The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds, others include Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Circassians, around 95% of the countrys 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish, two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws, the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Assyrian and it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. Iraqs modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres, Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932, in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Baath Party from 1968 until 2003, after an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Husseins Baath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country, the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name, one dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for city, UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is rooted, well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.
The term historically included the south of the Hamrin Mountains. The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In English, it is either /ɪˈrɑːk/ or /ɪˈræk/, the American Heritage Dictionary, the pronunciation /aɪˈræk/ is frequently heard in U. S. media. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture where agriculture, the following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations
For The Iraqis political party, refer to The Iraqis The Iraqi people are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq. Arabs have had a presence in Mesopotamia since the Sasanian Empire. Arabic was spoken by the majority in the Kingdom of Araba in the first and second centuries, Arabs were common in Mesopotamia at the time of the Seleucid Empire. The first Arab kingdom outside of Arabia was established in Iraqs Al-Hirah in the third century, Kurds who are Iraqi citizens live in the Zagros Mountains of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraqs national languages, in ancient and medieval times Mesopotamia was the political and cultural centre of many great empires, such as the Akkadian Empire and Babylonia. The ancient Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer is the oldest known civilization in the world, Iraq remained an important centre of civilization for millennia, up until the Abbasid Caliphate, which was the most advanced empire of the medieval world. One study found that Haplogroup J-M172 originated in northern Iraq, Iraqi mitochondrial DNA haplogroup distribution is similar to that of Iran, Turkey and Armenia, whereas it substantially differs from that observed in Yemen.
Iraqi Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup distribution is similar to that of Kuwait, Turkey, no significant differences in Y-DNA variation were observed among Iraqi Arabs, Assyrians, or Kurds in the study because of very small sample sizes for Kurds and Assyrians. Modern genetic studies indicate that Iraqi Arabs and Iraqi Kurds are distantly related, the Assyrian Christian population is fairly related to other Iraqis, and to Jordanians, yet due to religious endogamy have a distinct genetic profile that distinguishes their population. The Assyrians are a homogeneous group of people, believed to originate from the land of old Assyria in northern Iraq they are Christians and are bona fide descendants of their namesakes. Most North-West and Central Iraqis who today speak Arabic are originally of Assyrian roots, studies have reported that most Irish and Britons have ancestry to Neolithic farmers who left modern day Iraq and Syria 10,000 years ago. Genetic researchers say they have found compelling evidence that, on average, in another study, scientists analysed DNA from the 8, 000-year-old remains of early farmers found at an ancient graveyard in Germany.
They compared the signatures to those of modern populations and found similarities with the DNA of people living in todays Turkey. Iraqis have historically been a multilingual, multiethnic people, conversant in several languages, Iraqi identity transcends ethnic and language boundaries, and is more associated with geography, the Tigris–Euphrates alluvial plain and its environs. The shared identity and culture of Iraqi people is most commonly seen in the Iraqi cuisine, the demonym Iraqi includes all ethnic minorities in the country, such as the Assyrians and Iraqi Turkmen. Iraqis trace their ancestry back to the ancient people of the land, and are proud of their ancient Mesopotamian roots and legacy, Iraqs national languages are Arabic and the Kurdish languages. Arabic is spoken as a first language by around 79 percent of Iraqi people, the two main regional dialects of Arabic spoken by the Iraqi people are Mesopotamian Arabic and North Mesopotamian Arabic. The two main dialects of Kurdish spoken by Kurdish Iraqis are Central Kurdish and Northern Kurdish, in addition to Arabic, most Assyrians and Mandaeans speak Neo-Aramaic languages
Arab Americans are Americans of Arab ethnic and linguistic heritage or identity, who identify themselves as Arab. Arab Americans trace ancestry to any of the waves of immigrants of the countries comprising the Arab World. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, there are 1,697,570 Arab Americans in the United States,290,893 persons defined themselves as simply Arab, and a further 224,241 as Other Arab. Other groups on the 2010 Census are listed by nation of origin, the ties that bind are a shared heritage by virtue of common linguistic and political traditions. The majority of Arab Americans, around 62%, originate from the region of the Levant, the remainder are made up of those from Egypt, Morocco, Libya, the GCC and other Arab nations. There are nearly 3.5 million Arab Americans in the United States according to The Arab American Institute, Arab-Americans live in all 50 states and in Washington, D. C. and 94% reside in the metropolitan areas of major cities. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the city with the largest percentage of Arab Americans is Dearborn, five other states - Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania - report Arab-American populations of more than 40,000 each.
Also, the counties which contained the greatest proportions of Arab-Americans were in California, New York, New Jersey, Ohio and Virginia. Bayonne, New Jersey, a city of 63,000, while the majority of the population of the Arab World is composed of people of the Muslim faith, most Arab Americans, in contrast, are Christian. This stands in contrast to the first wave of Arab immigration to the United States between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when almost all immigrants were Christians, most Maronites tend to be of Lebanese or Syrian extraction, those Christians of Palestinian background are often Eastern Orthodox. Arab Christians, especially from Lebanon, Iraq and Egypt, continue to immigrate into the U. S. in the 2000s, there are many immigrants to America from Arabic-speaking countries who are not classified as Arabs. Among these are Armenian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Coptic Americans and it is very difficult to estimate the size of these communities. For example, some Kurds immigrated from Iraq, but from Turkey, estimates place these communities at least in the tens of thousands.
Other smaller communities include Assyrians, Turkmen, Circassians, Turks, Georgians, Balochs, Iranians and Kawliya/Roma. Most of these groups speak their own native languages and have their own customs. Also, the distinction between Arab and non-Arab identity is always blurred. The United States Census Bureau is presently finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations and this process does not pertain to Jewish, Christian and other religious adherents, whom the bureau tabulates as followers of a religion rather than members of an ethnic group. The Paterson, New Jersey-based Arab American Civic Association runs an Arabic language program in the Paterson school district
Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and an online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California. Facebook gradually added support for students at other universities. Since 2006, anyone age 13 and older has been allowed to become a user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement. The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students, Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, tablet computers, and smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, schools attended and so on. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, hobbies or other topics, in groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people, because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies.
Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. On July 13,2015, Facebook became the fastest company in the Standard & Poors 500 Index to reach a market cap of $250 billion, Facebook has more than 1.86 billion monthly active users as of December 31,2016. As of April 2016, Facebook was the most popular social networking site in the world, Facebook classifies users from the ages of 13 to 18 as minors and therefore sets their profiles to share content with friends only. Zuckerberg wrote a program called Facemash on October 28,2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore, to accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvards computer network and copied private dormitory ID images. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online, the site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by the Harvard administration.
Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded 500 Augustan images to a website, each of which was featured with a corresponding comments section and he shared the site with his classmates, and people started sharing notes. The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004 and he said that he was inspired by an editorial about the Facemash incident in The Harvard Crimson. On February 4,2004, Zuckerberg launched Thefacebook, originally located at thefacebook. com. com and they claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation and they filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, within the first month, eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website
Detroit is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the fourth-largest city in the Midwest and the largest city on the United States–Canada border. It is the seat of Wayne County, the most populous county in the state, the municipality of Detroit had a 2015 estimated population of 677,116, making it the 21st-most populous city in the United States. Roughly one-half of Michigans population lives in Metro Detroit alone, the Detroit–Windsor area, a commercial link straddling the Canada–U. S. Border, has a population of about 5.7 million. Detroit is a port on the Detroit River, a strait that connects the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States, the City of Detroit anchors the second-largest economic region in the Midwest, behind Chicago, and the thirteenth-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and various bridges, Detroit was founded on July 24,1701 by the French explorer and adventurer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and a party of settlers.
During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region, with expansion of the American automobile industry in the early 20th century, the Detroit area emerged as a significant metropolitan region within the United States. The city became the fourth-largest in the country for a period, in the 1950s and 1960s, suburban expansion continued with construction of a regional freeway system. A great portion of Detroits public transport was abandoned in favour of becoming a city in the post-war period. Due to industrial restructuring and loss of jobs in the auto industry, between 2000 and 2010 the citys population fell by 25 percent, changing its ranking from the nations 10th-largest city to 18th. In 2010, the city had a population of 713,777 and this resulted from suburbanization, industrial restructuring and the decline of Detroits auto industry. In 2013, the state of Michigan declared an emergency for the city. Detroit has experienced urban decay as its population and jobs have shifted to its suburbs or elsewhere, conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces since the 2000s and allowed several large-scale revitalisations.
More recently, the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago. In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Potawatomi, for the next hundred years, virtually no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois likely response. When the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, the 1798 raids and resultant 1799 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began almost immediately, and by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400, by 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec
Women in Black
Women in Black is a womens anti-war movement with an estimated 10,000 activists around the world. The first group was formed by Israeli women in Jerusalem in 1988, initially the group had no name but it was quickly identified with the black clothing, which helped create distinctive demonstrations which were hard to ignore. The initiative soon spread to other locations in Israel, with women standing weekly in main squares of cities or at junctions on inter-city highways. As was decided early on, the movement did not adopt any formal program other than opposition to the occupation. Local groups were autonomous in deciding such issues as whether or not to open participation to men as well as women, at the peak of the Intifada there were thirty vigils in different locations throughout the country. The first vigils in other countries were started in solidarity with the Israeli group, especially notable were the Women in Black group in former Yugoslavia, which in the 1990s confronted rampant nationalism and bloodshed, often meeting with violence from nationalists.
While each group is free to pursue its own goals and activities, the women maintain regular contact via e-mail and the Internet, the Women in Blacks counter-group is called Women for Israels Tomorrow who typically wear green hats. In Israel, Women in Black in one of numerous organizations belong to the radical left, in one instance, a United States grouping of Women in Black was accused of mocking and showing disrespect to American soldiers. S. Army uniform, put pacifist political buttons on it, and held signs with the Women in Black. Women in Black in Austin, was stated to hold weekly vigils against US bombing of Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks, in 2001 the movement was awarded the Millennium Peace Prize for Women given by the United Nations Development Fund for Women. The same year, the Israeli and Serbian groups were nominated for Nobel Peace Prize