Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP of US$123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800, it is considered a Beta World City and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is regarded as its most "Americanized"; as an important industrial and business center, the city is home to many Mexican companies, including Grupo Avante, Lanix Electronics, Ocresa, CEMEX, Vitro, OXXO, FEMSA, DINA S. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery, Grupo ALFA. Monterrey is home to international companies such as Siemens, Ternium, Toshiba, Whirlpool, Toyota, Babcock & Wilcox, British American Tobacco, Dell, Boeing, HTC, General Electric, Johnson Controls, Gamesa, LG, SAS Institute, Danfoss and Teleperformance, among others.
Monterrey is at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey was founded by Diego de Montemayor in 1596. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city has experienced great industrial growth. Before the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation-state, the population consisted of some indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey sits was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area unexplored by the Spanish colonizers; the first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by conquistador Alberto del Canto, who named the city Santa Lucia, but they were unsuccessful because the Spanish were attacked by the natives and fled.
The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain that would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey; the New Kingdom of León extended westward from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, around 1,000 kilometers northward. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of 13 families led by conquistador Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía riverwalk are now; the new city's name was chosen to honor the wife of Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey, ninth Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey's Coat of Arms shows an Indian throwing an arrow to the sun in front of Cerro de la Silla mountain.
This represents a native ceremony performed at sunrise. During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens; the city facilitated trade between San Antonio and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies. In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation due to its balanced ties between Europe, the United States, the capital. In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, Monterrey was selected as its capital, but the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the governor of the state annexed Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the Republic of the Sierra Madre as it did before in 1840 for the Republic of the Rio Grande.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican–American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after repelling U. S. forces' first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño. During the last decade of the 19th century, Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry, it was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the University Hospital, now one of northeast Mexico's best public hospitals, affiliated with the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León. Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey; the brewery Cervecería Cuaut
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Hot Latin Songs
The Billboard Hot Latin Songs is a record chart in the United States for Latin singles, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Since October 2012, chart rankings are based on digital sales, radio airplay, online streaming, only predominantly Spanish-language songs are allowed to rank; the chart was established by the magazine on September 6, 1986 and was based on airplay on Latin music radio stations. Songs on the chart were not in Spanish language, since a few songs in English and Portuguese language have charted; the first number one song of the Hot Latin Songs chart was "La Guirnalda" by Rocío Dúrcal on September 6, 1986. As of the issue for the week ending on April 13, 2019, the chart has had 430 different number one hits, while 165 artists have reached number one; the current number one song is "Mia" by Bad Bunny featuring Drake. On September 6, 1986, Billboard premiered a Latin music singles chart: the Hot Latin 50. During the 1980s decade, the data were compiled by the Billboard chart and research department with information from 70 Spanish-language radio stations in the United States and Puerto Rico.
Those radio stations were selected based on their number of listeners, were asked to report their playlists for the week. This data was compiled by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, which electronically monitors radio stations in more than 120 music markets across the United States. Before this chart's inception, the Latin music information on the magazine was presented only in the form of the biweekly album sales chart Top Latin Albums, which continues to be listed separately. There were no language restrictions on the chart, since a few songs in English and Portuguese have charted and reached number one on five occasions. According to the Billboard electronic database, the first number one song on the Hot Latin 50 was "La Guirnalda" by Spanish singer Rocío Dúrcal on September 6, 1986. However, in the listings included in the first printed publication of the chart on October 4, 1986, the first number-one song was "Yo No Sé Qué Me Pasó" by Mexican singer-songwriter Juan Gabriel. In 2016, Billboard stated that the chart was introduced on the issue dated October 4, 1986, but the magazine's official website recognizes the previous issues from September 6, 1986 to September September 27, 1986, as well as Rocío Durcal's number one on the debut issue.
In 1994, three charts were introduced in addition to Hot Latin Songs: Latin Pop Airplay, which deals with pop songs whether or not it is Spanish-language. In 2005, the Latin Rhythm Airplay chart was introduced in response to the growing influence of Latin hip hop and reggaeton. Due to the increasing popularity of downloads sales and streaming data, Billboard updated the methodology for the Hot Latin Songs chart on October 11, 2012 to include digital sales and streaming activity in addition to airplay, as well as making only predominantly Spanish-language songs eligible for inclusion and increasing airplay data to more than 1,200 radio stations across the United States. There are several component charts; the most significant ones are: Latin Airplay: The chart measures the songs with most radio airplay audience impressions on Regional Mexican, Latin pop and Latin rhythm stations. Non-primarily-Spanish-language songs are eligible for inclusion, it was established on November 12, 1994. "Bidi Bidi Bom Bom" by Selena was the first number-one song on the chart.
"La Tortura" by Shakira featuring Alejandro Sanz is the longest-reigning number-one, with 25 non-consecutive weeks from June 4, 2005 to December 3, 2005. Latin Digital Songs: The chart measures the best-selling Spanish-language digital songs, it was established on January 23, 2010. "Loba" by Shakira was the first number-one song on the chart. "Danza Kuduro" by Don Omar featuring Lucenzo is the longest-running number-one, with 94 non-consecutive weeks from May 14, 2011 to July 20, 2013. Latin Streaming Songs: The chart measures the most-streamed Spanish-language songs and videos on selected online music services, it was established on April 20, 2013. "Hips Don't Lie" by Shakira featuring. "Bailando" by Enrique Iglesias featuring Descemer Bueno and Gente de Zona is the longest-leading number-one, with 66 non-consecutive weeks from May 17, 2015 to April 16, 2016. The tracking week for sales and streaming begins on Friday and ends on Thursday, while the radio play tracking-week runs from Monday to Sunday.
A new chart is compiled and released to the public by Billboard on Tuesday. Each chart is post-dated with the "week-ending" issue date four days after the charts are refreshed online. For example: Friday, January 1 – sales tracking-week begins, streaming tracking-week begins Monday, January 4 – airplay tracking-week begins Thursday, January 7 – sales tracking-week ends, streaming tracking-week ends Sunday, January 10 – airplay tracking-week ends Tuesday, January 12 – new chart released, with issue post-dated Saturday, January 16 The methods and policies by which this data is obtained and compiled have changed many times throughout the chart's history. Since October 11, 2012, the Billboard Hot Latin Songs tracks paid digital downloads and streaming activity. Billboard started tracking downloads since January 10, 2010 with the Latin Digital Songs chart. However, these downloads did not count towards Hot Latin Songs. A component Latin Streaming Songs chart was introduced on April 20, 2013, which ranks web radio streams from services such as Spotify, as well as o
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Univision is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network, owned by Univision Communications. It is the country's largest provider of Spanish-language content, followed by American competitor Telemundo; the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic Americans and includes telenovelas and other drama series, sitcoms and variety series, news programming, imported Spanish-language feature films. Univision is headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, has its major studios, production facilities, business operations based in Doral, Florida. Univision is available on pay television providers throughout most of the United States, with local stations in over 60 markets with large Latin American communities. Most of these stations air full local newscasts and other local programming in addition to network shows. Chief operating officer Randy Falco has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva in April 2010. In March 2018, it was announced Falco would be retiring and stepping down as CEO.
Univision's roots can be traced back to 1955, when Raúl Cortez started KCOR-TV, an independent station in San Antonio, the nation's first Spanish-only TV outlet. The station was not profitable during its early years, in 1961, Cortez sold KCOR-TV – now known as KWEX-TV – to a group headed by Mexican entertainment mogul Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, owner of Mexico-based Telesistema Mexicano. Cortez's son-in-law Emilio Nicolás Sr. who helped produce variety programs for the station, held a 20% stake and remained as KWEX general manager for three decades. The new owners helped to turn around the station's fortunes by investing in programming, most of it sourced from Telesistema Mexicano. On September 29, 1962, Azcárraga and his partners launched a second Spanish-language station, KMEX-TV, in Los Angeles. KWEX and KMEX formed the nucleus of the Azcárraga-owned Spanish International Network, created in late 1962. SIN was the first television network in the United States to broadcast its programming in a language other than English.
From 1963 until 1987, SIN was managed from offices in New York by Rene Anselmo, an American who had worked for Azcárraga in Mexico City for eight years as head of Telesistema's programming export subsidiary. Having supervised the launch of KMEX, Anselmo spearheaded SIN's expansion, first into the New York City area, when it founded WXTV in Paterson, New Jersey, next in Fresno, by acquiring WLTV in Miami in 1971; that year, Azcárraga and his partners incorporated these five stations as the Spanish International Communications Corporation, with Anselmo named as president. Over the next 15 years, SIN and SICC would create other top-rated Spanish-language television stations throughout the United States; the Mexican ownership interest in SIN and SICC transferred posthumously from Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta to his son, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, in 1972. On July 4, 1976, the network began distributing its national feed via satellite, delivered as a superstation-type feed of San Antonio's KWEX-TV, before switching to a direct programming feed of SIN, allowing cable television providers to carry the network on their systems at little cost.
Between the mid-1970s and late-1980s, SIN began affiliating with startup Spanish-language stations in markets such as Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston, as well as with independent stations that broadcast in English. In Chicago, SIN moved its programming from WCIU-TV to new full-time affiliate WSNS-TV in July 1985. After WSNS was sold to Telemundo in 1988, what had become Univision moved its programming back to WCIU-TV, which agreed to air Univision programming on weekday evenings and weekends. In 1994, the network purchased English-language independent WGBO-TV after WCIU-TV turned down Univision's request to become a full-time affiliate in favor of maintaining its longtime multi-ethnic programming format. WGBO-TV became an Univision-owned station on December 31, 1994; the initial logo under the Univision name Spanish International Network, used from 1987 to 1989. Televisa still uses this logo today. 1987 became a pivotal year for the Spanish International Network and its owned-and-operated station group.
The Federal Communications Commission and SIN's competitors had long questioned whether the relationship between SIN and the Azcárraga family was impermissibly tight. Both the FCC and other Spanish-language broadcasters had long suspected that Televisa was using Nicolas to skirt FCC rules prohibiting foreign ownership of broadcast media; the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department encouraged a sale of the network to a properly constituted domestic organization. Spanish International Communications began discussions with various prospective buyers, culminating in Hallmark Cards, private equity firm First Chicago Venture
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa
Hearst Communications referred to as Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate based in New York City. Hearst owns newspapers, television channels, television stations, including the San Francisco Chronicle, the Houston Chronicle and Esquire, it owns 50% of broadcasting firm A&E Networks and 20% of the sports broadcaster ESPN in partnership with The Walt Disney Company. Despite being better known for the above media holdings, Hearst makes most of its profits in the business information section, where it owns companies including Fitch Ratings, First Databank, others. Hearst Communications is based in the Hearst Tower in New York City; the company was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management. In 1880, George Hearst, mining entrepreneur and U. S. senator, entered the publishing business by acquiring the San Francisco Daily Examiner. In 1887, he turned the Examiner over to his son, William Randolph Hearst, who that year founded the Hearst Corp. W. R. Hearst went on to purchase or launch several more newspapers in multiple cities and to found the Los Angeles Examiner in 1903.
W. R. Hearst found early success, growing readership for the Examiner from 15,000 in 1887 to over 20 million. Hearst's magazine division began with W. R. Hearst's creation of Motor magazine, he acquired several other publications, including Cosmopolitan in 1905, Good Housekeeping in 1911. W. R. Hearst entered the book publishing business in 1913 with the formation of Hearst's International Library. W. R. Hearst began producing film features in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest animation studios: the International Film Service, turning characters from Hearst newspaper strips into film characters. After purchasing the Atlanta Georgian in 1912, the San Francisco Call and the San Francisco Post in 1913, Hearst acquired the Boston Advertiser and the Washington Times in 1917, he purchased the Chicago Herald in 1918. In 1919, Hearst's book publishing division was renamed Cosmopolitan Book. In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, which included a number of magazines and newspapers in major cities.
Hearst began acquiring radio stations to complement his papers. Hearst saw financial challenges in the early 1920s, during which time he was subsidizing funds from his corporation to fund the construction of Hearst Castle in San Simeon and movie production at Cosmopolitan Productions; this lead to the merger of the magazine Hearst International with Cosmopolitan in 1925. Despite some financial troubles, Hearst began extending its reach in 1921, purchasing the Detroit Times, The Boston Record and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Hearst added the Los Angeles Herald and Washington Herald, as well as the Oakland Post-Enquirer, the Syracuse Telegram and the Rochester Journal in 1922, he continued his buying spree into the mid-1920s, purchasing the Baltimore News, the San Antonio Light, the Albany Times Union, The Milwaukee Sentinel. In 1924, Hearst entered the tabloid market in New York City with The New York Mirror, meant to compete with the New York Daily News. In addition to print and radio, Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the early 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer.
In 1929, Hearst and MGM created. The Great Depression had a negative impact on his publications. Cosmopolitan Book was sold to Farrar and Reinhart in 1931. After two years of leasing them to her, Hearst had to sell the Washington Times and Herald to Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson in 1939 who merged them to form the Washington Times-Herald; that year he bought the Milwaukee Sentinel from Paul Block, absorbing his afternoon Wisconsin News into the morning publication. In 1939, he sold the Atlanta Georgian to Cox Newspapers, which merged it with the Atlanta Journal. Hearst, with his chain now owned by his creditors after a 1937 liquidation had to merge some of his morning papers into his afternoon papers. In Chicago, he combined the morning Herald-Examiner and the afternoon American into the Herald-American in 1939; this followed the 1937 combination of the New York Evening Journal and the morning American into the New York Journal-American, the sale of the Omaha Daily Bee to the World-Herald. Abandoning the morning market was harmful in the long run for Hearst's media holdings as most of his remaining newspapers became afternoon papers.
Newspapers in Rochester and Fort Worth were sold or closed. Afternoon papers were a profitable business in pre-television days outselling their morning counterparts featuring stock market information in early editions, while editions were heavy on sporting news with results of baseball games and horse races. Afternoon papers benefited from continuous reports from the battlefront during World War II. After the war, both television news and suburbs experienced an explosive growth. Another major blow was the fact that beginning in the 1950s, football and baseball games were being played in the afternoon and now stretched through early in the evening, preventing afternoon papers from publishing all the results. In 1947, Hearst produced an early television newscast for the DuMont Television Network: I. N. S