Usury is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender. Usury meant interest of any kind. A loan may be considered usurious because of other factors. In some Christian societies, in many Islamic societies today, charging any interest at all would be considered usury. Someone who practices usury can be called a usurer, but a more common term in contemporary English is loan shark; the term may be used in a moral sense—condemning, taking advantage of others' misfortunes—or in a legal sense where interest rates may be regulated by law. Some cultures have regarded charging any interest for loans as sinful; some of the earliest known condemnations of usury come from the Vedic texts of India. Similar condemnations are found in religious texts from Buddhism, Judaism and Islam. At times, many nations from ancient Greece to ancient Rome have outlawed loans with any interest. Though the Roman Empire allowed loans with restricted interest rates, the Catholic Church in medieval Europe banned the charging of interest at any rate.
Banking during the Roman Empire was different from modern banking. During the Principate, most banking activities were conducted by private individuals who operated as large banking firms do today. Anybody that had any available liquid assets and wished to lend it out could do so; the annual rates of interest on loans varied in the range of 4–12 percent, but when the interest rate was higher, it was not 15–16 percent but either 24 percent or 48 percent. The apparent absence of intermediate rates suggests that the Romans may have had difficulty calculating the interest on anything other than mathematically convenient rates, they quoted them on a monthly basis, the most common rates were multiples of twelve. Monthly rates tended to range from simple fractions to 3–4 percent because lenders used Roman numerals. Moneylending during this period was a matter of private loans advanced to persons persistently in debt or temporarily so until harvest time, it was undertaken by exceedingly rich men prepared to take on a high risk if the profit looked good.
Investment was always regarded as a matter of seeking personal profit on a large scale. Banking was of the small, back-street variety, run by the urban lower-middle class of petty shopkeepers. By the 3rd century, acute currency problems in the Empire drove such banking into decline; the rich who were in a position to take advantage of the situation became the moneylenders when the increasing tax demands in the last declining days of the Empire crippled and destroyed the peasant class by reducing tenant-farmers to serfs. It was evident; the First Council of Nicaea, in 325, forbade clergy from engaging in usury. At the time, usury was interest of any kind, the canon forbade the clergy to lend money at interest rates as low as 1 percent per year. Ecumenical councils applied this regulation to the laity. Lateran III decreed that persons who accepted interest on loans could receive neither the sacraments nor Christian burial. Pope Clement V made the belief in the right to usury a heresy in 1311, abolished all secular legislation which allowed it.
Pope Sixtus V condemned the practice of charging interest as "detestable to God and man, damned by the sacred canons, contrary to Christian charity." Theological historian John Noonan argues that "the doctrine was enunciated by popes, expressed by three ecumenical councils, proclaimed by bishops, taught unanimously by theologians."Certain negative historical renditions of usury carry with them social connotations of perceived "unjust" or "discriminatory" lending practices. The historian Paul Johnson, comments: Most early religious systems in the ancient Near East, the secular codes arising from them, did not forbid usury; these societies regarded inanimate matter as alive, like plants and people, capable of reproducing itself. Hence if you lent'food money', or monetary tokens of any kind, it was legitimate to charge interest. Food money in the shape of olives, seeds or animals was lent out as early as c. 5000 BC, if not earlier.... Among the Mesopotamians, Hittites and Egyptians, interest was legal and fixed by the state.
But the Hebrew took a different view of the matter. The Hebrew Bible regulates interest taking. Interest can be charged to strangers but not between Hebrews. Deuteronomy 23:19 Thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother: interest of money, interest of victuals, interest of any thing, lent upon interest. Deuteronomy 23:20 Unto a foreigner thou mayest lend upon interest. Israelites were forbidden to charge interest on loans made to other Israelites, but allowed to charge interest on transactions with non-Israelites, as the latter were amongst the Israelites for the purpose of business anyway. Debt was to be avoided and not used to finance consumption, but only taken on when in need. Johnson contends that the
Bishop of Ossory
The Bishop of Ossory is an episcopal title which takes its name after the ancient of Kingdom of Ossory in the Province of Leinster, Ireland. In the Roman Catholic Church it remains a separate title, but in the Church of Ireland it has been united with other bishoprics; the diocese of Ossory was one the twenty-four dioceses established at the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1111 and coincided with the ancient Kingdom of Ossory. The episcopal see has always been in Kilkenny, the capital of Ossory at the time of the Synod of Rathbreasail; the erroneous belief that the cathedral was further north at Aghaboe is traced by John Bradley to a 16th-century misinterpretation of a 13th-century property transfer, combined with the fact that the abbey at the site which became St Canice's Cathedral, was a daughter house of Aghaboe Abbey. Following the Reformation, there were parallel apostolic successions. In the Church of Ireland, the see of Ossory combined with Ferns and Leighlin to form the united bishopric of Ossory and Leighlin in 1835.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the title continues as a separate bishopric. The bishop's seat is located at St. Mary's Cathedral, Kilkenny; the current Ordinary is the Most Reverend Dermot Farrell, appointed by the Holy See on 3 January 2018 and ordained bishop on 11 March 2018. The following list of bishops is inscribed in St. Mary's Cathedral and listed on the Roman Catholic diocese's website. Bishops in the early Irish church ruled over a kingdom, in this case Osraige or Ossory, but were often associated with a particular monastery and may have been in some matters subordinate to its abbot. St. Ciarán of Saigir According to his vitae, St. Ciarán was ordained to the episcopate by Pope Celestine I. St. Carthage St. Medran St. Sedna St. Muccine St. Modomnoc St. Aengus Lamoidan St. Lachtin St. Colman Ua Eirc St. Cuillen St. Bochonna St. Finnech Duirn St. Eochan St. Killene Mac Lubne Laidhgnen Mac Doinlanach Tnuthgall Mocoach Cucathrach Cothach Fereoach Conchobhar Conmhach Ua Loichene Inchalach Anluan Cormac Mac Eladhach Ceran Departed Sloidhedhach Cormac Fearchal Fochartach Colman Confoelad Donchadh Fochartach Donchad Ua Celieachair Comhoran Ceallack Reamhar Ceallack Ua Caonhoran GCatholic with Catholic incumbent bio links
County Kilkenny is a county in Ireland. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the city of Kilkenny. Kilkenny County Council is the local authority for the county; as of the 2016 census the population of the county was 99,232. The county was based on the historic Gaelic kingdom of Ossory, co-terminus with the Diocese of Ossory. Kilkenny is the 16th largest of the traditional 32 Counties of Ireland in area and the 21st largest in terms of population, it is the third largest county in the province Leinster and seventh largest in terms of population. The county is subdivided into called nine baronies which are in turn divided into civil parishes and townlands. There are about 800 townlands in Kilkenny; each barony was made up of a number of parts of parishes. Both civil parishes and baronies are now obsolete and are no longer used for local government purposes. Baronies in County Kilkenny: Callan Crannagh Fassadinin Barony of Galmoy Gowran Ida Iverk Kells Kilculliheen Kilkenny City Knocktopher Shillelogher For religious administration, the county was divided into parishes.
Every parish had at least one church. The barony boundaries and the parish boundaries were not connected. From the 17th to mid-19th centuries, civil parishes were based on early Christian and medieval monastic and church settlements; the civil parishes are divided into townlands. As the population grew, new parishes were created and the civil parish covered the same area as the established Church of Ireland; the Roman Catholic Church adapted to a new structure based on villages. There 2,508 civil parishes in Ireland, which break both barony and county boundaries; the county contains the city of Kilkenny, located at the center of the county, the towns of Ballyragget and Castlecomer to the north of the county and Graiguenamanagh, Mooncoin and Thomastown to the south. Ballyfoyle, Ballyragget, Bennettsbridge Callan, Castlecomer, Clogh, Coan Danesfort, Dunnamaggan Ferrybank, Freshford Galmoy, Gowran, Glenmore Hugginstown Inistioge Jenkinstown, Johnswell Kilkenny, Kilmacow, Knocktopher Kilmanagh Moneenroe, Mullinavat Paulstown, Piltown Redhouse, Tullogher-Rosbercon Slieverue, Stoneyford Thomastown, The Rower Urlingford Windgap The River Nore flows through the county and the River Suir forms the border with County Waterford.
Brandon Hill is the highest point with an elevation of 515 m. Most of the county has a hilly surface of moderate elevation with uplands in the north-east, the north-west and the South of the county; the county has an area of 512,222 acres. The county extends from 52 degrees 14 minutes to 52 degrees 52 minutes north latitude, from 6 degrees 56 minutes to 7 degrees 37 minutes west longitude; the north-south length of the county is 45 miles. Kilkenny extends southward from Laois to the valley of the Suir and eastward from the Munster–Leinster border to the River Barrow; the River Nore bisects the county and the River Barrow and River Suir are natural boundaries to the east and south of the county. County Kilkenny is bordered by Laois, Wexford and Tipperary; the geology of Kilkenny includes the Kiltorcan Formation, early Carboniferous in age. The Formation is located around Kiltoncan Hill near Ballyhale in the Knocktopher areas, it forms the uppermost part of the Old Red Sandstone and is the distinctive Upper Devonian–Lower Carboniferous unit in southern Ireland.
It contains non-red lithologies, green mudstones, fine sandstones and yellow sandstones. There is a fossil assemblage containing Archaeopteris and Archaeopteris hibernica. Most of the county is principally limestone of the upper and lower group, corresponding with the rest of Ireland. A large area in the north and east contains beds of coal, surrounded by limestone strata, alternated with shale, argilaceous ironstone, sandstone; this occurs eastward of the Nore around Castlecomer, along the border with Laois. It is accompanied by culm, used extensively for burning lime; the Environment of County Kilkenny contains a great variety of natural heritage, including rivers, woodlands and diverse landscapes and geological features. The main land use is grassland, dairy farming and tillage farming around Kilkenny City and in the fertile central plain of the Nore Valley. Conifer forests are found on the upland areas. Habitats of international and national importance, are designated under European Union and national legislation.
The four categories of designated site in effect in County Kilkenny are Special Areas of Conservation, Natural Heritage Areas, Statutory Nature Reserves and Wildfowl Sanctuaries. At present there are 36 designated natural heritage sites of international and national importance in County Kilkenny, covering 4.5% of the county. County Kilkenny is comparably low compared to other mountain ranges in Ireland with the highest peak being Brandon Hill, at 515 metres above sea level; the majority of res
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Emma Donoghue is an Irish-Canadian playwright, literary historian and screenwriter. Her 2010 novel Room was a finalist for an international best-seller. Donoghue's 1995 novel Hood won the Stonewall Book Award. and Slammerkin won the Ferro-Grumley Award for Lesbian Fiction. Room was adapted into a film of the same name, for which Donoghue wrote the screenplay, subsequently nominated for the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay. Donoghue was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1969; the youngest of eight children, she is the daughter of Frances and academic and literary critic Denis Donoghue. She has a first-class honours Bachelor of Arts degree from University College Dublin and a PhD in English from Girton College, Cambridge. While at Cambridge she lived in a women's co-op, an experience which inspired her short story The Welcome, her thesis was on friendship between women in 18th century fiction. At Cambridge, she met her future life partner Christine Roulston, a Canadian, now professor of French and Women's Studies at the University of Western Ontario.
They moved permanently to Canada in 1998 and Donoghue became a Canadian citizen in 2004. She lives in Ontario with Roulston and their two children. Donoghue's first novel was 1994's Stir Fry, a contemporary coming of age novel about a young Irish woman discovering her sexuality, it was a finalist for the Lambda Literary Award in 1994. This was followed in 1995 by Hood, another contemporary story, this time about an Irish woman coming to terms with the death of her girlfriend. Hood won the 1997 American Library Association's Gay and Bisexual Book Award for Literature. Slammerkin is a historical novel set in Wales. Inspired by an 18th-century newspaper story about a young servant who killed her employer and was executed, the protagonist is a prostitute who longs for fine clothes, it was a finalist in the 2001 Irish Times Irish Literature Prize for Fiction and was awarded the 2002 Ferro-Grumley Award for Lesbian Fiction. Her 2007 novel, portrays a long-distance relationship between a Canadian curator and an Irish flight attendant.
The Sealed Letter, another work of historical fiction, is based on the Codrington Affair, a scandalous divorce case that gripped Britain in 1864. The protagonist is Emily Faithfull; the Sealed Letter was longlisted for the Giller Prize, was joint winner, with Chandra Mayor's All the Pretty Girls, of the 2009 Lambda Literary Award for Lesbian Fiction. On 27 July 2010, Donoghue's novel Room was longlisted for the Man Booker Prize and on 7 September 2010 it made the shortlist. On 2 November 2010, it was announced that Room had been awarded the Rogers Writers' Trust Fiction Prize. Room was shortlisted for the 2010 Governor General's Awards in Canada, was the winner of the Irish Book Award 2010, it lost out to Tea Obreht. She wrote the screenplay for a film version of the book, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award, Golden Globe and Bafta Award, in 2017 adapted it into a play performed at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin, her novel Frog Music, a historical fiction based on the true story of a murdered 19th century cross-dressing frog catcher, was published in 2014.
Her novel The Wonder, published in 2016, was shortlisted for the Scotiabank Giller Prize. Stir Fry Hood Slammerkin Life Mask Landing The Sealed Letter Room Frog Music The Wonder The Lotterys Plus One "Dear Lang" in How Beautiful the Ordinary: Twelve Stories of Identity Kissing the Witch The Woman Who Gave Birth to Rabbits Touchy Subjects Three and a Half Deaths Astray I Know My Own Heart Ladies and Gentlemen Don't Die Wondering Kissing the Witch The Talk of the Town Emma Donoghue: Selected Plays Room Trespasses Don't Die Wondering Exes Humans and Other Animals Mix Pluck Room Passions Between Women: British Lesbian Culture 1668–1801 We Are Michael Field Inseparable: Desire Between Women in Literature What Sappho Would Have Said The Mammoth Book Of Lesbian Short Stories Irish Writers on Writing featuring Emma Donoghue. Edited by Eavan Boland. Official website Newsweek article on Room, Sept. 2010 Emma Donoghue's UK publisher
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity. The fields of medicine and zoology distinguish a poison from a toxin, from a venom. Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting; the difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry and other sectors employ poisonous substances for reasons other than their toxicity. Most poisonous industrial compounds have associated material safety data sheets and are classed as hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are subject to extensive regulation on production and use in overlapping domains of occupational safety and health, public health, drinking water quality standards, air pollution and environmental protection. Due to the mechanics of molecular diffusion, many poisonous compounds diffuse into biological tissues, water, or soil on a molecular scale.
By the principle of entropy, chemical contamination is costly or infeasible to reverse, unless specific chelating agents or micro-filtration processes are available. Chelating agents are broader in scope than the acute target, therefore their ingestion necessitates careful medical or veterinarian supervision. Pesticides are one group of substances whose toxicity to various insects and other animals deemed to be pests is their prime purpose. Natural pesticides have been used for this purpose for thousands of years. Bioaccumulation of chemically-prepared agricultural insecticides is a matter of concern for the many species birds, which consume insects as a primary food source. Selective toxicity, controlled application, controlled biodegradation are major challenges in herbicide and pesticide development and in chemical engineering as all lifeforms on earth share an underlying biochemistry. A poison which enters the food chain—whether of industrial, agricultural, or natural origin—might not be toxic to the first organism that ingests the toxin, but can become further concentrated in predatory organisms further up the food chain carnivores and omnivores concerning fat soluble poisons which tend to become stored in biological tissue rather than excreted in urine or other water-based effluents.
Two common cases of acute natural poisoning are theobromine poisoning of dogs and cats, mushroom poisoning in humans. Dogs and cats are not natural herbivores, but a chemical defense developed by Theobroma cacao can be incidentally fatal nevertheless. Many omnivores, including humans consume edible fungi, thus many fungi have evolved to become decisively inedible, in this case as a direct defense. Apart from food, many poisons enter the body through the skin and lungs. Hydrofluoric acid is a notorious contact poison, in addition to its corrosive damage. Occurring sour gas is a notorious, fast-acting atmospheric poison. Plant-based contact irritants, such as that possessed by poison ivy or poison oak, are classed as allergens rather than poisons. Poison can enter the body through the teeth, faulty medical implants, or by injection. In 2013, 3.3 million cases of unintentional human poisonings occurred. This resulted in 98,000 deaths worldwide, down from 120,000 deaths in 1990. In modern society, cases of suspicious death elicit the attention of the Coroner's office and forensic investigators.
While arsenic is a occurring environmental poison, its artificial concentrate was once nicknamed inheritance powder. In Medieval Europe, it was common for monarchs to employ personal food tasters to thwart royal assassination, in the dawning age of the Apothecary. Of increasing concern since the isolation of natural radium by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898—and the subsequent advent of nuclear physics and nuclear technologies—are radiological poisons; these are associated with ionizing radiation, a mode of toxicity quite distinct from chemically active poisons. In mammals, chemical poisons are passed from mother to offspring through the placenta during gestation, or through breast milk during nursing. In contrast, radiological damage can be passed from mother or father to offspring through genetic mutation, which—if not fatal in miscarriage or childhood, or a direct cause of infertility—can be passed along again to a subsequent generation. Atmospheric radon is a natural radiological poison of increasing impact since humans moved from hunter-gatherer lifestyles though cave dwelling to enclosed structures able to contain radon in dangerous concentrations.
The 2006 poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko was a novel use of radiological assassination meant to evade the normal investigation of chemical poisons. Poisons dispersed into the environment are known as pollution; these are of human origin, but pollution can include unwanted biological processes such as toxic red tide, or acute changes to the natural chemical environment attributed to invasive species, which are toxic or detrimental to the prior ecology (especially if the prior ecology was associated with human economic valu
Heresy is any belief or theory, at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of such beliefs. Heresy is distinct from both apostasy, the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, blasphemy, an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things; the term is used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used of views opposed to any accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity and Islam. In certain historical Christian and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is met with censure ranging from excommunication to the death penalty; the term heresy, from Greek αἵρεσις meant "choice" or "thing chosen", but it came to mean the "party or school of a man's choice" and referred to that process whereby a young person would examine various philosophies to determine how to live.
The word "heresy" is used within a Christian, Jewish, or Islamic context, implies different meanings in each. The founder or leader of a heretical movement is called a heresiarch, while individuals who espouse heresy or commit heresy are known as heretics. Heresiology is the study of heresy. According to Titus 3:10 a divisive person should be warned twice before separating from him; the Greek for the phrase "divisive person" became a technical term in the early Church for a type of "heretic" who promoted dissension. In contrast correct teaching is called sound not only because it builds up the faith, but because it protects it against the corrupting influence of false teachers; the Church Fathers identified Judaism with heresy. They saw deviations from orthodox Christianity as heresies that were Jewish in spirit. Tertullian implied that it was the Jews who most inspired heresy in Christianity: "From the Jew the heretic has accepted guidance in this discussion " The use of the word "heresy" was given wide currency by Irenaeus in his 2nd century tract Contra Haereses to describe and discredit his opponents during the early centuries of the Christian community.
He described the community's beliefs and doctrines as orthodox and the Gnostics' teachings as heretical. He pointed out the concept of apostolic succession to support his arguments. Constantine the Great, who along with Licinius had decreed toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire by what is called the "Edict of Milan", was the first Roman Emperor baptized, set precedents for policy. By Roman law the Emperor was Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the College of Pontiffs of all recognized religions in ancient Rome. To put an end to the doctrinal debate initiated by Arius, Constantine called the first of what would afterwards be called the ecumenical councils and enforced orthodoxy by Imperial authority; the first known usage of the term in a legal context was in AD 380 by the Edict of Thessalonica of Theodosius I, which made Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire. Prior to the issuance of this edict, the Church had no state-sponsored support for any particular legal mechanism to counter what it perceived as "heresy".
By this edict the state's authority and that of the Church became somewhat overlapping. One of the outcomes of this blurring of Church and state was the sharing of state powers of legal enforcement with church authorities; this reinforcement of the Church's authority gave church leaders the power to, in effect, pronounce the death sentence upon those whom the church considered heretical. Within six years of the official criminalization of heresy by the Emperor, the first Christian heretic to be executed, was condemned in 386 by Roman secular officials for sorcery, put to death with four or five followers. However, his accusers were excommunicated both by Ambrose of Milan and Pope Siricius, who opposed Priscillian's heresy, but "believed capital punishment to be inappropriate at best and unequivocally evil"; the edict of Theodosius II provided severe punishments for those who had or spread writings of Nestorius. Those who possessed writings of Arius were sentenced to death. For some years after the Reformation, Protestant churches were known to execute those they considered heretics, including Catholics.
The last known heretic executed by sentence of the Catholic Church was Spanish schoolmaster Cayetano Ripoll in 1826. The number of people executed as heretics under the authority of the various "ecclesiastical authorities" is not known. In the Catholic Church and willful manifest heresy is considered to spiritually cut one off from the Church before excommunication is incurred; the Codex Justinianus defines "everyone, not devoted to the Catholic Church and to our Orthodox holy Faith" a heretic. The Church had always dealt harshly with strands of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these tended to centre on individual preachers or small localised sects, like Arianism, Donatism and Montanism; the diffusion of the Manichaean sect of Paulicians westwards gave birth to the famous 11th and 12th century heresies of Western Europe. The first one was that of Bogomils in modern-day Bosnia, a sort of sanctuary between Eastern and Western Christianity. By the 11th century, more organised groups such as the Patarini, the Dulcinians, the Waldensians and the Cathars were beginning to appear in the towns and cities of northern Italy, southern France and Flanders.
In France the Cathars gr