A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
An independent bookstore is a retail bookstore, independently owned. Independent stores consist of only a single actual store, they may be structured as sole proprietorships held corporations or partnerships, cooperatives, or nonprofits. Independent stores can be contrasted with chain bookstores, which have many locations and are owned by large corporations which have other divisions besides bookselling. Author events at independent bookstores sometimes take the role of literary salons and independents supported new authors and independent presses. For most of the 20th century all bookstores in the United States were independent. In the 1950s, automobiles and suburban shopping malls became more common. Mall-based bookstore chains began in the 1960s, underwent a major expansion in numbers in the 1970s and 1980s B. Dalton and Waldenbooks. Big box chains expanded during this period, including Barnes & Noble and Crown Books. Amazon.com was founded during the dot-com boom in 1994 and sold books until 1998.
By the 1990s, these competitive pressures had put independent bookstores under considerable financial pressure and many closed due to their inability to compete. Closures in the United States include Kroch's and Brentano's in Chicago, Gotham Book Mart in New York, Cody's Books in Berkeley, Kepler's Books, Printers Inc. Bookstore in Palo Alto, A Clean Well-Lighted Place for Books in San Francisco, Midnight Special in Santa Monica, Dutton's Books in Los Angeles, Coliseum Books in New York City, Wordsworth Books in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the number of independent booksellers in the United States dropped 40% from 1995 to 2000. In the 2000s, e-books started to take market share away from printed books, either published directly via the world wide web, or read on e-ink devices such as the Amazon Kindle, introduced in 2007. Amazon continued to gain significant market share, these competitive pressures resulted in a collapse of the chain stores in the 2010s. Crown closed in 2001. Dalton, Waldenbooks were liquidated in 2010-11.
A smaller Barnes & Noble, with its less-successful Nook e-reader was left as the only nation-wide chain, with second-largest Books-A-Million operating in only 32 states. This collapse created an opening for the return of more independent shops. According to the American Booksellers Association, the number of independent U. S. bookstores increased 35%, from 1,651 in 2009 to 2,227 in 2015. A Harvard Business School study by Professor Ryan Raffaelli attributed this increase to the buy local movement and success in curation of interesting titles and hosting book-oriented community events; the market has bifurcated between consumers looking for a interactive experience at local stores, consumers looking for low-cost, high-selection stores where large chains compete with difficulty against online sales. Two documentary films, Indies Under Fire and Paperback Dreams, explore the difficulties faced by U. S. independent bookstores in the new economy. The competition between chain and independent retailers was fictionalized in the 1998 film You've Got Mail.
American Bookseller's Association Independent Online Booksellers Association How Independent Bookstores Have Thrived in Spite of Amazon.com
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
Private equity firm
A private equity firm is an investment management company that provides financial backing and makes investments in the private equity of startup or operating companies through a variety of loosely affiliated investment strategies including leveraged buyout, venture capital, growth capital. Described as a financial sponsor, each firm will raise funds that will be invested in accordance with one or more specific investment strategies. A private equity firm will raise pools of capital, or private equity funds that supply the equity contributions for these transactions. Private equity firms will receive a periodic management fee as well as a share in the profits earned from each private equity fund managed. Private equity firms, with their investors, will acquire a controlling or substantial minority position in a company and look to maximize the value of that investment. Private equity firms receive a return on their investments through one of the following avenues: an initial public offering — shares of the company are offered to the public providing a partial immediate realization to the financial sponsor as well as a public market into which it can sell additional shares.
Private equity firms characteristically make longer-hold investments in target industry sectors or specific investment areas where they have expertise. Private equity firms and investment funds should not be confused with hedge fund firms which make shorter-term investments in securities and other more liquid assets within an industry sector but with less direct influence or control over the operations of a specific company. Where private equity firms take on operational roles to manage risks and achieve growth through long term investments, hedge funds more act as short-term traders of securities betting on both the up and down sides of a business or of an industry sector's financial health. According to an updated 2008 ranking created by industry magazine Private Equity International, the largest private equity firms include The Carlyle Group, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Goldman Sachs Principal Investment Group, The Blackstone Group, Bain Capital, Sycamore Partners and TPG Capital; these firms are direct investors in companies rather than investors in the private equity asset class and for the most part the largest private equity investment firms focused on leveraged buyouts rather than venture capital.
Preqin ltd, an independent data provider, provides a ranking of the 25 largest private equity investment managers. Among the largest firms in that ranking were AlpInvest Partners, Ardian, AIG Investments, Goldman Sachs Private Equity Group, Pantheon Ventures; because private equity firms are continuously in the process of raising and distributing their private equity funds, capital raised can be the easiest to measure. Other metrics can include the total value of companies purchased by a firm or an estimate of the size of a firm's active portfolio plus capital available for new investments; as with any list that focuses on size, the list does not provide any indication as to relative investment performance of these funds or managers. History of private equity and venture capital Leveraged buyout List of private equity firms Management buyout Private equity Private equity fund Private equity – a guide for pension fund trustees. Pensions Investment Research Consultants for the Trades Union Congress.
Krüger Andersen, Thomas. Legal Structure of Private Equity Funds. Private Equity and Hedge Funds 2007. Prowse, Stephen D; the Economics of the Private Equity Market, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 1998
Books-A-Million, Inc. known as BAM!, owns and operates the second largest bookstore chain in the United States, operating 260 stores in 32 states. Stores range in size from 4,000 to 30,000 square feet and sell books, collectibles, toys and gifts. Most Books-A-Million stores feature "Joe Muggs" cafés, a coffee and espresso bar. Stores operate under the names Books-A-Million, Books & Company, 2nd & Charles; the company owns a frozen yogurt retailer and franchisor with 40 locations. The company owns Preferred Growth Properties, which develops and manages commercial real estate investments; the company owns and operates American Wholesale Book Company, an e-commerce division operating as booksamillion.com, an internet development and services company, NetCentral, in Nashville, Tennessee. In December 2015, the company was acquired by its chairman, Clyde B. Anderson, his family, for $21 million. Books-A-Million was founded in 1917 in Florence, Alabama as a newsstand by 14-year old Clyde B. Anderson, who dropped out of school to support his family after his father died.
Anderson saw a business opportunity after workers on the nearby Wilson Dam complained that they could not get their hometown newspapers. In 1950, Charles C. Anderson, the founder's son, expanded it into a chain; the company incorporated as Bookland in 1964. By 1980, the company had 50 stores. In 1988, Bookland acquired the Gateway Books retail chain based in Tennessee; the same year, the company opened its first superstore format store. In 1992, the company changed its name to Books-A-Million, Inc. and became a public company via an initial public offering of 2.6 million shares at a price of $13 per share. In 1998, the company launched booksamillion.com. On November 25, 1998, during the dot-com bubble, the stock price soared from $3 per share to $38.94 on November 27, 1998 and an intra-day high of $47.00 on November 30, 1998 after the company announced an updated website. Two weeks the share price was back down to $10. By 2000, the share price had returned to $3; those days included suspenseful times for day traders, such as when the stock moved up 6 points in 13 minutes.
During this time, insiders sold hundreds of thousands of shares. In 1999, the company acquired NetCentral, the designer of its website, began operating American Wholesale Book Company, a book wholesaler and distributor. In April 2010, the company paid $3 million for a 40% stake in Yogurt Mountain, a frozen yogurt retailer and franchisor. In October 2010, the company opened Yogurt Mountain locations in its bookstores. In September 2010, the company launched 2nd & Charles, a trader of used media, with its first store in Hoover, Alabama across from Riverchase Galleria. In 2017, it opened its first store in North Alabama. In December 2015, the company was acquired by its chairman, Clyde B. Anderson, his family, for $21 million. In November 2016, the company began to sell self-published books. In 2014, Books-A-Million was identified by 24/7 Wall Street as America's worst company to work for, citing low satisfaction among employees due to "high stress and low pay... low chance of promotion, hours are based on magazine and discount card sales."