United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
John D. Rockefeller Jr.
John Davison Rockefeller Jr. was an American financier and philanthropist, a prominent member of the Rockefeller family. He was the only son among the five children of Standard Oil co-founder John D. Rockefeller and the father of the five famous Rockefeller brothers. In biographies, he is referred to as "Junior" to distinguish him from his father, "Senior", his sons included the 41st Vice President of The United States. Rockefeller was the fifth and last child of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and schoolteacher Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman. His four older sisters were Elizabeth, Alice and Edith. Living in his father's mansion at 4 West 54th Street, he attended Park Avenue Baptist Church at 64th Street and the Browning School, a tutorial establishment set up for him and other children of associates of the family, his father John Sr. and uncle William Avery Rockefeller Jr. co-founded Standard Oil together. He had intended to go to Yale University but was encouraged by William Rainey Harper, president of the University of Chicago, among others, to enter the Baptist-oriented Brown University instead.
Nicknamed "Johnny Rock" by his roommates, he joined both the Glee and the Mandolin clubs, taught a Bible class, was elected junior class president. Scrupulously careful with money, he stood out as different from other rich men's sons. In 1897, he graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, after taking nearly a dozen courses in the social sciences, including a study of Karl Marx's Das Kapital, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. After graduation from Brown, Rockefeller joined his father's business in October 1897, setting up operations in the newly formed family office at 26 Broadway where he became a director of Standard Oil, he also became a director at J. P. Morgan's U. S. Steel company, formed in 1901. Junior resigned from both companies in 1910 in an attempt to "purify" his ongoing philanthropy from commercial and financial interests after the Hearst media empire unearthed a bribery scandal involving John Dustin Archbold and two prominent members of Congress. In April 1914, after a long period of industrial unrest, the Ludlow Massacre occurred at a tent camp occupied by striking miners from the Colorado Fuel and Iron company.
Junior sat on the board as an absentee director. At least 20 men and children died in the slaughter; this was followed by nine days of violence between the Colorado State Militia. Although he did not order the attack that began this unrest, there are accounts to suggest Junior was to blame for the violence, with the awful working conditions, death ratio, no paid dead work which included securing unstable ceilings, workers were forced into working in unsafe conditions just to make ends meet. In January 1915, Junior was called to testify before the Commission on Industrial Relations. Many critics blamed Rockefeller for ordering the massacre. Margaret Sanger wrote an attack piece in her magazine The Woman Rebel, declaring, "But remember Ludlow! Remember the men and women and children who were sacrificed in order that John D. Rockefeller Jr. might continue his noble career of charity and philanthropy as a supporter of the Christian faith." He was at the time being advised by William Lyon Mackenzie King and the pioneer public relations expert, Ivy Lee.
Lee warned that the Rockefellers were losing public support and developed a strategy that Junior followed to repair it. It was necessary for Junior to overcome his shyness, go to Colorado to meet with the miners and their families, inspect the conditions of the homes and the factories, attend social events, to listen to the grievances; this was novel advice, attracted widespread media attention, which opened the way to resolve the conflict, present a more humanized version of the Rockefellers. Mackenzie King said Rockefeller's testimony was the turning point in Junior's life, restoring the reputation of the family name, he was influential in attracting leading blue-chip corporations as tenants in the complex, including GE and its affiliates RCA, NBC and RKO, as well as Standard Oil of New Jersey, Associated Press, Time Inc, branches of Chase National Bank. The family office, of which he was in charge, shifted from 26 Broadway to the 56th floor of the landmark 30 Rockefeller Plaza upon its completion in 1933.
The office formally became "Rockefeller Family and Associates". In 1921, Junior received about 10% of the shares of the Equitable Trust Company from his father, making him the bank's largest shareholder. Subsequently, in 1930, Equitable merged with Chase National Bank, making Chase the largest bank in the world at the time. Although his stockholding was reduced to about 4% following this merger, he was still the largest shareholder in what became known as "the Rockefeller bank." As late as the 1960s, the family still retained about 1% of the bank's shares, by which time his son David had become the bank's president. In the late 1920s, Rockefeller
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
John Davison "Jay" Rockefeller IV is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from West Virginia. He was first elected to the Senate in 1984 as Governor of West Virginia. Rockefeller moved to Emmons, West Virginia, to serve as a VISTA worker in 1964 and was first elected to public office as a member of the West Virginia House of Delegates. Rockefeller was elected West Virginia Secretary of State and was president of West Virginia Wesleyan College, he became the state's senior U. S. Senator when the long-serving Sen. Robert Byrd died in June 2010; as a great-grandson of oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, he was the only serving politician of the prominent six-generation Rockefeller family during his tenure in the United States Senate and the only one to have held office as a Democrat in what has been a traditionally Republican dynasty, though he too was a Republican until he decided to run for office in what was a Democratic state. Rockefeller did not seek reelection in 2014. John Davison Rockefeller IV was born at New York Hospital in Manhattan, New York City, to John Davison Rockefeller III and Blanchette Ferry Hooker, 26 days after the death of his patrilineal great-grandfather, John Davison Rockefeller Sr..
He is a grandson of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. Jay graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1955. After his junior year at Harvard College, he spent three years studying Japanese at the International Christian University in Tokyo, he graduated from Harvard in 1961 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Far Eastern Languages and History. He attended Yale University and did graduate work in Oriental studies and studied the Chinese language. After college, Rockefeller worked for the Peace Corps in Washington, D. C. under President John F. Kennedy, where he developed a friendship with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and worked as an assistant to Peace Corps Director Sargent Shriver, he served as the Operations Director in the Philippines. He worked for a brief time in the United States Department of Far Eastern Affairs, he continued his public service in 1964–1965 in the Volunteers in Service to America, under President Lyndon B. Johnson, during which time he moved to Emmons, West Virginia. Rockefeller, along with his son Charles, is a Trustee of New York's Asia Society, established by his father in 1956.
He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit think tank chaired by his uncle, David Rockefeller. As a Senator, he voted against the 1993 North American Free Trade Agreement, backed by David Rockefeller. Rockefeller was elected to the West Virginia House of Delegates in 1966, to the office of West Virginia Secretary of State in 1968, he won the Democratic nomination for governor in 1972, but was defeated in the general election by the Republican incumbent Governor Arch A. Moore, Jr.. Rockefeller served as president of West Virginia Wesleyan College from 1973 to 1975. Rockefeller was elected Governor of West Virginia in 1976 and re-elected in 1980, he served as governor when manufacturing plants and coal mines were closing as the national recession of the early 1980s hit West Virginia hard. Between 1982 and 1984, West Virginia's unemployment rate hovered between 20 percent. In 1984, he was elected to the United States Senate, narrowly defeating businessman John Raese as Ronald Reagan carried the state in the presidential election.
As in his 1980 gubernatorial campaign against Arch Moore, Rockefeller spent over $12 million to win a Senate seat. Rockefeller was re-elected in 1996, 2002 and 2008 by substantial margins, he was chair of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Rockefeller was the chair of the Committee on Commerce and Transportation. In April 1992, he was the Democratic Party's finance chairman and considered running for the presidency, but pulled out after consulting with friends and advisers, he went on to endorse Clinton as the Democratic candidate. He was the Chairman of the prominent Senate Intelligence Committee, from which he commented on the war in Iraq. In 1993, Rockefeller became the principal Senate supporter, with Ted Kennedy, behind Bill and Hillary Clinton's sweeping health care reform package, liaising with the First Lady, opening up his mansion next to Rock Creek Park for its first strategy meeting; the reform was subsequently defeated by an alliance between the Business Roundtable and a small-business coalition.
In 2002, Rockefeller made an official visit to several Middle Eastern countries, during which he discussed his personal views regarding United States military intentions with the leaders of those countries. In October of that year, Rockefeller expressed his concern for Saddam Hussein's alleged weapons of mass destruction program while addressing the U. S. Senate: There has been some debate over how "imminent" a threat Iraq poses. I do believe that Iraq poses an imminent threat, but I believe that after September 11, that question is outdated, it is in the nature of these weapons, the way they are targeted against civilian populations, that documented capability and demonstrated intent may be the only warning we get. To insist on further evidence could put some of our fellow Americans at risk. Can we afford to take that chance? We cannot! In November 2005 during a TV interview, Rockefeller stated, I took a trip... in January 2002 to Saudi Arabia and Syria, I told each of the heads of state that it was my view that George Bush had made up his mind to
Franklin "Frank" Rockefeller was an American businessman and member of the prominent Rockefeller family. He and his younger twin sister Frances, who died young, were born on August 8, 1845 in Moravia, New York, they were the youngest children of Eliza Davison. His two older brothers were Standard Oil co-founders John Davison Rockefeller and William Avery Rockefeller Jr.. Rockefeller's early years were spent in New York. With his father, he removed to Cleveland, which would be the home base of his business endeavors. In September 1861, while still underage, he joined the 7th Ohio Infantry and participated as an infantryman in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, other battles including Sherman's march to Atlanta, he was wounded in the head by grape shot at Chancellorsville. He held various jobs in Cleveland becoming involved in his brothers' Standard Oil Co. Frank became one of the principal promoters of the company, served as its Vice President.
However, Rockefeller fell out with his brothers and left Standard Oil in 1898. The rift was caused by John D. not taking consideration of Frank's other interests in the Pioneer Oil Company, quarrels with Frank's partner, James Corrigan, with whom he owned the Franklin Mine near Lake Superior. He moved with his family to a large ranch in Kansas, but he returned to Ohio; the 8,000-acre ranch stood on a large tract of cheap land in Belvidere, west of Wichita. The property was remote from railroads, his cattle could graze on vast, unfenced plains; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad brought in fresh settlers shrinking the free range for cattlemen. This ruined the ranch for breeding beef, Frank tried futilely to sell the depreciated property. Frank formed a business relationship with Feargus B. Squire and Herman Frasch, acquiring a three-tenths interest in the Frasch Process. All three entered into a 50-50 agreement with the American Sulphur Company to form the Union Sulphur Company. Frank was not as suited to business as his brothers.
He invested around $500,000 in mining ventures, which proved unsound, invested $250,000 in unfruitful commercial paper. Frank found stability when he invested in the Buckeye Steel Castings Company of Columbus in 1892, he became President of the company in 1905, served in that capacity until 1908, when the Presidency was assumed by Samuel Prescott Bush. Frank Rockefeller continued as Vice President of the company. Frank Rockefeller refused to speak to his brothers John and William Jr. until his death, despite William attempting reconciliation in the summer of 1916. Frank said that year "There's not the slightest possibility of a reconciliation." Frank died the following year. His funeral was held on April 1917 at the home of Mrs. Walter S. Bowler; the funeral was attended by his brothers and William, the former being described in the press as "looking tired and careworn." Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller Sr. London: Warner Books, 1998
Mark Brandt Dayton is an American politician who served as the 40th governor of Minnesota from 2011 to 2019. He was a United States Senator for Minnesota from 2001 to 2007, the Minnesota State Auditor from 1991 to 1995, he is a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, which affiliates with the national Democratic Party. A native of Minnesota, Dayton is the great-grandson of businessman George Dayton, the founder of Dayton's, a department store that became the Target Corporation, he embarked on a career in teaching and social work in New York City and Boston after graduating from Yale University in 1969. During the 1970s, he served as a legislative aide to U. S. Senator Walter Mondale and Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich. In 1978, Dayton was appointed the Minnesota Economic Development Commissioner and married Alida Rockefeller Messinger, a member of the Rockefeller family. Dayton ran for the U. S. Senate in 1982 against Republican Party incumbent David Durenberger, he defeated former U.
S. Senator Eugene McCarthy in the Democratic primary, the general election became one of the most expensive in state history. Dayton campaigned as a populist in opposition to Reaganomics and famously promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations – and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right". Durenberger won the election, Dayton returned to the Perpich administration until his election as Minnesota State Auditor in 1990. In 1998, Dayton ran for governor, losing the Democratic nomination to Hubert Humphrey III. In 2000, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, defeating Republican incumbent Rod Grams; as senator, Dayton voted against the authorization for Iraq War, became the first senator to introduce legislation creating a cabinet-level United States Department of Peace. In 2006, he chose not to seek reelection, citing his disillusionment with Washington, D. C. and fundraising. In 2010, Dayton defeated Republican Tom Emmer to become governor of Minnesota despite national success for the Republican Party, including in the Minnesota legislature.
His major legislative initiatives as governor include the legalization of same-sex marriage and the construction of U. S. Bank Stadium for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League. Dayton was born on January 26, 1947 in Minneapolis and is the eldest of Gwendolen May and Bruce Bliss Dayton's four children, he is a great-grandson of businessman George Dayton, the founder of the Dayton's department store chain. His father, Bruce Dayton, served as the chairman and CEO of Dayton Hudson Corporation, the company that became the Target Corporation. Bruce Dayton founded the B. Dalton bookstore chain in 1966. Mark Dayton was raised in Long Lake and graduated from the Blake School in Minneapolis, where he was an all-state ice-hockey goaltender as a senior. Dayton attended Yale University. During his time at Yale, he joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and received his B. A. in psychology in 1969. After college, Dayton worked as teacher in the Lower East Side of New York City from 1969 to 1971, as the chief financial officer of a social service agency in Boston from 1971 to 1975.
Dayton first became politically active in the 1960s. He protested the Vietnam War in April 1970 at one of Minnesota's major antiwar protests against Honeywell, where he was maced by police. Dayton's father served on the Honeywell board of directors and the two had a strained relationship after the incident. From 1975 to 1976 he was a legislative aide to Senator Walter Mondale, until Mondale's election as Vice President of the United States. From 1977 to 1978, Dayton served as an aide to Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich. In 1978, Perpich appointed Dayton to head the Department of Economic Development and the Department of Energy and Economic Development. In 1998, Dayton ran an unsuccessful campaign for governor, losing the Democratic nomination to Hubert Humphrey III. In 2000, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, defeating Republican incumbent Rod Grams; as senator, Dayton voted against the authorization for Iraq War, was the first senator to introduce legislation creating a cabinet-level United States Department of Peace.
In 2006, he chose not to seek reelection, citing his disillusionment with Washington, D. C. and fundraising. Dayton was elected Minnesota State Auditor in 1990 and served until 1995. Dayton first ran for the United States Senate in 1982 but lost to Republican incumbent David Durenberger, he defeated former U. S. Senator Eugene McCarthy in the Democratic primary, the general election became one of the most expensive in state history. Dayton campaigned as a populist in opposition to Reaganomics and famously promised "to close tax loopholes for the rich and the corporations – and if you think that includes the Daytons, you're right", he was elected to the Senate in 2000. Dayton self-financed his 2000 campaign with $12 million. While in the Senate, Dayton donated his salary to fund bus trips for seniors to buy cheaper prescription drugs in Canada, he voted with his fellow Democrats. On February 9, 2005, he announced that he would not run for reelection, saying, "Everything I've worked for, everything I believe in, depends upon this Senate seat remaining in the Democratic caucus in 2007.
I do not believe that I am the best candidate to lead the DFL Party to victory next year." He cited his dislike of fundraising and political campaigns. Dayton was succeeded in the Senate by another DFLer. On September 22, 2005, the 44th anniversary of the day President John F. Kennedy signed the Peace Corps into law, Dayton became the first U. S. Senator to introduce legislation c