Freestyle skiing is a skiing discipline comprising aerials, cross, half-pipe and slopestyle as part of the Winter Olympics. It can consist of a skier performing aerial flips and spins, can include skiers sliding rails and boxes on their skis, it is commonly referred to as freeskiing, jibbing, as well as many other names around the world. Ski acrobatics have been practiced since the 1930s. Aerial skiing was popularized in the 1950s by Olympic gold medalist Stein Eriksen. Early US competitions were held in the mid-1960s; the International Ski Federation recognized freestyle skiing as a sport in 1979 and brought in new regulations regarding certification of athletes and jump techniques in an effort to curb the dangerous elements of the competitions. The first FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup was staged in 1980 and the first FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships took place in 1986 in Tignes, France. Freestyle skiing was a demonstration event at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Mogul skiing was added as an official medal event at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, the aerials event was added for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer.
In 2011, the International Olympic Committee approved both halfpipe and slopestyle freeskiing events to be added to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. Aerialists ski off 2-4 meter jumps. Once in the air, aerialists perform multiple flips and twists before landing on a 34 to 39-degree inclined landing hill about 30 meters in length; the top male aerialists can perform triple back flips with up to four or five twists. Aerial skiing is a judged sport, competitors receive a score based on jump takeoff, jump form and landing. A degree of difficulty is factored in for a total score. Skiers are judged on a cumulative score of LIMA two jumps; these scores do not carry over to the next round. Aerialists train for their jumping maneuvers during the summer months by skiing on specially constructed water ramps and landing in a large swimming pool. An example of this is the Utah Olympic Park training facility. A water ramp consists of a wooden ramp covered with a special plastic mat that when lubricated with sprinklers allows an athlete to ski down the ramp towards a jump.
The skier skis off the wooden jump and lands safely in a large swimming pool. A burst of air is sent up from the bottom of the pool just before landing to break up the surface tension of the water, thus softening the impact of the landing. Skiers sometimes reinforce the skis that they use for water-ramping with 6mm of fiberglass or cut holes in the front and back in order to soften the impact when landing properly on their skis. Summer training includes training on trampolines, diving boards, other acrobatic or gymnastic training apparatus. Moguls are a series of bumps on a trail formed when skiers push the snow into mounds or piles as they execute short-radius turns. Moguls can be formed deliberately, by piling mounds of snow. Ski ballet renamed acroski, was a competitive discipline in the formative years of freestyle skiing and was similar to ice dancing. Competitors executed to music; the routines consisted of spins and flips on a prepared flat course. The routines were scored by judges who assessed the choreography, technical difficulty, mastery of skills demonstrated by the competitors.
Early innovators in the sport were Jan Bucher, Park Smalley, Hermann Reitberger. The International Ski Federation ceased all formal competition of this event after 2000. Ski cross is based on the snowboarding boardercross. Despite it being a timed racing event, it is considered part of freestyle skiing because it incorporates terrain features traditionally found in freestyle. Half-pipe skiing is the sport of riding snow skis on a half-pipe. Competitors ski to the end of the pipe by doing flips and tricks, it became an Olympic event for the first time at the 2014 Olympic Games in Russia. In slopestyle, athletes ski or snowboard down a course including a variety of obstacles including rails and other terrain park features. Points are scored for amplitude and quality of tricks. Twin-tip skis are used and are useful if the skier lands backwards. Slopestyle tricks fall into four categories: spins, grinds and flips. Slopestyle became an Olympic event, in both skiing and snowboarding forms, at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia.
Twin-tip skis are used in events such as halfpipe. Mogul skis are sometimes in aerials. Specially designed racing skis are used in ski cross. Ski bindings took a major design change to include plate bindings mounted to the bottom of the skiers boot to allow for multi-directional release. Freestyle skiing at the Winter Olympics Furrer, Art. S. Freestyle Ski Team Taylor Publis
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Evelyne Leu is a former Swiss freestyle skier. She won a Gold medal in Aerial skiing at the 2006 Winter Olympics. However, she failed to reach the Finals at the 2010 Winter Olympics when she crashed in her second jump during qualifying, she retired in April 2010. Https://web.archive.org/web/20060308045828/http://www.evelyneleu.ch/
Extra is a brand of sugarfree chewing gum produced by the Wrigley Company in North America and some parts of Africa and Australasia. Extra was launched in 1984 as the Wrigley Company's first sugarfree product, became one of the most popular brands of chewing gum in the United States within a few years, it was the first sugarfree gum not to use saccharin, instead using the NutraSweet brand, a sweetener developed by G. D. Searle & Co. that had less bitterness and was believed to be safer in humans and laboratory animals. The brand identity of Extra gum varies in different markets having different flavours and slogans for each country. Extra is the sponsor of the Mexican national football team. In 2007, Extra became the first chewing gum to receive the American Dental Association and the British Dental Health Foundation's Seal of Acceptance. In 2011, Extra Oral Healthcare Program partnered with the Chinese Ministry of Health to launch a three-year community oral care education pilot program, which establishes community dental clinics, trains local dentists and establishes oral care records for 7,000 families across 14 communities.
The results of the program will inform the Ministry of Health’s future oral care policy. In the second project year, the team decided to build an application for oral health teaching among families for some undeveloped cities. In the UK, gum, sold as Orbit was renamed Extra in 2015, with the same 14-piece package. A TV ad for Extra chewing gum, seen in September 2017, featured a young woman stood in a football kit on a football pitch whilst chewing, appearing to be preparing to take a penalty kick, it has been upheld for being'dangerous'. Wrigley's Extra Gum home page
The Australian Postal Corporation, operating as Australia Post, is the government-owned corporation that provides postal services in Australia. The head office of Australia Post is located at 111 Bourke Street, which serves as a post office. Before colonial control of mail started in 1809, mail was passed on by ad hoc arrangements made between transporters and settlers; these arrangements depended on cooperation of the country people. It was common for early settlers to ride many miles out of their way to deliver neighbours' mail, collected from informal distribution points; the first organisation of a postal service in Australia commenced in 1809 with the appointment in Sydney of the first Postmaster of New South Wales. He was an English ex-convict, Isaac Nichols, who took the post operating from his home in George Street, Sydney, his main job was to take charge of letters and parcels arriving by ship, to avoid the chaos of people rushing aboard ships as soon as they arrived at Sydney's wharves.
Nichols would post a list of recipients outside his house. He would advertise in the Sydney Gazette the names of all those. Recipients paid a fixed price of one shilling per letter to collect mail from Nichols' home, with parcels costing more depending on how heavy they were. VIP addressees were accorded personal delivery by Nichols; the Postal Act of 1825 allowed the governor to fix postage rates and appoint postmasters outside Sydney, enabling the first organised postal service. Letter deliveries began in 1828 and posting boxes first appeared in 1831. Stamps were not required as the addressee paid for the letter, not the sender. Postal services grew throughout the Australian colonies. A regular overland service between Sydney and Melbourne, Port Phillip District began in 1838. In 1838, the first prepaid "stamped" letter sheets were introduced in Sydney. By 1849, uniform postal rates were established by agreement between the colonies. Prepaid adhesive stamps were introduced in the 1850s. Victoria was the first to make prepayment by stamps compulsory in 1852.
Monthly steamship sea mail to the United Kingdom was established in 1856. The separate colonies joined the Universal Postal Union in 1891. Following federation in 1901, the colonial mail systems were merged into the Postmaster-General's Department; this body was responsible for telegraph and domestic telephone operations as well as postal mail. An airmail service was introduced in 1914; the world's first large-scale mechanical mail sorting system was introduced in Australia, operational in the Sydney GPO in 1967. This coincided with the introduction of the current system of 4-digit postcodes in Australia. On 1 July 1975, separate government commissions were created to undertake the operational responsibilities of the PMG. One of these was the Australian Postal Commission, trading as Australia Post, it became the Australian Postal Corporation on 1 January 1989 when it was corporatised, though it still trades as Australia Post. Under amendments to the APC Act that came into effect in March 2008, quarantine inspection officers of a state or territory are authorised to request Australia Post to open for inspection packets and parcels sent from interstate which they believe may contain quarantine material.
The legislation authorised Australia Post to remove from the mail articles that are suspected of being scam mail. The 200th anniversary of postal services was celebrated in 2009. In February 2010, Ahmed Fahour was appointed CEO of Australia Post. In May 2010, he announced a new strategy dubbed "Future Ready" designed to reinvigorate Australia Post; this included a new organisation structure as well as a renewed foray into digital businesses under the "eServices" Strategic Business Unit. However, in 2013, the corporation acknowledged that though the strategy was successful in improving Australia Post's profitability and structure, it was insufficient in its contributions to their development as a financially self-sustaining business. In September 2015 the corporation announced its first loss in 30 years; the A$222 million loss was down from a $116 million profit the previous year. Large decreases in addressed and stamped mail led to a $381 million loss in the mail delivery side of the business.
Parcel delivery accounted for over half of total revenue. Overall revenue was stable at $6.37 billion. A year on Friday 26 August 2016, Australia Post returned to profit, on the back of strong parcel/courier performance and re-structuring; however mail performance reached an all-time low. On Thursday 23 February 2017 the CEO of Australia Post, Ahmed Fahour announced his resignation, effective July 2017. Fahour told media at a press conference in Melbourne, that the decision was not related to recent discussion surrounding his $5.6 million salary. Australia Post is continuing to broaden its product and service range and invest in technology-based infrastructure programs; as of 2016, it operates in three core areas: associated services. It offers delivery services, retail products, financial services and fulfilment services, direct marketing and database management services, it has a number of subsidiaries and joint ventures, including Sai Cheng Logistics International—a joint-venture logistics company established with China Post in 2005.
Australia Post operates regular mail delivery as well as an express/courier service through Messenger Post. It delivers mail every day of the week
Wandin North, Victoria
Wandin North is a suburb in Melbourne, Australia, 40 km east from Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the Shire of Yarra Ranges. At the 2016 census, Wandin North had a population of 3,051; the Post Office opened around 1909. An earlier office named. There are two operational schools in Wandin North and the original of these schools is Wandin Yallock Primary School, established in 1870, it is nestled amongst general farming land in the picturesque Yarra Valley. Many of the schools original charm has been maintained though the school has undergone extensive upgrades; the Wandin North Primary School opened in 1915 and in 2016 had 240 students. Wandin North used to have a railway station called Wandin on the Warburton branch line which opened in 1901 and closed in 1965. Wandin North contains a number of attractions such as Warratina Lavender Farm, Native plant Garden, Mont De Lancey, Wild Cattle Creek Winery and the numerous fruit orchards. Wandin North is the home of a vibrant shopping precinct.
Wandin North Primary School
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr