New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Maribor is the second-largest city in Slovenia and the largest city of the traditional region of Lower Styria. It is the seat of the City Municipality of Maribor. Maribor, along with the Portuguese city of Guimarães, was selected the European Capital of Culture for 2012. Maribor was attested in historical sources as Marpurch circa 1145, is a compound of Middle High German march'march' + burc'fortress'. In modern times, the town's German name was Marburg an der Drau; the Slovene name Maribor is an artificial Slovenized creation, coined by Stanko Vraz in 1836. Vraz created the name in the spirit of Illyrianism by analogy with the name Brandenburg. Locally, the town is known in Slovene as Marprog. In addition to its Slovene and German names, the city is known as Marburgum in Latin and Marburgo in Italian. In 1164, a castle known as Castrum Marchburch was documented in the March of Drava; the castle was built on Piramida Hill, located just above the city. Maribor was first mentioned as a market near the castle in 1204, received town privileges in 1254.
It began to grow after the victory of Rudolf I of the Habsburg dynasty over King Otakar II of Bohemia in 1278. Maribor withstood sieges by Matthias Corvinus in 1480/1481 and by the Ottoman Empire in 1532 and 1683. In 1900, the city had a population, 82.3% Austrian Germans and 17.3% Slovenes. Thus, it was known by its Austrian name Marburg an der Drau. According to the last Austro-Hungarian census in 1910, the city of Maribor and the suburbs Studenci, Pobrežje, Radvanje, Krčevina, Košaki was inhabited by 31,995 Austrian Germans and only 6,151 ethnic Slovenes; the surrounding area however was populated entirely by Slovenes, although many Austrian Germans lived in smaller towns like Ptuj. During World War I many Slovenes in the Carinthia and Styria were detained on suspicion of being enemies of the Austrian Empire; this led to distrust between Austrian Slovenes. After the collapse of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Maribor was claimed by both the State of Slovenes and Serbs and German Austria.
On 1 November 1918, a meeting was held by Colonel Anton Holik in the Melje barracks, where it was decided that the German-speaking city should be part of German Austria. Ethnic Slovene Major Rudolf Maister, present at the meeting, denounced the decision and organised Slovenian military units that were able to seize control of the city. All Austrian officers and soldiers were demobilised to the new state of German Austria; the city council held a secret meeting, where it was decided to do whatever possible to regain Maribor for German Austria. They organised a military unit called the Green Guard, 400 well-armed soldiers of this unit opposed the pro-Slovenian and pro-Yugoslav Major Maister. Slovenian troops disarmed the Green Guard early in the morning of 23 November. Thereafter, there was no threat to the authority of Rudolf Maister in the city. On 27 January 1919, Austrian Germans gathered to await the United States peace delegation at the city's marketplace were fired upon by Slovenian troops, who feared the thousands of ethnic German citizens.
Nine citizens were killed and some eighteen were wounded. German sources accused Maister's troops of shooting without cause. In turn Slovene witnesses such as Maks Pohar claimed that the Austrian Germans attacked the Slovenian soldiers guarding the Maribor city hall. Regardless of, responsible, the Austrian German victims all had been without any arms; the German-language media called the incident Marburg's Bloody Sunday. As Maribor was now in the hands of the Slovenian forces and surrounded by Slovenian territory. After 1918, most of Maribor's Austrian Germans left the Kingdom of Slovenes and Serbs for Austria; these included the German-speaking officials. Austrian German schools and organizations were ordered closed by the new state of Yugoslavia though ethnic Germans still made up more than 25% of the city's total population as late as the 1930s. A policy of cultural assimilation was pursued in Yugoslavia against the Austrian German minority similar to the Germanization policy followed by Austria against its Slovene minority in Carinthia.
However, in the late 1930s the policy was abandoned and the Austrian German minority's position improved in an attempt to gain better diplomatic relations with Nazi Germany. In 1941 Lower Styria, the predominantly Yugoslav part of Styria, was annexed by Nazi Germany. German troops marched into the town at 9 pm on 8 April 1941. On 26 April Adolf Hitler, who encouraged his followers to "make this land German again", visited Maribor and a grand reception was organised in the city castle by the local Germans. After the occupation, Nazi Germany began mass expulsions of Slovenes to the Independent State of Croatia, to the concentration and work camps in Germany; the Nazi goal was to re-Germanize the population of Lower Styria a
Åre ski resort
Åre is a ski resort in Jämtland, founded 110 years ago in 1909 and owned by SkiStar AB. Åre, short for Årefjällen, is located in Åre Municipality, just outside and above the village of Åre 80 km from the city of Östersund. The ski lift system is at an elevation of 1,420 m; the village and ski area are accessible by train. The nearest airport is Åre Östersund Airport. With a latitude of 63.4° north, the ski area is 350 km south of the Arctic Circle. 1882 – The railway to Åre is finished and opened by King Oscar II. 1891 – Åre tourist information centre opens. ”Tourists and spa guests visiting the climatic spa Åre” is the theme of the first advertising campaign. 1892 – The café on the top of Åreskutan opens. 1910 – Åre Bergbana opens, the first fixed link in Åre, beginning the area's development as a winter sports resort. Tobogganing and skiing are offered. 1935 – The local slalom racing club, the Åre Slalomklubb, is formed. Over the years, the club's members have included such names as Lars-Börje Eriksson, Patrik Järbyn and Richard Richardsson.
1940 – The first drag lift is opened in Åre, located near the Olympia area and Lundsgården. The tiny yellow lift cabin is still in place. 1952 – The Fjällgården ski area is opened. The lift passengers were transported standing up in tall buckets, one of, displayed in front of the funicular station on Åre square. 1954 – Åre hosts the World Championships, making Åre known throughout the skiing world. 1966 – Duveds Linbana, the first chairlift in Duved, is opened, followed by other investments in the Duved ski area. 1976 – The Kabinbanan cable car, servicing the upper part of the ski area, is opened at a cost of 73 million Swedish kronor. At this time, the formidable success of Swedish ski racer Ingemar Stenmark gives a great boost to the Swedish alpine ski industry. 1981 – The first lift is built at Åre Björnen, followed by other investments in the area. The first snow cannons are installed at Åre. 1989 – The Olympia gondola is opened by King Carl XVI Gustav and Queen Silvia. 2001 – In the central part of the Åre ski area, two new lifts are built and three new slopes are opened — the single largest investment since the building of the cable car.
2006 – The Olympia chairlift is replaced by the world's first telemix lift, a lift with chairs and gondolas. 2007 – Åre hosts the World Championships for a second time. 2009 – Åre is named winner of "World's top ski resorts" by the British travel magazine Condé Nast Traveller 2013 – Sadelexpressen, Fjällgårdsexpressen and Tegeliften opened. 2016 – Åre hosts Freestyle Junior World Championships in Moguls, again 2018, this time in Duved. 2017 – Åre hosts the Junior World Championships. 2019 – Åre hosts the World Championships, its third. 2021 – Åre along with Östersund will host the 2021 Special Olympics World Winter Games. 2026 – it will host alpine skiing and freestyle skiing should Stockholm and Åre host the 2026 Winter Olympics and 2026 Winter Paralympics. There is night skiing every evening until week 10; the night skiing is between 6 8 pm. Central Åre: The lift "VM8:an" with the two slopes "Gästrappet" and "Lundsrappet" in the world championship area. Duved: The lift "Hamreliften" and the slopes "Skistarbacken" and "Hamrebacken".
Åre Björnen: The lifts "Björnliften", "Nalleliften" and "Vargliften" with connecting slopes. In Central Åre there are plenty of runs to choose both for beginners and advanced skiers. Central Åre is the largest area in the Åre Ski Area. Advanced skiers prefer the central area with the longest runs which are fairly steep. Lifts in Central Åre Bergbanan Tottliften Fjällgårdsexpressen Hummelliften Kabinbanan Gondolen VM6:an VM8:an Worldcupliften Bräckeliften Lillröda Lillvita Rödhakeliften Rödkulleliften 1 Rödkulleliften 2 Nedre Tväråvalvsliften Nedre Tväråvalvsliften 2 Stendalsliften Ullådalsliften Ullådalsliften 2 Övre Tväråvalvsliften Åre Björnen is the ski area for the youngest skiers and families. ÅreBjörnen is connected to Central Åre with lifts. Lifts in ÅreBjörnen Björnliften Järvenliften Mårdenliften Högåsliften Lokattliften Nalleliften Renenliften Sadellexpressen Vargliften Copperhill liften Tegefjäll is suitable for families with small children, the system is connected to the Duved lift system.
Lifts in Tegefjäll Englandsliften Fjällvallsliften Mini Tege Tegesliften Gunnilliften – at 1.6 kilometers long, this is the longest T-bar lift in the world. Duved offers slopes both for the beginner and the expert. Duved is connected to the Tegefjäll system. Lifts in Duved Byliften Torpliften Duveds Linbana Hamreliften Leråliften www.visitare.com/en – Official visitor guide – Ski area www.are-sweden.com – Information on Åre Ski resort Piste Maps – Åre ski resort
2018–19 FIS Alpine Ski World Cup
The International Ski Federation Alpine Ski World Cup was the premier circuit for alpine skiing competition. The inaugural season launched in January 1967, the 2018–19 season marks the 53rd consecutive year for the FIS World Cup; this season began in October 2018 in Sölden and concluded in mid-March 2019 at the finals in Soldeu, Andorra. The biennial World Championships interrupted the tour in early February in Sweden. In January 2019, two-time overall World Cup champion Aksel Lund Svindal of Norway announced that he would retire after the World Championships the following month. Prior to the start of the season, 4-time overall World Cup champion Lindsey Vonn of the United States announced her retirement effective as of the end of the season. Due to lingering injuries, she moved her retirement date up to the World Championships in February. In December, Mikaela Shiffrin became the eighth athlete to win at least 50 World Cup races across all disciplines, as well as the youngest to do so. Shiffrin ended the season with 17 race victories, shattering Vreni Schneider's 30-year-old record of 14 wins in a season, set in the 1988-89 season.
Shiffrin won four crystal globes for the season, tying the women's record held by Vonn and Tina Maze. On 6 March 2019, former slalom season champion Frida Hansdotter announced her retirement from alpine skiing following the 2018–2019 season. * reserve skiers The following athletes announced their retirements during or after the season: Women Anne-Sophie Barthet Chiara Costazza Frida Hansdotter Ann-Katrin Magg Lindsey VonnMen Thomas Fanara Erik Guay Mattias Hargin Werner Heel Patrick Küng Felix Neureuther Aksel Lund Svindal Sandro Viletta
Mount Hutt rises to the west of the Canterbury Plains in the South Island of New Zealand, above the braided upper reaches of the Rakaia River, 80 kilometres west of Christchurch. Its summit is 2190 metres above sea level; the mountain is home to a commercial alpine ski area with the largest skiable area in the South Island, a vertical height of 683 metres. It caters for a wide range of skiers, with a "magic carpet" lift for beginners, good intermediate and advanced runs, access to large off-piste areas; the most advanced runs on the mountain are through the rock formations at the top of the field known as "The Towers", the South Face. Lift facilities include a quad chair, triple chair and magic carpet; the magic carpet is the world's first enclosed by shipping containers. The snow season is from June to October. Mount Hutt prides itself on and being the first ski-field in the Southern Hemisphere to open at the beginning of each season. However, its steep thirteen kilometre access road is prone to closure in poor weather, giving the skifield the nickname "Mount Shut."
On 12 August 2010, winds of up to 200 km/h struck the ski area, resulting in its closure along with the access road, stranding 1200 people on the mountain overnight, where they were accommodated in the ski-field's base buildings. The road was reopened the following day. Since there is no accommodation on the mountain, most visitors stay in the nearby town of Methven, a 35-minute drive to the mountain; the larger town of Ashburton is 55 minutes away. The city of Christchurch is one hour 45 minutes. Mt Hutt is managed by NZSki along with The Remarkables in Queenstown. Mount Hutt was named by the Canterbury Association surveyor Joseph Thomas for John Hutt, an early member of the Association. During the summer months four species of Alpine grasshoppers can be found within the ski field boundary, they include Sigaus villosus which can be found along the ridgelines, Brachaspis nivalis which lives on the rocky scree, Sigaus australis and Paprides nitidus which both live in the alpine tussocklands. Media related to Mount Hutt at Wikimedia Commons The Mt Hutt ski area website The nzski.com website 0800Snow Review on Mt Hutt Mt Hutt Webcams and Weather Report
Špindlerův Mlýn is a town in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. Located in the Krkonoše range, it is one of the most frequented mountain and ski resorts in the country. Špindlerův Mlýn is in the north of the historic Bohemia region near the border with Poland. Situated on the southern slopes of the Kozí hřbety, part of the Krkonoše Bohemian Ridge, at an altitude of 715 m to 1,310 m a.s.l. It is protected on all sides by the mountain peaks of Pláň and Mt. Medvědín. In the east rises Luční hora at 1,555 m, the second highest mountain of the Czech Republic. Špindlerův Mlýn lies on the confluence of the Dolský potok. The Elbe source is located northwest of the town, near the Polish border and Mt. Vysoké Kolo at an altitude of 1,386 m. About 1 km downstream are the Labe Falls. A large dam was built in 1911–16 near Labská; the municipal area comprises the villages of Přední Labská, Bedřichov and Svatý Petr. Nowadays it has about 1,300 permanent inhabitants; the settlement was first doumented in the early 16th century under the rule of King Louis II Jagiello.
It received its name after a mill belonging to a Spindler family. In the 18th century, large parts of the surrounding forests were a possession of the Habsburg minister Friedrich August von Harrach-Rohrau, after whom the village of Bedřichov is named. In 1793 the local miners and lumbermen were given permission by Emperor Francis II to build the parish church of Svatý Petr. After World War II the remaining German-speaking population was expelled according to the Beneš decrees. Špindlerův Mlýn developed as a resort town from the mid 19th century onwards. Franz Kafka stayed here for recreation in January/February 1922 and began writing of one of his most famous works, The Castle. With year-round use and with accommodation capacity of 10,000 beds, Špindlerův Mlýn is one of the most visited ski resorts in the Czech Republic, has 20 runs, the most of all resorts in the country. During the winter season the area hosts the Europacup in freestyle skiing and SnowJam, a professional snowboarding event.
In the surroundings there are many marked mountain biking and cross-country skiing trails. Wildwater canoeing is common on the Labe river. Špindlerův Mlýn is twinned with: Podgórzyn, Poland Alanya, Turkey Przełęcz Karkonoska Špindlerův Mlýn travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Špindlerův Mlýn at Wikimedia Commons Municipal website Information for skiers
1980 Winter Olympics
The 1980 Winter Olympics known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games, was a multi-sport event, celebrated from February 13, through February 24, 1980, in Lake Placid, New York, United States. This was the second time the Upstate New York village hosted the Games, after 1932; the only other candidate city to bid for the Games was Vancouver-Garibaldi, British Columbia, which withdrew before the final vote The mascot of the Games was "Roni", a raccoon. The mask-like rings on a raccoon's face recall the goggles and hats worn by many athletes in winter sports; the sports were played at the Olympic Center, Whiteface Mountain, Mt. Van Hoevenberg Olympic Bobsled Run, the Olympic Ski Jumps, the Cascade Cross Country Ski Center, the Lake Placid High School Speed Skating Oval; the selection process for the 1980 Winter Olympics consisted of one bid, from Lake Placid, United States. It was selected at the 75th International Olympic Committee Session in Vienna on October 13, 1974. Notable highlights included: The United States men's ice hockey team, composed of collegiate players and not predicted to advance beyond group play, won the gold medal.
The United States team's 4–3 win over the veteran Soviet team, which came into the 1980 Games having won four consecutive Olympic gold medals, became known as the "Miracle on Ice" in US culture. The win captured the hearts of Americans though it was the win against Finland that secured the gold medal. Eric Heiden of the United States won gold in the 500m, 1000m, 1500m, 5000m, 10,000m speed skating events, setting four Olympic records and one world record in the process and delivering 83% of the American gold medals. Heiden became the first person to win all five speed skating events, the first of only three to win five gold medals in individual events at a single Games, is still the only athlete to win five gold medals at one Winter Games. Sweden's Ingemar Stenmark won both the slalom. Hanni Wenzel won the women's giant slalom and slalom, making Liechtenstein the smallest country to produce an Olympic champion. Ulrich Wehling of East Germany and Irina Rodnina of the USSR won their respective events for the third time, Wehling in Nordic combined and Rodnina in pairs figure skating.
Aleksandr Tikhonov of the USSR earned his fourth straight gold medal as part of the 4 x 7.5m biathlon relay team. Nikolay Zimyatov of the USSR earned three gold medals in cross-country skiing. Robin Cousins won gold for Great Britain in the men's singles figure skating. East Germany won the most medals overall but had fewer golds than the USSR. In the most dramatic duel of the games, Sweden's Thomas Wassberg edged Finland's Juha Mieto in the 15 km cross-country skiing by 0.01 seconds, the closest margin of victory in Olympic cross-country skiing. Although they did not get any medals, the People's Republic of China entered the Olympic Games for the first time after the IOC agreed to designate the Republic of China "Chinese Taipei". Lake Placid 1980 marked the first use of artificial snow in Olympic competition. Lake Placid 1980 was the last Olympics to be opened by the Vice President of the United States, as 1980 was a Presidential election year. There were 38 events contested in 6 sports. See the medal winners, ordered by sport: Intervales Ski-Hill – Nordic combined, Ski jumping Lake Placid Equestrian Stadium – Opening Ceremony Lake Placid Olympic Sports Complex Cross Country Biathlon Center – Biathlon, Cross-country skiing, Nordic combined Mt. Van Hoevenberg Bob and Luge Run – Bobsleigh, Luge Olympic Center – Figure skating, Ice hockey, Closing ceremonies James B. Sheffield Speed Skating Oval – Speed skating Whiteface Mountain – Alpine skiingThe former Will Rogers Memorial Hospital was used as press headquarters.
These are the top ten nations. * Host nation 37 NOCs participated. Cyprus made their Olympic debut at the games; the People's Republic of China and Costa Rica both made their Winter Olympic debut. The Republic of China had boycotted the Games over the IOC's recognition of the PRC as "China", its request for the Republic of China to compete as "Chinese Taipei". Roni is the Olympic mascot of these Games, created by Don Moss; the mascot is a racoon, a familiar animal from the mountainous region of the Adirondacks where Lake Placid is situated. The name Roni comes from the word racoon in Iroquoian, the language of the native people from the region of the State of New York and Lake Placid and was chosen by Lake Placid school children; the official theme song for the 1980 Winter Olympics was "Give It All You Got" by the American flugelhorn player Chuck Mangione, who performed the song live at the Closing Ceremony, with the Hamilton Philharmonic Orchestra. 1980 Winter Paralympics 1980 Summer Paralympics 1980 Summer Olympics Olympic Games celebrated in the United States 1904 Summer Olympics – St. Louis 1932 Summer Olympics – Los Angeles 1932 Winter Olympics – Lake Placid 1960 Winter Olympics – Squaw Valley 1980 Winter Olympics – Lake Placid 1984 Summer Olympics – Los Angeles 1996 Summer Olympics – Atlanta 2002 Winter Olympics – Salt Lake City 2028 Summer Olympics – Los AngelesWinter Olympic Games Olympic Games International Olympic Committee List of IOC country codes Adirondack Railway: provided train service from Utica, New York, to Lake Placid 2023 Winter Universiade Notes Citations "Lake Placid 1980".
Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists — 1980 Winter Olympics". Olymp