Alife Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Alife in the province of Caserta, Italy. Dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, it is the seat of the Bishop of Alife-Caiazzo. Alife Cathedral, first built in 1132, was dedicated to Pope Sixtus I Saint Sixtus, the patron saint of the city. After the severe earthquakes of 1456 and 1688, the cathedral was rebuilt in Baroque style, reopened in 1692; the interior has however maintained noteworthy elements of the Lombard-Norman building, including two arcades decorated with sculptures of animals and saints. Interesting is the Romanesque crypt, which houses the relics of Saint Sixtus, brought here by Ranulf, Count of Alife: it has a rectangular plan and columns from the ancient Roman theatre; some of the capitals are ancient. Catholic Encyclopedia: Alife Catholic Hierarchy: Diocese of Alife-Caiazzo Website of Alife Cathedral Francesco S. Finelli, 1928: Città di Alife e Diocesi. Scafati Angelo Gambella, 2007: Medioevo Alifano. Rome: Drengo Gianfrancesco Trutta, 1776: Dissertazioni istoriche delle antichità alifane.
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was King of Sicily, he was his consort Beatrix of Burgundy. In 1186 he was married to Constance of Sicily, the posthumous daughter of the Norman king Roger II of Sicily. Henry, still stuck in the Hohenstaufen conflict with the House of Welf, had to enforce the inheritance claims by his wife against her nephew Count Tancred of Lecce. Based on an enormous ransom for the release of King Richard I of England, he conquered Sicily in 1194. Henry was born in autumn 1165 at the Valkhof pfalz of Nijmegen to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrix of Burgundy. At the age of four, his father had him elected King of the Romans during the Hoftag in Bamberg at Pentecost 1169, Henry was crowned on 15 August at Aachen Cathedral, he accompanied his father on his Italian campaign of 1174-76 against the Lombard League, whereby he was educated by Godfrey of Viterbo and associated with minnesingers like Friedrich von Hausen, Bligger von Steinach, Bernger von Horheim.
Henry was fluent in Latin and, according to the chronicler Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, was "distinguished by gifts of knowledge, wreathed in flowers of eloquence, learned in canon and Roman law". He was a patron of poets and poetry, he certainly composed the song Kaiser Heinrich, now among the Weingarten Song Manuscripts. According to his rank and with Imperial Eagle, a scroll, he is the first and foremost to be portrayed in the famous Codex Manesse, a 14th-century songbook manuscript featuring 140 reputed poets. In one of those he describes a romance that makes him forget all his earthly power, neither riches nor royal dignity can outweigh his yearning for that lady. Having returned to Germany in 1178, Henry supported his father against insurgent Duke Henry the Lion, he and his younger brother Frederick received the knightly accolade at Mainz in 1184. The emperor had entered into negotiations with King William II of Sicily to betroth his son and heir with William's aunt Constance by 1184. Constance 30-year-old, was said to have been confined in Santissimo Salvatore, Palermo as a nun since childhood to keep celibacy due to a prediction that "her marriage would destroy Sicily", but as William's marriage had remained childless, she was his sole legitimate heir, after the latter's death in November 1189, Henry had the opportunity of adding the Sicilian crown to the imperial one.
He and Constance were married on 27 January 1186 in Milan. In the Hohenstaufen conflict with Pope Urban III, Henry moved to the March of Tuscany, with the aid of his liensman Markward von Annweiler devastated the adjacent territory of the Papal States. Back in Germany, he took the reins of the Empire from his father, who had died while on the Third Crusade in 1190. Henry tried to secure his rule in the Low Countries by elevating Count Baldwin V of Hainaut to a margrave of Namur, at the same time he tried to reach a settlement with rivalling Duke Henry of Brabant. Further difficulties arose when the exiled Welf duke Henry the Lion returned from England and began to subdue large estates in his former Duchy of Saxony. A Hohenstaufen campaign to Saxony had to be abandoned when King Henry received the message of the death of King William II of Sicily on 18 November 1189; the Sicilian vice-chancellor Matthew of Ajello pursued the succession of Count Tancred of Lecce and gained the support of the Roman Curia.
To assert his own rights in the inheritance dispute, Henry supported Tancred's rival Count Roger of Andria and made arrangements for a campaign to Italy. The next year he concluded a peace agreement with Henry the Lion at Fulda and moved farther southwards to Augsburg, where he learned that his father had died on crusade attempting to cross the Saleph River near Seleucia in the Kingdom of Cilicia on 10 June 1190. While he sent an Imperial army to Italy, Henry stayed in Germany to settle the succession of Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia, who had died on the Third Crusade, he had planned to seize the Thuringian landgraviate as a reverted fief, but Louis' brother Hermann was able to reach his enfeoffment. The next year, the king followed his army across the Alps. In Lodi he negotiated with Eleanor of Aquitaine, widow of King Henry II of England, to break the engagement of her son King Richard with Alys, a daughter of late King Louis VII of France, he hoped to deteriorate English-French relations and to isolate Richard, who had offended him by backing Count Tancred in Sicily.
Eleanor acted cleverly. Henry entered into further negotiations with the Lombard League cities and with Pope Celestine III on his Imperial coronation, ceded Tusculum to the Pope. At Easter Monday on 15 April 1191, in Rome and his consort Constance were crowned Emperor and Empress by Celestine; the crown of Sicily, was harder to gain, as the Sicilian nobility had chosen Count Tancred of Lecce as their king. Henry began his work campaigning in Apulia and besieging Naples, but he encountered resistance when Tancred's liensman Margaritus of Brindisi came to the city's defence, harassed
First Punic War
The First Punic War was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war of antiquity, the two powers struggled for supremacy on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, in North Africa; the war began in 264 BC with the Roman conquest of the Carthaginian-controlled city of Messina in Sicily, granting Rome a military foothold on the island. The Romans built up a navy to challenge Carthage, the greatest naval power in the Mediterranean, for control over the waters around Sicily. In naval battles and storms, 700 Roman and 500 Carthaginian quinqueremes were lost, along with hundreds of thousands of lives. Command of the sea was lost by both sides repeatedly. A Roman invasion of Carthaginian Africa was destroyed in battle at the Bagradas and the Roman consul Marcus Atilius Regulus was captured by the Carthaginians in 255. In 23 years, the Romans conquered Sicily and drove the Carthaginians to the west end of the island.
After both sides had been brought to a state of near exhaustion, the Romans mobilized their citizenry's private wealth and created a new fleet under consul Gaius Lutatius Catulus. The Carthaginian fleet was destroyed at the Aegates Islands in 241, forcing the cut-off Carthaginian troops on Sicily to give up. A peace treaty was signed in which Carthage was made to pay a heavy indemnity and Rome ejected Carthage from Sicily, annexing the island as a Roman province; the war was followed by a failed revolt against the Carthaginian Empire. The Romans exploited Carthage's weakness to seize the Carthaginian possessions of Sardinia and Corsica in violation of the peace treaty; the unresolved strategic competition between Rome and Carthage would lead to the eruption of the Second Punic War in 218 BC. The series of wars between Rome and Carthage took the name "Punic" from the Latin adjective for Carthaginian, Punicus; this refers to the Carthaginian heritage as Phoenician colonists. A Carthaginian name for the conflicts does not survive in any records.
Rome had emerged as the leading city-state in the Italian Peninsula, a wealthy, expansionist republic with a successful citizen army. Over the past one hundred years, Rome had come into conflict, defeated rivals on the Italian peninsula incorporated them into the Roman political world. First, the Latin League was forcibly dissolved during the Latin War the power of the Samnites was broken during the three prolonged Samnite wars, the Greek cities of Magna Graecia submitted to Roman power at the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. By the beginning of the First Punic War, the Romans had secured the whole of the Italian peninsula, except Gallia Cisalpina in the Po Valley. Carthage was a republic that dominated the political and economic affairs of the western Mediterranean Sea on the North African coasts and islands, above all, due to its navy, it originated as a Phoenician colony near modern Tunis. Carthage had become a wealthy centre for trade networks extending from Gadir along the coasts of southern Iberia and North Africa, across the Balearic Islands, Corsica and the western half of Sicily, to the ports of the eastern Mediterranean, including Tyre, its mother city, on the shores of the Levant.
At the height of power, just before the First Punic War, Carthage was hostile to foreign ships in the western Mediterranean. North African peoples, such as the Berbers, in the area around Carthage were loosely associated with Carthage. In the midst of the First Punic War, some tribes rebelled against Carthage, opening a second front while the Carthaginians battled the Romans in Sicily. Greek colonists were a major presence in the western Mediterranean, following centuries of colonial settlement and conflicts with Rome over Magna Graecia and with Carthage over places such as Sicily; the rich, strategically influential, well-fortified Greek colony of Syracuse was politically independent of Rome and Carthage. Hostilities of the First Punic War began with developments involving the Romans and Greek colonists in Sicily and southern Italy. In 288 BC, the Mamertines, a group of Italian mercenaries hired by Agathocles of Syracuse, occupied the city of Messana in the north-eastern tip of Sicily, killing all the men and taking the women as their wives.
At the same time, a group of Roman troops made up of Campanian "citizens without the vote" revolted and seized control of Rhegium, lying across the Straits of Messina on the mainland of Italy. In 270 BC, the Romans regained control of Rhegium and punished the survivors of the revolt. In Sicily, the Mamertines ravaged the countryside and collided with the expanding regional empire of the independent city of Syracuse. Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse, defeated the Mamertines near Mylae on the Longanus River. Following their defeat, the Mamertines appealed to both Carthage for assistance; the Carthaginians acted first, approached Hiero to take no further action and convinced the Mamertines to accept a Carthaginian garrison in Messana. Either unhappy with the prospect of a Carthaginian garrison or convinced that the recent alliance between Rome and Carthage against Pyrrhus reflected cordial relations between the two, the Mamertines, hoping for more reliable protection, petitioned Rome for an alliance.
However, the rivalry between Rome and Carthage had grown since the war with Pyrrhus and that alliance was no longer feasible. According to the historian Polybius, considerable debate took place in Rome on the questio
Głowno is a town and community in Poland, in Łódź Voivodeship, in Zgierz County, about 25 km northeast of Łódź. The town administratively belonged to the Łódź Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998. According to data from 2016, the city had 14,534 inhabitants. Głowno is a twin town of Germany's Remptendorf commune. Although the first settlement at the site of present-day Głowno is thought to have appeared in the 11th century, the first town was organized in the early 15th century near a trade route from the Duchy of Masovia to the Polish kingdom. Rawa Mazowiecka feudal lord and Sochaczew podczaszy Jakub Glowienski founded Głowno's first Roman Catholic church, consecrated on March 11, 1420 as the Church of St. Jacob. On Jakub's request, Duke Siemowit V of Masovia granted city rights under Kulm law; the city rights have been maintained until the modern day, with an interruption between the years 1870–1925. Upon incorporation of the Rawa dukedom into the Kingdom of Poland in 1462 a new voivodeship was established called the Rawa Voivodeship.
Glowno belonged to that voivodeship until the second partition of Poland. In 1504 a fire destroyed a large part of the city, whereupon King Alexander Jagiellon suspended taxation for its inhabitants for ten years. In 1522 second fire struck and King Sigismund I the Old granted another 10 year taxation reprieve; because of the Deluge and the rebellion under Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski, the population diminished, in 1676, only 74 people lived in Głowno, but under the rule of King John III Sobieski the town population recovered somewhat. During the Great Northern War the town and church were ransacked by Saxon and Swedish troops, including a short but devastating stay by Swedish king Charles XI and his mounted troops in 1704, recorded by the parson of the Saint Jacob church. In 1710, an epidemic struck, killing inhabitants from local nobility to town peoples, town was finished; the city was sold to Baltazar Ciecierski stolnik of Drohiczyn. After the 1730s and closer to 1750, new owner started settling Jews there, in order to create income from textile industry.
In 1741 King August III the Saxon granted market privileges to Ciecierski's town, allowing the town to hold four market fairs during a calendar year. In 1775 there were 60 tax paying households in the town. In 1793, the Second Partition of Poland took place. With the resurgence of Polish statehood and establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1806, the area was incorporated therein. In 1815, upon defeat of Napoleon town fell to the Russians and became part of the newly formed Congress Poland. In 1869, Russian occupying authorities took away Głowno's city rights, a strong punitive measure intended as a humiliation for its citizens' participation in the January Uprising. In 1870, Czar Alexander II of Russia downgraded a large number of Polish cities from towns to villages in all of Polish territories under Russian administration, Glowno suffered the same fate. In 1903, the railway connection between Warsaw and Łódź was built through Głowno, therewith representing a positive factor for the economy.
The first volunteer fire department was formed in 1908. In 1924, the "Buch and Werner Norblin Brothers" company opened a factory branch in Głowno. Upon resurrection of the Polish Republic in 1918, the new Polish government reestablished the lost city status and rights in 1925. With the outbreak of World War II on September 1, 1939, the area was a scene of the Battle of Bzura and some fighting occurred in Głowno vicinity; the town was overrun by the German Wehrmacht during the second week of September. Nazi German administration was established and Głowno became part of German administrative unit known as General Government. During the occupation numerous acts of Polish resistance, Armia Krajowa etc. occurred in Głowno including the clandestine execution of a Roman Catholic priest who worked as an informant for the Nazi police. Nazi reprisals took the lives of many citizens, including those murdered in mass executions at the town's cemetery and inside the town's German police headquarters and in the Nazi occupied Warsaw's infamous prison Pawiak.
Many citizens were forced into slave labor for the Germans and some were shipped to various factories and farms across Germany. The German authorities established a Jewish ghetto in Głowno in May 1940, in order to confine its Jewish population for the purpose of persecution and exploitation; the ghetto was liquidated in March 1941, when all its 5,600 inhabitants were transported in cattle trucks to Łowicz and from there to the Warsaw Ghetto, the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles, or 7.2 persons per room. By the time Nazi-occupied Poland was liberated, not a single Jewish ghetto remained on Polish lands. Soviet Red Army took Glowno in January 1945, there was Anti-communist resistance in Poland, by cursed soldiers, in and around the town. After the war many factories have been built in town, as the population expanded schools have been built and town prospered until the crisis of the 1980s when along with the rest of the country town and its inhabitants suffered serious economic hardships and curtailed civil rights and freedoms, many of the numerous workers being members of the Solidarity Movement.
In the 1990s, under the III Polish Republic and the inhabitants at first prospered, however plagued by quality of life crimes its textile and automotive factories and manufactures were expanding, but this boom suffered collapse by the end of the decade, most of the textile manufacturing in bankruptcy and factories facing closures etc. Since the joining of the European Union by Poland, many town inhabitan
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, in the region of Campania, southern Italy, situated 25 km north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. The name of Capua comes from the Etruscan Capeva; the meaning is'City of Marshes'. Its foundation is attributed by Cato the Elder to the Etruscans, the date given as about 260 years before it was "taken" by Rome. If this is true it refers not to its capture in the Second Punic War but to its submission to Rome in 338 BC, placing the date of foundation at about 600 BC, while Etruscan power was at its highest. In the area several settlements of the Villanovian civilization were present in prehistoric times, these were enlarged by the Oscans and subsequently by the Etruscans. Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the Samnite invasion in the latter half of the 5th century BC. About 424 BC it was captured by the Samnites and in 343 BC besought Roman help against its conquerors. Capua entered into alliance with Rome for protection against the Samnite mountain tribes, along with its dependent communities Casilinum, Atella, so that the greater part of Campania now fell under Roman supremacy.
The citizens of Capua received the civitas sine suffragio. In the second Samnite War with Rome, Capua proved an untrustworthy Roman ally, so that after the defeat of the Samnites, the Ager Falernus on the right bank of the Volturnus was confiscated. In 318 BC the powers of the native officials were limited by the appointment of officials with the title praefecti Capuam Cumas, it was the capital of Campania Felix. In 312 BC, Capua was connected with Rome by the construction of the Via Appia, the most important of the military highways of Italy; the gate by which it left the Servian walls of Rome bore the name Porta Capena. At what time the Via Latina was stretched to Casilinum is doubtful; the importance of Capua increased during the 3rd century BC, at the beginning of the Second Punic War it was considered to be only behind Rome and Carthage themselves, was able to furnish 30,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry. Until after the defeat of Cannae it remained faithful to Rome, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be selected from it or in order to secure regional supremacy in the event of a Carthaginian victory, it defected to Hannibal, who made it his winter quarters: he and his army were voluntarily received by Capua.
Livy and others have suggested that the luxurious conditions were Hannibal's "Cannae" because his troops became soft and demoralized by luxurious living. Historians from Bosworth Smith onwards have been skeptical of this, observing that his troops gave as good an account of themselves in battle after that winter as before. After a long siege, it was taken by the Romans in 211 BC and punished. Parts of it were sold in 205 BC and 199 BC, another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of Volturnum and Liternum, established near the coast in 194 BC, but the greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state. Considerable difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private persons, it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 BC, it was, after that period, not to large but to small proprietors. Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to divide the land among new settlers. Brutus in 83 BC succeeded in establishing a colony, but it was soon dissolved.
In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of this thickly populated district was in a measure supplied by grouping them round important shrines that of Diana Tifatina, in connection with which a pagus Dianae existed, as we learn from many inscriptions. The town of Capua belonged to none of these organizations, was dependent on the praefecti, it enjoyed great prosperity, due to their growing of spelt, a grain, put into groats, roses, unguents etc. and owing to its manufacture of bronze objects, of which both the elder Cato and the elder Pliny speak in the highest terms. Its luxury remained proverbial. From the gladiatorial schools of Campania came Spartacus and his followers in 73 BC. Julius Caesar as consul in 59 BC succeeded in carrying out the establishment of a Roman colony under the name Julia Felix in connection with his agrarian law, 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in this territory; the number of colonists was increased by Mark Antony and Nero. In the war of 69 it took the side
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
Piedimonte Matese Italian: Piedimonte Matese, pronounced is a comune in the Province of Caserta in the Italian region of Campania, located about 82 km north of Naples and about 40 km north of Caserta. Piedimonte Matese borders the following municipalities: Alife, Castello del Matese, Cusano Mutri, San Gregorio Matese, San Potito Sannitico and Sant'Angelo d'Alife. Up until 1945, Piedimonte Matese was located within the Province of Benevento. Before 1970 Piedimonte was known as Piedimonte d'Alife; the Matese Legion was a group of 240 Italian volunteers that joined Giuseppe Garibaldi in the war for Italian unification in 1861. It was formed in the Piedimonte D'Alife district, now called Piedimonte Matese, in June 1860, was established on 25 August in the same year; the church of San Biagio houses late-Gothic frescoes with scenes from the Old and New Testament and histories of St. Blaise; the church of St. Thomas was built in 1414; the Baroque church of San Salvatore was designed by Cosimo Fanzago.
The Ducal Palace of Gaetani d'Aragona has kept some late Renaissance details. Its patron saint is San Marcellino; the Civic Museum Raffaele Marrocco is an archaeology and arts museum in Piedimonte Matese. Based in the Sepicciano area of Piedimonte Matese is the 4,000-seater Stadio Pasqualino Ferrante, a municipal stadium and home of Eccellenza club A. S. D. Tre Pini Matese and Promozione side F. W. P. Matese. Piedimonte Matese is twinned with: Cervinara, since 2013 Seligenstadt, since 2010 Piedimonte Matese official website Piedimonte Matese 2010