Creepy was an American horror-comics magazine launched by Warren Publishing in 1964. Like Mad, it was a black-and-white newsstand publication in a magazine format and thus did not require the approval or seal of the Comics Code Authority. An anthology magazine, it was published quarterly but went bimonthly; each issue's stories were introduced by Uncle Creepy. Its sister publications were Vampirella. Illustrator and editor Russ Jones, the founding editor of Creepy in 1964, said he approached Famous Monsters of Filmland magazine publisher Jim Warren with the idea of horror comics similar to the 1950s' EC Comics comic books, but as black-and-white magazines that would not be subject to the comics industry's self-censorship Comics Code Authority. Warren agreed. Jones recalled. Jim cut it back to 48... I sent it off to Jack Davis to work up a cover. Still no title. Titles are tough. Ask anyone who had to come up with one. One night I was sitting in the studio alone, looking at Woody's tear-sheets from the ECs, when Warren called.
He was furious and demanded a name for Project D. I was looking at a balloon over an Ingels Old Witch, in her narrative, the word "creepy" grabbed out at me. I muttered the name to Jim... We now had a title for our mag. Joe Orlando was not only an illustrator for Creepy but a story editor on early issues, with his masthead credit reading: "Story Ideas: Joe Orlando." Bill Pearson worked on the first issue. In 1965, Russ Jones departed. Archie Goodwin, having been writing most of the stories and working with most of the regular artists, succeeded him as editor. Goodwin, who became one of comics' foremost writers, helped establish the company as a prominent force in the field of black-and-white comics magazines. Artists during this era included Neal Adams, Dan Adkins, Reed Crandall, Johnny Craig, Steve Ditko, Frank Frazetta, Gray Morrow, John Severin, Angelo Torres, Alex Toth, Al Williamson and Wally Wood. Published quarterly, Creepy switched to bi-monthly by the end of 1965. To help draw the best possible performance out of the artists working on the series, prior to writing a story Goodwin would ask the artist what type of story or setting he would like to work in.
He wrote a considerable number of adaptations of public domain works for Creepy. Out of a feeling that the original works were overly familiar, he would change either the ending or the beginning of the story when doing these adaptations, he concluded that this was presumptuous, began adhering more to the original stories. Goodwin resigned as the editor of Creepy after issue 17. Due to a lack of funds, the majority of the magazine's leading artists left, Warren was forced to rely on reprints, which would be prevalent in the magazine until issue 32 in April 1970. A variety of editors ran the magazine during this period, including Bill Parente, Nicola Cuti and Warren himself. Things would pick up starting in 1969 with the premiere of Vampirella magazine; some of Creepy's original artists, including Frazetta and Wood, would return, as did Goodwin, associate editor for issues 35 through 39. A variety of editors continued to manage Creepy after Goodwin's second departure, including Billy Graham and J. R. Cochran.
William Dubay, who had started at Warren as an artist with issue 32 in 1970, would become editor of the magazine for issues 50 through 78, except for a short period of time in 1974, when Goodwin returned for issues 61 through 64. During this period the frequency of Creepy and Warren's other magazines was upped to nine issues per year. Another major development occurred in late 1971 when artists from the Barcelona Studio of Spanish agency Selecciones Illustrada started appearing in Creepy and other Warren magazines. Artists from Spain would go on to dominate Creepy and the other Warren magazines throughout the 1970s; these artists included Esteban Maroto, Jaime Brocal, Rafael Aura León, Martin Salvador, Luis García, Fernando Fernández, José González, José Bea, Isidro Monés, Sanjulián, Enrich Torres. Additional artists from S. I.'s Valencia Studio joined Warren in 1974 including José Ortiz, Luis Bermejo, Leopold Sánchez. Writers during Dubay's era as editor included Gerry Boudreau, Budd Lewis, Jim Stenstrum, Steve Skeates and Doug Moench.
Themed specials dominated Dubay's era as editor, included two Edgar Allan Poe issues, three Christmas issues, three issues dedicated to a single artist, a science fiction issue and an issue where every story was based on the cover painting. This era featured stories that were printed in color, many of which were done by Richard Corben. Towards the end of his period as editor, many artists from Creepy's first golden era returned, including Alex Toth and John Severin. Dubay was replaced by Louise Jones, his former assistant. Jones would edit the magazine until issue 116 in March 1980. Former DC Comics publisher Carmine Infantino joined Warren shortly after he became editor and did pencils for over 50 stories. Much like the wave of Spanish artists that dominated Creepy throughout the mid-1970s, a number of artists from the Philippines joined Warren during Jones' period as editor, including Alex Niño, Alfredo Alcala and Rudy Nebres, remaining with Creepy until its end in 1983. While he had resigned as editor, Dubay remained with Warren and became their dominant writer during this period.
Other frequent writers during this period included Bruce Jones, Bob Toomey and Rog
Supernatural (U.S. TV series)
Supernatural is an American dark fantasy television series created by Eric Kripke. It was first broadcast on September 13, 2005, on The WB, subsequently became part of successor The CW's lineup. Starring Jared Padalecki as Sam Winchester and Jensen Ackles as Dean Winchester, the series follows the two brothers as they hunt demons, ghosts and other supernatural beings; the series is produced by Warner Bros. Television, in association with Wonderland Sound and Vision. Along with Kripke, executive producers have been McG, Robert Singer, Phil Sgriccia, Sera Gamble, Jeremy Carver, John Shiban, Ben Edlund and Adam Glass. Former executive producer and director Kim Manners died of lung cancer during production of the fourth season; the series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia and surrounding areas and was in development for nearly ten years, as creator Kripke spent several years unsuccessfully pitching it. The pilot was viewed by an estimated 5.69 million viewers, the ratings of the first four episodes prompted The WB to pick up the series for a full season.
Kripke planned the series for three seasons but expanded it to five. The fifth season concluded the series' main storyline, Kripke departed the series as showrunner; the series has continued on for several more seasons with new showrunners, including Sera Gamble, Jeremy Carver, Robert Singer and Andrew Dabb. With its eleventh season, Supernatural became the longest-running American live-action fantasy TV series. On April 2, 2018, The CW renewed the series for a fourteenth season, which premiered on October 11, 2018, will consist of 20 episodes; the series has been renewed for final season to consist of 20 episodes. Before bringing Supernatural to television, creator Eric Kripke had been developing the series for nearly ten years, having been fascinated with urban legends since he was a child, he had envisioned Supernatural as a movie. He developed it as a TV series and spent a few years pitching it before it was picked up by The WB; the concept went through several phases before becoming the eventual product, shifting from the original idea of an anthology series to one of tabloid reporters driving around the country in a van "fighting the demons in search of the truth".
Kripke wanted it to be a road trip series, feeling that it was the "best vehicle to tell these stories because it's pure, stripped down and uniquely American... These stories exist in these small towns all across the country, it just makes so much sense to drive in and out of these stories."As he had written for The WB series Tarzan, Kripke was offered the chance to pitch show ideas to the network and used the opportunity for Supernatural. However, the network disliked his tabloid reporter idea, so Kripke pitched his last-minute idea of the characters being brothers, he decided to have the brothers be from Lawrence, because of its closeness to Stull Cemetery, a location famous for its urban legends. When it came time to name the two lead characters, Kripke decided on "Sal" and "Dean" as an homage to Jack Kerouac's road-trip novel On the Road. However, he felt that "Sal" was inappropriate for a main character and changed the name to "Sam", it was intended for the brothers' last name to be "Harrison" as a nod to actor Harrison Ford, as Kripke wanted Dean to have the "devil-may-care swagger of Han Solo".
However, there was a Sam Harrison living in Kansas. Combining his interest in the Winchester Mystery House and his desire to give the series the feel of "a modern-day Western", Kripke settled on the surname of "Winchester". However, this presented a problem; the first name of Sam and Dean's father was "Jack", there was a Jack Winchester residing in Kansas, so Kripke was forced to change the character's name to "John". Growing up, Kripke connected to television shows that had signature cars, such as The Dukes of Hazzard and Knight Rider; this prompted him to include one in Supernatural. "We say it's a modern American Western – two gunslingers who ride into town, fight the bad guys, kiss the girl and ride out into the sunset again. And we were always talking from the beginning that if you're going to have cowboys, they need a trusty horse." He intended for the car to be a'65 Mustang, but his neighbor convinced him to change it to a'67 Impala, since "you can put a body in the trunk" and because "you want a car that, when people stop next to it at the lights, they lock their doors."
Kripke has commented, "It's a Rottweiler of a car, I think it adds authenticity for fans of automobiles because of that, because it's not a pretty ride. It's an aggressive, muscular car, I think that's what people respond to, why it fits so well into the tone of our show."Kripke had pitched the series to Fox executive Peter Johnson, when Johnson moved to Wonderland Sound and Vision as president of TV, he contacted Kripke. Johnson soon signed on as co-executive producer, as did Wonderland owner McG as executive producer, with the production company set to make the pilot episode. Before it could be filmed, script issues needed to be dealt with; the brothers were not raised by their father, but rather by their aunt and uncle. Thus, when Dean comes to Sam for assistance in the pilot episode, he has to convince him that the supernatural exists. However, Kripke realized that this made the backstory too complicated and reworked it with Peter Johnson so that their father raised them to be hunters; the script went through many additional revisions.
One of the original ideas was for Sam's girlfriend Jessica to be revealed as a demon, which prompts him to join Dean on the road.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Angel (1999 TV series)
Angel is an American television series, a spin-off from the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The series was created by Joss Whedon, in collaboration with David Greenwalt, it aired on The WB from October 5, 1999, to May 19, 2004, consisting of five seasons and 110 episodes. Like Buffy, it was produced by Mutant Enemy; the show details the ongoing trials of Angel, a vampire whose human soul was restored to him by gypsies as a punishment for the murder of one of their own. After more than a century of murder and the torture of innocents, Angel's restored soul torments him with guilt and remorse. Angel moves to Los Angeles, after it's clear that his doomed relationship with Buffy, the vampire slayer, cannot continue. During the first four seasons of the show, he works as a private detective in L. A, where he and a variety of associates work to "help the helpless", restoring the faith and saving the souls of those who have lost their way; this involves doing battle with evil demons or humans allied to them related to Wolfram & Hart, a law firm supported by occult practices, an extension of otherworldly demonic forces, which Angel takes over in the final season.
He must battle his own demonic nature. The series focuses around Angel, an Irish vampire, over 200 years old. Angel was known as Angelus during his rampages across Europe, but was cursed with a soul, which gave him a conscience and guilt for centuries of murder and torture, he left Buffy the Vampire Slayer at the end of Season 3 to move to Los Angeles in search of redemption. He soon finds himself assisted by Allen Francis Doyle, another Irish character, a half-human, half-demon who, although he comes across as a ne'er-do-well hustler, has a heroic side. Doyle serves to pass along the cryptic visions from The Powers That Be to Angel. They're soon joined by Cordelia Chase a previous cast member of Buffy. A popular high school cheerleader, Cordelia starts her tenure on the show as a vapid and shallow personality, but grows over the course of the series into a hero. Cordelia acquires Doyle's visions via a shared kiss prior to Doyle's death. With the death of Doyle in the early episodes of the show's first season, another character from the Buffy series makes the jump to its spin-off: Wesley Wyndam-Pryce joins the team under the brave guise of "rogue demon hunter", acting as comic relief and not well-accepted.
Over time, Wesley shows bravery and strength, as well as some cold blooded killing cruelty, like his colleague Rupert Giles, grows into a leader. In Season 2 of the show, the trio are joined by Charles Gunn, a young demon hunter who must adjust to working with and for a vampire. At the end of Season 2, they travel to the demon world Pylea, where they save Winifred "Fred" Burkle, a young Texan physicist whose social skills have become stunted after five years' captivity. Season 3 saw the introduction of Connor, the "miracle" human child of two vampires and Darla. Abducted into a Hell dimension as a baby, he is raised by Angel's enemy Daniel Holtz, only a few weeks after he left comes back as a teenager and reluctantly comes to accept his lineage. Although introduced during Season 2, Lorne joins the team during Season 3. An outgoing, pacifistic demon, Lorne's role is predominantly to support the team. Season 5, the show's final season, introduces several new cast members, chief amongst them Spike, an old vampire ally/foe of Angel's who starred in Buffy.
In this series, Spike reluctantly fights beside Angel as their rivalry continues – now tinged with Spike existing as another vampire with a soul, by the romantic feelings that both of them have for Buffy Summers. One of the legendary Old Ones, Illyria starts off as an adversary of the team after taking over Fred's body, but comes to join the team as she must learn to cope with the changed world and the new emotions she feels as a result of taking over a human. There's Harmony Kendall, another Buffy alumna and former friend of Cordelia, turned into a vampire. Resembling the old personality of Cordelia, Harmony is grudgingly accepted by Angel as his secretary when he takes over the Los Angeles branch of Wolfram & Hart. Many characters on Angel made recurring appearances; the two longest-running recurring characters are Lilah Morgan and Lindsey McDonald, appearing in 36 and 21 episodes, respectively. Angel's sire Darla, first seen in Buffy, plays in an expanded role on Angel and appears in 20 episodes over the course of the series.
Elisabeth Röhm appears in 15 episodes as LAPD Detective Kate Lockley, a woman with an often-strained relationship with Angel. Throughout the series, there were guest appearances from Buffy characters, including main cast members Buffy Summers, Willow Rosenberg and Daniel "Oz" Osbourne; the rogue slayer Faith played an important part in episodes of Seasons 1, 2, 4. Whedon used two actors from his cancelled television series Firefly, Gina Torres and Adam Baldwin, to play Jasmine and Marcus Hamilton, respectively. Much of Angel was shot on location in California; the show is set in the city of Los Angeles. "Los Angeles" are the first words spoken in the premiere episode, the cityscape is the first image seen in the opening credits. Joss Whedon said, "It is set i
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Buffy the Vampire Slayer
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series based on the 1992 film of the same name. It was created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, David Solomon; the series premiered on March 10, 1997, on The WB and concluded on May 20, 2003, on UPN. The series narrative follows Buffy Summers, the latest in a line of young women known as "Vampire Slayers", or "Slayers". In the story, Slayers or the'Chosen Ones' are "called" to battle against vampires and other forces of darkness. Buffy wants to live a normal life. Like previous Slayers, Buffy is aided by a Watcher, who guides and trains her. Unlike her predecessors, Buffy surrounds herself with a circle of loyal friends who become known as the "Scooby Gang"; the series received critical and popular acclaim being listed as one of the greatest TV shows of all time, reached between four and six million viewers on original airings.
Although such ratings are lower than successful shows on the "big four" networks, they were a success for the new and smaller WB Television Network. The success of Buffy has led to hundreds of tie-in products, including novels and video games; the series has received attention in fandom and academia, has influenced the direction of other television series. The series, as well as its spinoff series Angel, extensions thereof, have been collectively termed the "Buffyverse"; as of 2018, a reboot of the series is being developed for television, with Monica Owusu-Breen as showrunner. Buffy Summers is the "Slayer", one in a long line of young women chosen by fate to battle evil forces; this mystical calling endows her with powers that increase physical strength, agility, accelerated healing, a limited degree of clairvoyance in the form of prophetic dreams. She is known as a reluctant hero who wants to live a normal life. However, she learns to embrace her destiny as the vampire slayer. Buffy receives guidance from Rupert Giles.
Giles referred to by his first name, is a member of the Watchers' Council, whose job is to train and guide the Slayers. Giles researches the supernatural creatures that Buffy must face, offers insights into their origins and advice on how to defeat them, helps her train to stay in fighting form. Buffy is helped by friends she meets at Sunnydale High: Willow Rosenberg and Xander Harris. Willow is a wallflower who excels at academics, providing a contrast to Buffy's outgoing personality and less-than-stellar educational record, they share the social isolation that comes with being different, from being exceptional young women. As the series progresses, Willow becomes a more assertive character and a powerful witch, comes out as a lesbian. In contrast, with no supernatural skills but athletic, provides comic relief and a grounded perspective, it is Xander who provides the heart to the series, in season six, becomes the hero in place of Buffy who defeats the "Big Bad." Buffy and Willow are the only characters.
The cast of characters grew over the course of the series. Buffy first arrives in Sunnydale with her mother, Joyce Summers, who functions as an anchor of normality in the Summers' lives after she learns of Buffy's role in the supernatural world. Buffy's younger sister. A vampire tortured with a soul in return for horrific deeds committed in the past to many, including a young gypsy girl and her family, Angel, is Buffy's love interest throughout the first three seasons, he leaves Buffy. He goes on to search for redemption in his own spin-off, Angel, he makes several guest appearances in the remaining seasons, including the last episode. At Sunnydale High, Buffy meets several other students besides Willow and Xander willing to join her fight for good, an informal group tagged the "Scooby Gang" or "Scoobies." Cordelia Chase, the archetypal shallow cheerleader, reluctantly becomes involved. Daniel "Oz" Osbourne, a fellow student, rock guitarist and werewolf, joins the group through his relationship with Willow.
Jenny Calendar, Sunnydale's computer science teacher, joins the group after helping destroy a demon trapped in cyberspace during season 1. She becomes Giles' love interest. Anya, a former vengeance demon who specialized in avenging scorned women, becomes Xander's lover after losing her powers and joins the group in season four. In Buffy's senior year at high school, she meets Faith, the other current Slayer, "called" forth when Slayer Kendra Young was killed by vampire Drusilla, in season two. Although Faith fights on the side of good with Buffy and the rest of the group, she comes to stand against them and sides with Mayor Richard Wilkins after accidentally killing a human in season three, she reappears in the fourth season, looking for vengeance, moves