House of Lusignan
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages. It had great influence in England and France; the family originated in Poitou, near Lusignan in western France, in the early 10th century. By the end of the 11th century, the family had risen to become the most prominent petty lords in the region from their castle at Lusignan. In the late 12th century, through marriages and inheritance, a cadet branch of the family came to control the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Cyprus. In the early 13th century, the main branch succeded in the Counties of La Angoulême; as Crusader kings in the Latin East, they soon had connections with the Hethumid rulers of the Kingdom of Cilicia, which they inherited through marriage in the mid-14th century. The Armenian branch fled to France, Russia, after the Mamluk conquest of their kingdom.
The claim was taken by the Cypriot branch. This kingdom was annexed by the Republic of Venice in the late 15th century; the Château de Lusignan, near Poitiers, was the principal seat of the Lusignans. It was destroyed during the Wars of Religion, only its foundations remain in Lusignan. According to legend, the earliest castle was built by the folklore water-spirit Melusine; the lords of the castle at Lusignan were counts of La Marche, over which they fought with the counts of Angoulême. Hugh I Hugh II Hugh III Hugh IV Hugh V Hugh VI inherited by collateral succession the County of La Marche as a descendant of Almodis. Hugh VI Hugh VII Hugh VIII Hugh IX Raoul I Raoul II Marie Hugh IX's son, Hugh X, married Isabelle of Angoulême, thus securing Angoulême. Hugh X Hugh XI Hugh XII Hugh XIII Guy Yolande Yolande sold the fiefs of Lusignan, La Marche, Angoulême, Fougères to Philip IV of France in 1308, they became a common appanage of the crown. In the 1170s, Amalric de Lusignan arrived in Jerusalem, having been expelled by Richard Lionheart from his realm, which included the family lands of Lusignan near Poitiers.
Amalric married Eschiva, the daughter of Baldwin of Ibelin, entered court circles. He had obtained the patronage of Agnes of Courtenay, the divorced mother of King Baldwin IV, who held the county of Jaffa and Ascalon and was married to Reginald of Sidon, he was appointed Agnes' constable in Jaffa, as constable of the kingdom. Hostile rumours alleged he was Agnes' lover, it is that his promotions were aimed at weaning him away from the political orbit of the Ibelin family, who were associated with Raymond III of Tripoli, Amalric I's cousin and the former bailli or regent. Amalric's younger brother, Guy de Lusignan, arrived at some date before Easter 1180; when he arrived is quite unknown, although Ernoul said that he arrived at that time on Amalric's advice. Many modern historians believe that Guy was well established in Jerusalem by 1180, but there is no supporting contemporary evidence. But, Amalric of Lusignan's success facilitated the social and political advancement of his brother Guy. Older accounts claim that Agnes was concerned that her political rivals, headed by Raymond of Tripoli, intended to exercise more control by forcing Agnes' daughter, the widowed princess Sibylla, to marry someone of their choosing.
Agnes was said to have foiled these plans by advising her son to have Sibylla married to Guy. But, the King, now believed to have been less malleable than earlier historians have portrayed, was considering the international implications: Sibylla had to marry someone who could rally external help to the kingdom, not a local noble; as the new King of France, Philip II, was still a minor, Baldwin's first cousin Henry II of England seemed the best prospect. He owed the Pope a penitential pilgrimage on account of the Thomas Becket affair. Guy was a vassal of Richard of Poitou and Henry II, had been rebellious, so they wanted to keep him overseas. Guy and Sibylla were hastily married at Eastertide 1180 preventing a coup by Raymond's faction to marry her to Baldwin of Ibelin, the father-in-law of Almaric. By his marriage Guy became bailli of Jerusalem, he and Sibylla had two daughters and Maria. Sibylla had a son from her first marriage to William of Montferrat. An ambitious man, Guy convinced Baldwin IV to name him regent in early 1182.
But he and Raynald of Châtillon provoked Saladin during a two-year period of truce. More important to Baldwin IV's disillusionment with him was Guy's military hesitation during the siege of Kerak. Throughout late 1183 and 1184 Baldwin IV tried to have his sister's marriage to Guy annulled, showing that Baldwin still held his sister with some favour. Baldwin IV had wanted a loyal brother-in-law, was frustrated in Guy's hardheadedness and disobedience. Sibylla remained at Ascalon, though not against her will. Unsuccessful in prying his sister and close heir away from Guy, the king and the Haute Cour altered the succession, they placed Sibylla's son from her first marriage, in precedence over Sibylla. They established a process to choose the monarch afterwards between Sibylla and Isabella, though Sibylla was not herself
Lusignan is a commune in the Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France. It lies 25 km southwest of Poitiers; the inhabitants are called Mélusines. The town of Lusignan now has about 3,000 inhabitants, it is located on the road RN11 from Poitiers to La Rochelle. It is about 400 km from Paris. River: La Vonne Château de Lusignan - A historical castle in France. House of Lusignan Guy de Lusignan. Connétable de Chypre Jacques Babinet, scientist. André Léo, real name Léodile Béra, female writer. Communes of the Vienne department Lazanias INSEE Tourism office Lusignan on the Quid site Localisation de Lusignan on the map of France
John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey
John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey was a prominent English nobleman and military commander during the reigns of Henry III of England and Edward I of England. During the Second Barons' War he switched sides twice, ending up in support of the king, for whose capture he was present at Lewes in 1264. Warenne was appointed a Guardian of Scotland and featured prominently in Edward I's wars in Scotland. Warenne was the son and heir of William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey, Maud Marshal, his mother was the daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and widow of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, making Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk his elder half-brother. A boy when his father died, Warenne became a royal ward. Peter of Savoy was appointed guardian of his holdings and Warenne was raised at the royal court. In 1247, he married Henry III's half-sister Alice le Brun de Lusignan, a marriage that created resentment amongst the English nobility, who did not like seeing a wealthy English nobleman marrying a penniless foreigner.
During the following years, Warenne was associated with the court faction centering on his in-laws. In 1254, he accompanied the king's son Edward on Edward's journey to Spain to marry Eleanor of Castile. During the conflicts between Henry III and his barons, Warenne started as a strong supporter of the king, switched to support for Simon de Montfort, returned to the royalist party, he opposed the initial baronial reform plan of May 1258, but along with other opponents capitulated and took the oath of the Provisions of Oxford. By 1260, Warenne had joined the party of Simon de Montfort, but switched back to the king's side in 1263. In April 1264, he and Roger de Leybourne were besieged by de Montfort at Rochester Castle. In April of the same year Warenne was present for the Battle of Lewes. After the capture of the king and Prince Edward he fled to the Continent, where he remained for about a year, his estates were subsequently restored. He returned to fight in the campaign which culminated in the Battle of Evesham, the Battle of Chesterfield and the siege of Kenilworth Castle.
Warenne served in Edward I's Welsh campaigns in 1277, 1282, 1283. In 1282 he received the Lordship of Yale in Wales. A good part of the following years were spent in Scotland, he was one of the negotiators for the 1289 treaty of Salisbury and for the 1290 treaty of Birgham, accompanied the king on Edward's 1296 invasion of Scotland where he commanded the only major field action of that year in the Battle of Dunbar. On 22 August 1296, the king appointed him "warden of the kingdom and land of Scotland"; however Warenne returned to England a few months claiming that the Scottish climate was bad for his health. The following spring saw the rebellion of William Wallace, Warenne was ordered to lead his army North by the King after refusing to return to Scotland, he was fled to York. The king appointed Warenne captain of the next campaign against the Scots in early 1298, he raised re-took the town of Berwick. The king himself took the field that year, Warenne was one of the commanders during the decisive English victory at Falkirk.
In 1278, Edward I called a parliament at Gloucester with the intention of determining which lords had usurped royal rights—specifically, rights of adjudication—and reclaiming those rights. Walter of Guisborough tells the story that the earl was served a writ of quo warranto as a result of these proceedings. Warenne responded by drawing a rusty sword and exclaiming that this was his warrant, saying, "My ancestors came with William the Bastard, conquered their lands with the sword, I will defend them with the sword against anyone wishing to seize them." Warenne died on 29 September 1304 in Kent. He was interred in Lewes Priory at a service conducted by the Archbishop of Canterbury, he was succeeded by his grandson called John. Warenne and Alice de Lusignan had three children: Eleanor, who married Henry Percy and was the mother of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick Isabella, who married John Balliol, was the mother of Edward Balliol, their son John succeeded his grandfather as earl of Surrey.
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 83-28, 153A-20, 153A-29, 161-27. Scott L. Waugh. "Warenne, John de, sixth earl of Surrey, magnate". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Howard de Walden, Thomas Evelyn Scott-Ellis Baron, Some feudal lords and their seals, MCCCJ,: De Walden Library Pegge, Samuel. "A succinct and authentic narrative of the Battle of Chesterfield, A. D 1266 in the reign of King Henry III". Archaeologica. XXXVI: 276–285. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Warenne, Earls". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. P. 324
Isabella de Warenne
Isabella de Warenne was Baroness of Bywell by her marriage to John Balliol. Isabella was the second of three children born to John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey and his wife Alice de Lusignan, Countess of Surrey, maternal half-sister of Henry III of England, her elder sister married Henry Percy and became mother of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy. Their mother died while giving birth to Isabella's younger brother, killed in a tournament after he had married Joan de Vere and sired two children. On about 9 February 1281 Isabella married John Balliol; the marriage lasted about ten years. The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage, it has been established that the couple had at least one child: Scottish pretender. Married to Marguerite de Taranto, daughter of Philip I, Prince of Taranto - annulled or divorced with no issue. However, other children have been linked to the couple as other possible issue: Henry de Balliol, he was killed in the Battle of Annan on 16 December 1332. Agnes de Balliol was married to Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, feudal Baron of Bedale.
They were parents to Agnes FitzAlan, who married Sir Gilbert Stapleton, Knt. of Bedale. Gilbert is better known for his participation in the assassination of Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall, it is believed that Isabella did not live to see her husband become King of Scotland, so it is that she died before 1292, when her husband ascended to the throne. However, some are of the opinion that Isabella did survive long enough to see her husband succeed and abdicate
Isabella of Angoulême
Isabella of Angoulême was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was suo jure Countess of Angoulême from 1202 until 1246. Isabella had five children by the king, including his heir Henry III. In 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, Count of La Marche, by whom she had another nine children; some of Isabella's contemporaries, as well as writers, claim that Isabella formed a conspiracy against King Louis IX of France in 1241, after being publicly snubbed by his mother, Blanche of Castile, for whom she had a deep-seated hatred. In 1244, after the plot had failed, Isabella was accused of attempting to poison the king. To avoid arrest, she sought refuge in Fontevraud Abbey, where she died two years but none of this can be confirmed. Isabella was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulême, by Alice of Courtenay, sister of Peter II of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople and granddaughter of King Louis VI of France.
Isabella became Countess of Angoulême in her own right on 16 June 1202, by which time she was queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on 24 August 1200, in Angoulême, a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester, she was crowned queen in an elaborate ceremony on 8 October at Westminster Abbey in London. Isabella was betrothed to Hugh IX le Brun, Count of Lusignan, son of the Count of La Marche; as a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all of their French lands, armed conflict ensued. At the time of her marriage to John, the blonde-haired blue-eyed Isabella was renowned by some for her beauty and has sometimes been called the Helen of the Middle Ages by historians. Isabella possessed a volatile temper similar to his own. King John was infatuated with his beautiful wife, she was engaged to Hugh IX le Brun when she was taken by John. It was said that he neglected his state affairs to spend time with Isabella remaining in bed with her until noon.
However, these were rumors spread by John's enemies to discredit him as a weak and grossly irresponsible ruler, given that at the time John was engaging in a desperate war against King Philip of France to hold on to the remaining Plantagenet duchies. The common people began to term her a "siren" or "Messalina", which spoke volumes as to popular opinion, her mother-in-law, Eleanor of Aquitaine accepted her as John's wife. On 1 October 1207 at Winchester Castle, Isabella gave birth to a son and heir, named Henry III after the King's father, Henry II, he was followed by another son and three daughters, Joan and Eleanor. All five children survived into adulthood and made illustrious marriages; when King John died in October 1216, Isabella's first act was to arrange the speedy coronation of her nine-year-old son at the city of Gloucester on 28 October. As the royal crown had been lost in The Wash, along with the rest of King John's treasure, she supplied her own golden circlet to be used in lieu of a crown.
The following July, less than a year after his crowning as King Henry III of England, she left him in the care of his regent, William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and returned to France to assume control of her inheritance of Angoulême. In the spring of 1220, Isabella married Hugh X of Lusignan, "le Brun", Seigneur de Luisignan, Count of La Marche, the son of her former fiancé, Hugh IX, to whom she had been betrothed before her marriage to King John, it had been arranged that her eldest daughter Joan should marry Hugh, the little girl was being brought up at the Lusignan court in preparation for her marriage. Hugh, upon seeing Isabella, whose beauty had not diminished, preferred the girl's mother. Joan was provided with another husband, King Alexander II of Scotland, whom she wed in 1221. Isabella had married Hugh without the consent of the king's council in England, as was required of a queen dowager; that council had the power not only to assign to her any subsequent husband, but to decide whether she should be allowed to remarry at all.
That Isabella flouted its authority moved the council to confiscate her dower lands and to stop the payment of her pension. Isabella and her husband retaliated by threatening to keep Joan, promised in marriage to the King of Scotland, in France; the council first responded by sending furious letters to the Pope, signed in the name of young King Henry, urging him to excommunicate Isabella and her husband, but decided to come to terms with Isabella, to avoid conflict with the Scottish king, eager to receive his bride. Isabella was granted the stannaries in Devon, the revenue of Aylesbury for a period of four years, in compensation for her confiscated dower lands in Normandy, as well as the £3,000 arrears for her pension. Isabella had nine more children by Hugh X, their eldest son Hugh XI of Lusignan succeeded his father as Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême in 1249. Isabella's children from her royal marriage did not join her in Angoulême, remaining in England with their eldest brother Henry III.
Described by some contemporaries as "vain and troublesome," Isabella could not reconcile herself with her less prominent position in France. Though Queen mother of England, Isabella was now regarded as a mere Countess of La Marche and had to give precedence to other women. In 1241, when Isabella and Hugh were summoned to the French court to swear fealty to K
Louis VI of France
Louis VI, called the Fat or the Fighter, was King of the Franks from 1108 to 1137, the fifth from the House of Capet. Chronicles called him "roi de Saint-Denis". Louis was the first member of his house to make a lasting contribution to the centralizing institutions of royal power, he spent all of his twenty-nine-year reign fighting either the "robber barons" who plagued Paris or the Norman kings of England for their continental possession of Normandy. Nonetheless, Louis VI managed to reinforce his power and became one of the first strong kings of France since the death of Charlemagne in 814. Louis was a warrior king but by his forties his weight had become so great that it was difficult for him to lead in the field. A biography - The Deeds of Louis the Fat, prepared by his loyal advisor Abbot Suger of Saint Denis - offers a developed portrait of his character, in contrast to what little historians know about most of his predecessors. Louis was born around the son of Philip I and Bertha of Holland.
Suger tells us: "In his youth, growing courage matured his spirit with youthful vigour, making him bored with hunting and the boyish games with which others of his age used to enjoy themselves and forget the pursuit of arms." And..."How valiant he was in youth, with what energy he repelled the king of the English, William Rufus, when he attacked Louis' inherited kingdom."Louis married Lucienne de Rochefort, the daughter of his father's seneschal, in 1104, but repudiated her three years later. They had no children. On 3 August 1115 Louis married Adelaide of Maurienne, daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and of Gisela of Burgundy, niece of Pope Callixtus II, they had eight children. Adelaide was one of the most politically active of all France's medieval queens, her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI. During her time as queen, royal charters were dated with both that of the king. Suger became Louis's adviser before he succeeded his father as king at the age of 26 on 29 July 1108.
Louis's half-brother prevented him from reaching Rheims, so Daimbert, Archbishop of Sens, crowned him in the cathedral of Orléans on 3 August. Ralph the Green, Archbishop of Rheims, sent envoys to challenge the validity of the coronation and anointing, but to no avail; when Louis ascended the throne the Kingdom of France was a collection of feudal principalities. Beyond the Isle de France the French Kings had little authority over the great Dukes and Counts of the realm but Louis began to change this and assert Capetian rights; this process would take two centuries to complete but began in the reign of Louis VI. The second great challenge facing Louis was to counter the rising power of the Anglo-Normans under their capable new King, Henry I of England. From early in his reign Louis faced the problem of the robber barons who resisted the King's authority and engaged in brigandry, making the area around Paris unsafe. From their castles, such as Le Puiset and Montlhery, these barons would charge tolls, waylay merchants and pilgrims, terrorize the peasantry and loot churches and abbeys, the latter deeds drawing the ire of the writers of the day, who were clerics.
In 1108, soon after he ascended the throne, Louis engaged in war with Hugh of Crecy, plaguing the countryside and had captured Eudes, Count of Corbeil, imprisoned him at La Ferte-Alais. Louis besieged. In early 1109, Louis besieged his half-brother, the son of Bertrade de Montfort, involved in brigandry and conspiracies against the King, at Mantes-la-Jolie. Philip's plots included the lords of Montfort-l'Amaury. Amaury III of Montfort held many castles which, when linked together, formed a continuous barrier between Louis and vast swathes of his domains, threatening all communication south of Paris. In 1108-1109 a seigneur named Aymon Vaire-Vache seized the lordship of Bourbon from his nephew, Archambaud, a minor. Louis demanded the boy be restored to his rights but Aymon refused the summons. Louis raised his army and besieged Aymon at his castle at Germigny-sur-l'Aubois, forcing its surrender and enforcing the rights of Archambaud. In 1121, Louis established the marchands de l'eau. In 1122, Bishop of Clermont, appealed to Louis after William VI, Count of Auvergne, had driven him from his episcopal town.
When William refused Louis' summons, Louis raised an army at Bourges, marched into Auvergne, supported by some of his leading vassals, such as the Counts of Anjou and Nevers. Louis seized the fortress of Pont-du-Chateau on the Allier attacked Clermont, which William was forced to abandon. Aimeri was restored. Four years William rebelled again and Louis, though his increasing weight made campaigning difficult, marched again, he burned Montferrand and seized Clermont a second time, captured William, brought him before the court at Orleans to answer for his crimes. Some of the outlaws became notorious for their cruelty, the most notable being Thomas, Lord of Coucy, reputed to indulge in torture of his victims, including hanging men by their testicles, cutting out eyes, chopping off feet. Guibert of Nogent noted of him, "No one can imagine the number of those who perished in his dungeons, from starvation, from torture, from filth."Another notable brigand was Hugh, Lord of Le Puiset, ravaging the lands around Chartres.
In March 1111, Louis heard charges against Hugh at his court at Melun from Theobald II, Count of Champagne, the Archbishop of Sens, from bishops and abbots. Louis commanded Hugh to appear before him to answer these charges. Lou
Hugh VIII of Lusignan
Hugh VIII the Old of Lusignan or Hugh III of La Marche was the eldest son of Hugh VII and of Sarrasine or Saracena de Lezay. He became Seigneur de Lusignan, Couhé, Château-Larcher and Count of La Marche on his father's death in 1151. Born in Poitou, 1106–1110 or some time after 1125, he died in the Holy Land in 1165 or 1171, he married in 1140/1141 Bourgogne or Burgondie de Rancon, Dame de Fontenay, daughter of Geoffroi or Geoffroy de Rancon, Seigneur de Taillebourg and wife Fossefie, Dame de Moncontour, by whom he became Seigneur de Fontenay: she died on April 11, 1169. In 1163 or 1164 he went on pilgrimage and on crusade to the Holy Land and participated in the Battle of Harim, where he was taken prisoner, his children were: Hugh de Lusignan, Co-Seigneur de Lusignan in 1164, married before 1162 Orengarde N, who died in 1169, leaving two sons who were infants at the time of his death Hugh IX of Lusignan Raoul I de Lusignan, Count of Eu Robert de Lusignan, died young c. 1150 Geoffrey I de Lusignan, Seigneur of Moncontour and Seigneur de Soubise, Seigneur de Vouvent, de Mervent by first marriage, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon on July 28, 1191, who fought in the Siege of Acre.
Married firstly before 1200 Eustache de Chabot, Dame de Vouvent et Dame de Mervent, secondly c. 1202 Humberge de Limoges, daughter of Aimar VI, Vicomte de Limoges and wife Sarra de Cornouailles, had one son by each marriage: Geoffrey II de Lusignan, Seigneur de Vouvent, de Mevent et de Montcontour, married 1223 Clémence de Chattellerault, Dame de Chattellerault, without issue William de Lusignan, married c. 1226 Margaret de Mauléon, had one daughter: Valence de Lusignan, married aft. 1247 Hugues III de Parthenay Peter de Lusignan, witnessed a charter in Antioch in 1174, but is otherwise not documented. He died as a Priest. Amalric de Lusignan, born about 1145, died 1205, he succeeded his younger brother Guy as ruler of Cyprus. Guy of Lusignan, died 1194, he was regent and afterwards King of Jerusalem. After the loss of Jerusalem he became Lord of Cyprus. William de Lusignan or de Valence, born after 1163, betrothed to Beatrix de Courtenay, daughter of Joscelin III of Edessa, in 1186; the marriage does not seem to have taken place.
He died before 1208. Painter, Sidney. "The Houses of Lusignan and Chatellerault 1150-1250". Speculum; the University of Chicago Press. Vol. 30, No. 3 July. Sidney Painter, "The houses of Lusignan and Châtellerault, 1150-1250" in Speculum vol. 30. Sidney Painter, "The Lords of Lusignan in the eleventh and twelfth centuries" in Speculum vol. 32