978, with a boundary change authorized on June 23, 1992. On March 30, 2009 the site was redesignated a National Historical Park, the park was expanded to include the Resaca de la Palma Battlefield, a separate 34 acres inside the Brownsville city limits. List of National Historic Landmarks in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Cameron County, Texas The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Official NPS website: Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park Palo Alto Battlefield NHL information National Park Lover Page: Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park
Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge
The Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge is a wildlife conservation area along the coast of Texas, west of the town of High Island, Texas. It borders East Bay, part of the Galveston Bay complex, behind Bolivar Peninsula at the Gulf of Mexico. Established in 1963, this wildlife refuge is located on the upper Texas Coast in Chambers County; the refuge protects 34,000 acres of coastal marsh and prairies. The refuge offers opportunities for fishing, waterfowl hunting and wildlife viewing. A large network of volunteers contributes thousands of hours in support of the refuge. In the winter, the Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge hosts large concentrations of waterfowl making it a popular site for public hunting. Other signature species are American alligator, yellow rail, purple gallinule. Birdwatchers find the refuge an excellent place to observe neotropical migrants in the spring and fall. Other species sought by birdwatchers include American bittern, seaside sparrow, fulvous whistling-duck, black rail. Volunteers have been working to compile a butterfly list for the refuge.
Over sixty species have been identified, including the localized bay skipper. Recent projects to enhance and restore the habitat at the refuge include control of invasive species like Chinese Tallow, prairie restoration, creation of moist soil areas, a colonial waterbird rookery. Three other national wildlife refuges on the Texas coast - Brazoria, San Bernard and Big Boggy - form a vital complex of coastal wetlands harboring more than 300 bird species. Anahuac NWR is one of more than 560 refuges that comprise the U. S. National Wildlife Refuge System, a national network of lands and waters set aside for the benefit of wildlife, it has been designated as a site of international importance to shorebirds by the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. The refuge is designated as part of the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail, a network of trails and wildlife viewing sites established by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Wildlife refuge FWS. "Anahuac Refuge". FWS.gov. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008.
Retrieved 2008-09-20. Friends of Anahuac Refuge. USFWS Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge
Military Working Dog Teams National Monument
The Military Working Dog Teams National Monument is a U. S. National Monument located at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas, it was founded by John C. Burnam, published author and Vietnam Veteran Infantryman and German Shepherd Scout Dog Handler; the monument was designed by the John Burnam Monument Foundation. It represents all wars since World War II and all five U. S. Armed Services; the monument grounds encompass a 3,000 square feet granite plaza, granite pedestals, granite history wall, granite benches. The granite pedestals have large bronze statues of handlers. Cost of construction was provided by corporate sponsors and public donations raised by the John Burnam Memorial Foundation; the monument was dedicated during a formal military ceremony on October 28, 2013. One of the inscriptions reads: "Dedicated to all U. S. Military Working Dog Handlers and their beloved dogs who defend America from harm, defeat the enemy, save lives." The Military Working Dog Teams National Monument consists of five bronze sculptures seated on a large granite pedestal inscribed, "Guardians of America's Freedom."
The center silicone bronze sculpture is a detailed 9 foot modern day Military Working Dog Handler wearing combat gear and holding a dog leash in his left hand and a M4 rifle in his right hand. The remaining bronze sculptures are four of the more common breeds of Military Working Dogs utilized by the United States Department of Defense since World War II, they include a Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Belgian Malinois. Behind the main granite pedestal is a large granite wall containing inscriptions about the history of the Military Working Dog program on one side; the other side of the wall contains laser etched authentic images of Military Working Dog Teams in action during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Behind the granite wall are five flag poles, one for each of the five U. S. Armed Services; the "Not Forgotten Fountain" is a bronze sculpture depicting a Vietnam War dog handler pouring water from his canteen into a helmet.
The sculpture represents his working dog. A significant feature is the dog’s paw resting on the thigh of his hander accentuating their bonding relationship; the water fountain idea was sculpted by Artist, Paula Slater. The water fountain is functional so that a visiting dog may have a drink; the granite pedestal of the "Not Forgotten Fountain" reads "In everlasting memory of all the war dogs who served and were left behind in the Vietnam War". The entire monument is equipped with in-ground lighting providing a startling nighttime effect. In February 2008 the John Burnam Monument Foundation, Inc. was establishment to design, fund and maintain a Military Working Dog Teams National Monument. Joining John Burnam were U. S. Air Force Vietnam Veteran Security/Patrol Dog Handlers, Richard Deggans and Larry Chilcoat; the IRS approved JBMF, Inc. as a 501c3 Tax Exempt Charity with a primary focus on education and raising public funds to build a national monument. In 2012, Jim Frost, Vietnam Veteran Sentry Dog Company Commander and Kristie Dober, former U.
S. Army Military Working Dog Handler were added to the JBMF Board of Directors to help promote public awareness and raise public funds for the national monument. U. S. Representative Walter B. Jones sponsored congressional legislation within H. R. 4986 National Defense Authorizations Act for FY 2008, Section 2877 of Public Law 110-181 authorizing the John Burnam Monument Foundation the exclusive rights to design, fund and maintain the Military Working Dog Teams National Monument. The bill was signed into public law by the President George W. Bush on January 28, 2008; the John Burnam Monument Foundation raised 2.1 million dollars from corporate sponsors and public donations to fund the construction and maintenance of the national monument. The national monument is located next to the Basic Military Training Parade Field at Lackland AFB. Lackland AFB was selected by the John Burnam Monument Foundation due to its historical significance as the training center and headquarters of the Department of Defense Military Working Dog Program since 1958.
The Office of the Secretary of the Air Force at the Pentagon approved the location authorizing the John Burnam Monument Foundation to construct the national monument in coordination with Lackland AFB Civil Engineers. In 2008, John Burnam, along with Richard Deggans and Larry Chilcoat started the effort to erect a monument that would honor past and future working dog teams. Graphic artist and designer Brian Rich, was tasked to digitally illustrate renderings that would bring their visions to life while telling the story of military working dog teams; the final design creates a visual structure that incorporates the simplicity of the subjects but details the complexity of military working dogs and their handler's lives on the battlefield. The monument is meant to embody the history of the war dog program from World War II to present-day War on Terror theaters with meaningful purpose and accurate historical representation, it included all five U. S. Armed Services; the materials selected to build the national monument were granite and silicone bronze, which could stand the test of weather and time with minimum maintenance for its outdoor location.
The concept and design was presented and approved by the U. S. Department of Defense; the Keith Monument Company procured the entire horde of granite from the Rock of Ages Granite Quarry, Vermont. The granite components were cut to specifications, shipped to
National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Potter County, Texas
Potter County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 121,073, its county seat is Amarillo. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1887, it is named for Robert Potter, a politician, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and the Secretary of the Texas Navy. Potter County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the LX Ranch was established in the county by W. H. "Deacon" Bates and David T. Beals by 1877. In July of 1876, along with some cowboys that included Charlie Siringo, established a herd of steers and ranch headquarters along Ranch Creek on the north bank of the Canadian River; the headquarters included a bunkhouse, storeroom, corrals, blacksmith shop, wagon sheds, a post office named Wheeler. The LX established the county's first cemetery; the ranch extended from Dumas to the Palo Duro Canyon and 35 miles east to west. By 1884, the ranch encompassed 187,000 acres, 45,000 cattle and 1000 horses, when the operation was sold to the American Pastoral Company.
In 1902, the ranch headquarters was moved on the south bank of the Canadian River. On 6 Oct. 1910, that company sold 30,354 acres south of the river to Lee Bivins, on 1 June 1911, R. B. "Ben" Masterson acquired 89,139 acres on the north side. On 19 May 1915, Bivins bought an additional 53,329 LX acres. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 922 square miles, of which 908 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. I-27 I-40 BL I-40 US 60 US 66 US 87 US 287 SH 136 SH 279 Loop 335 Moore County Carson County Randall County Oldham County Deaf Smith County Armstrong County Hartley County Hutchinson County Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument Lake Meredith National Recreation Area As of the census of 2000, there were 113,546 people, 40,760 households, 27,472 families residing in the county; the population density was 125 people per square mile. There were 44,598 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.60% White, 9.96% Black or African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.49% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 15.44% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races.
28.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 40,760 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 19.10% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 100.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,492, the median income for a family was $35,321. Males had a median income of $26,123 versus $20,275 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,947.
About 15.20% of families and 19.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.30% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice Clements Unit and Neal Unit are located in unincorporated Potter County, east of the City of Amarillo. Potter County supports Republican candidates at the federal level, it has supported Republican presidential candidates in every election since 1968 by lopsided margins. In 2004, George W. Bush received 21,401 votes in the county to just 7,489 votes for his opponent, John Kerry. In 2008, John McCain fared nearly as well. Amarillo Bishop Hills Dumas Junction Folsom Pleasant Valley Pullman Soncy List of museums in the Texas Panhandle National Register of Historic Places listings in Potter County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Potter County Potter County government’s website Potter County from the Handbook of Texas Online Historic Potter County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Potter County, TX Genealogy Potter County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties