ICC Champions Trophy
The ICC Champions Trophy was a one day international cricket tournament organised by the International Cricket Council, second in importance only to the Cricket World Cup. It was inaugurated as the ICC KnockOut Tournament in 1998 and has been played every four years since, its name was changed to the Champions Trophy in 2002. The ICC conceived the idea of the Champions Trophy – a short cricket tournament to raise funds for the development of the game in non-test playing countries, with the first tournaments being held in Bangladesh and Kenya. Due to its massive commercial success, the tournament has been held in nations like India and England as a revenue generator for the ICC, the number of teams has been reduced to eight; the tournament dubbed as the mini-World Cup as it involved all of the full members of the ICC, was planned as a knock-out tournament so that it was short and did not reduce the value and importance of the World Cup. However, from 2002, the tournament has had a round-robin format, followed by a few knockout games but the tournament still takes places over a short period of time – about two weeks.
The number of teams competing has varied over the years. Since 2009, the tournament has only involved the eight highest-ranked teams in the ICC ODI Rankings as of six months prior to the beginning of the tournament; the tournament has been held in 7 different countries since its inception, with England hosting it thrice. A total of thirteen teams competed in the eight editions of the tournament, with eight competing in the last edition in 2017. ICC Champions Trophy was scrapped keeping in line with ICC's goal of having only one pinnacle tournament for each of the three formats of international cricket. Australia and India have won the tournament twice each, while South Africa, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, West Indies and Pakistan have won it once each. No non-full member team has crossed the first round of the Champions Trophy. Up to 2006 the Champions Trophy was held every two years; the tournament had been scheduled to be held in Pakistan in 2008 but was moved to South Africa in 2009 due to security reasons.
From on it has been held every four years like the World Cup. The Champions Trophy differs from the World Cup in a number of ways; the matches in the Champions Trophy are held over a period of around two and a half weeks, while the World Cup can last for over a month. The number of teams in the Champions Trophy are much less than the World Cup, with the latest edition of the World Cup having 14 teams whereas the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy had 8 teams. For 2002 and 2004, twelve teams played a round-robin tournament in four pools of three, with the top team in each pool moving forward to the semi-final. A team would play only four games to win the tournament; the format used in the Knock Out tournaments differed from the formats used in the Champions Trophy. The competition was a straight knock out, with the loser in each game being eliminated. Only eight games were played in 1998, 10 games in 2000. Since 2006, eight teams have played in two pools of four in a round-robin format, with the top two teams in each pool playing in the semi-finals.
Losing a single match means elimination from the tournament. A total of 15 matches are played in the present format of the tournament, with the tournament lasting about two and a half weeks. Thirteen nations have qualified for the Champions Trophy at least once. Seven teams have competed in every finals tournament. Seven different nations have won the title. South Africa won the inaugural tournament and Australia have each won twice, while New Zealand, Sri Lanka, West Indies and Pakistan have each won once. Australia is the only nation to have won consecutive titles. Bangladesh and England are the only Test playing nations who are yet to win the Champions Trophy. England has reached the final twice but lost both times, Bangladesh reached the semi-finals in 2017 while Zimbabwe has never got past the first round; the highest rank secured by a non-Test playing nation is the 9th rank achieved by Kenya in 2000. Sri Lanka was the first and only host to win the tournament, in 2002, but they were declared co-champions with India as the final was twice washed out.
England is the only other host to have made the final. It has achieved this twice – in 2004 and 2013. Bangladesh is the only host who did not take part in the tournament while hosting it, in 1998. Kenya in 2000, India in 2006, South Africa in 2009 have been the only host teams that were eliminated in the first round. Comprehensive results for all teams participating in all tournaments for the ICC Champions Trophy: Legend 1st – Champion 2nd – Runner-up SF – Semi-finals QF – Quarter-finals GP – Group/Pool stage – First round P – Preliminary qualification stage Q – Qualified Apps – AppearancesNotes The first two tournaments, in 1998 and 2000, were intended to raise the profile of the game in the host nations and Kenya. India and Sri Lanka were declared co-champions in 2002; the table below provides an overview of the performances of teams over past ICC Champions Trophy. Teams are sorted by best performance by appearances, total number of wins, total number of games, alphabetical order respectively.
∗ India and Sri Lanka were declared joint winners in 2002. The win percentage excludes counts ties as half a win. Won by South Africa All of the matches in the 1998 tournament were played in Bangladesh at Bangabandhu National Stadium; the tournament was won by South Africa who beat West Indies in the fi
Harare is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe. The city proper has an area of 960.6 km2 and an estimated population of 1,606,000 in 2009, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area in 2006. Situated in north-eastern Zimbabwe in the country's Mashonaland region, Harare is a metropolitan province, which incorporates the municipalities of Chitungwiza and Epworth; the city sits on a plateau at an elevation of 1,483 metres above sea level and its climate falls into the subtropical highland category. The city was founded in 1890 by the Pioneer Column, a small military force of the British South Africa Company, named Fort Salisbury after the British prime minister Lord Salisbury. Company administrators demarcated the city and ran it until Southern Rhodesia achieved responsible government in 1923. Salisbury was thereafter the seat of the Southern Rhodesian government and, between 1953 and 1963, the capital of the Central African Federation, it retained the name Salisbury until 1982, when it was renamed Harare on the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence.
Harare is Zimbabwe's leading political, financial and communications centre, as well as a trade centre for tobacco, maize and citrus fruits. Manufacturing, including textiles and chemicals, are economically significant, as is local gold mining; the University of Zimbabwe, the country's oldest university, is located in Harare, as are several other colleges and universities. The city is home to Harare Sports Club, the country's main Test cricket ground, as well as Dynamos F. C. the country's most successful association football team. Harare's infrastructure and government services have worsened in recent years, the city has been ranked as one of the least livable cities out of 140 assessed; the Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city on 12 September 1890 as a fort. They named the city Fort Salisbury after The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury British prime minister, it subsequently became known as Salisbury; the Salisbury Polo Club was formed in 1896.
It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935. The area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained and earliest development was on sloping ground along the left bank of a stream, now the course of a trunk road; the first area to be drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result. This area is now the site of many of the most important government buildings, including the Senate House and the Office of the Prime Minister, now renamed for the use of the President after the position was abolished in January 1988. Salisbury was the capital of the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia from 1923, of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front government declared Rhodesia independent from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently, the nation became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, it was not until 18 April 1980 that the country was internationally recognised as independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe.
The name of the city was changed to Harare on 18 April 1982, the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence, taking its name from the village near Harare Kopje of the Shona chief Neharawa, whose nickname was "he who does not sleep". Prior to independence, "Harare" was the name of the black residential area now known as Mbare. In the early 21st century Harare has been adversely affected by the political and economic crisis, plaguing Zimbabwe, after the contested 2002 presidential election and 2005 parliamentary elections; the elected council was replaced by a government-appointed commission for alleged inefficiency, but essential services such as rubbish collection and street repairs have worsened, are now non-existent. In May 2006 the Zimbabwean newspaper the Financial Gazette, described the city in an editorial as a "sunshine city-turned-sewage farm". In 2009, Harare was voted to be the toughest city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's livability poll; the situation was unchanged in 2011, according to the same poll, based on stability, healthcare and environment, infrastructure.
In May 2005 the Zimbabwean government demolished shanties and backyard cottages in Harare and the other cities in the country in Operation Murambatsvina. It was alleged that the true purpose of the campaign was to punish the urban poor for supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change and to reduce the likelihood of mass action against the government by driving people out of the cities; the government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of disease. This was followed by Operation Garikayi/Hlalani Kuhle a year which consisted of building concrete housing of poor quality. In late March 2010, Harare's Joina City Tower was opened after 14 years of on-off construction, marketed as Harare's new Pride. Uptake of space in the tower was low, with office occupancy at only 3% in October 2011. By May 2013, office occupancy had risen to around half; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Harare as the world's least liveable city out of 140 surveyed in February 2011, rising to 137th out of 140 in August 2012.
During late 2012, plans to build a new capital district in Mt. Hampden, about twenty kilometres north-west of Harare's central business district, were announced and illustrations shown in Harare's daily newspapers; the location of this new district woul
Wasim Akram is a Pakistani cricket commentator and former cricketer, captain of Pakistan national cricket team. He is acknowledged as one of the greatest bowlers of all time. A left-arm fast bowler who could bowl with significant pace, he represented the Pakistan cricket team in Test cricket and One Day International matches. In October 2013, Wasim Akram was the only Pakistani cricketer to be named in an all-time Test World XI to mark the 150th anniversary of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack. Akram is regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers in the history of game, the finest of all left-arm fast bowlers, he holds the world record for most wickets in List A cricket, with 881, he is second only to Sri Lankan off-spin bowler Muttiah Muralitharan in terms of ODI wickets, with 502 in total. He is considered to be one of the founders—and the finest exponent of—reverse swing bowling, he was the first bowler to reach the 500-wicket mark in ODI cricket during the 2003 World Cup. In 2002, Wisden released its only list of best players of all time.
Wasim was ranked as the best bowler in ODI of all time, with a rating of 1223.5, ahead of Allan Donald, Imran Khan, Waqar Younis, Joel Garner, Glenn McGrath and Muralitharan. Wasim has taken. On 30 September 2009, Akram was one of five new members inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame, he was the bowling coach of Kolkata Knight Riders. However, he took a break from the position for IPL 6, citing a need to spend more time with family in Karachi, he took a further break from IPL 2017, he was working as director and bowling coach of Islamabad United in Pakistan Super League, until he left to join Multan Sultans in August 2017. In October 2018, he was named in the Pakistan Cricket Board's seven-member advisory cricket committee.. In November 2018, he joined Karachi Kings, as a President; the Government of Pakistan awarded him the Hilal-e-Imtiaz on 23 March 2019 on his life time achievements In field of Cricket. Wasim Akram was born on 3 June 1966 to a Punjabi Muslim Arain family in Lahore."Wasim Akram".
Cricinfo. He was educated at Government Islamia College Civil Lines Lahore, where he played as an opening bowler and batsman. Akram's father, Chaudhary Muhammed Akram, was from a village near Amritsar in east Punjab, who moved to Kamonki, Pakistan, after the partition of India in 1947, he has 3 siblings. Two elder brothers, Naeem in Lahore and Nadeem in Canada, he has a younger sister Sofia, in Canada. Like several other Pakistani cricketers during the 1980s, his inclusion into the national side was at the behest of a senior player in the team, which in Akram's case was Javed Miandad. Imran Khan, being the top fast bowler of Pakistan at the time, became the mentor of Wasim Akram. At the age of 30, Akram was diagnosed with diabetes. "I remember what a shock it was because I was a healthy sportsman with no history of diabetes in my family, so I didn't expect it at all. It seemed strange that it happened to me when I was 30, but it was a stressful time and doctors said that can trigger it." Since he has sought to be involved in various awareness campaigns for diabetes.
Akram married Huma Mufti in 1995. They had two sons from their marriage of 15 years: Akbar. Huma died of multiple organ failure at Apollo Hospital in Chennai, India, on 25 October 2009. On 7 July 2013, it was reported that Akram had become engaged to an Australian woman, Shaniera Thompson, whom he had met while on a visit to Melbourne in 2011 while participating in a Poker tournament at Crown Casino. Akram married Shaniera on 12 August 2013, he was quoted as saying: "I married Shaniera in Lahore in a simple ceremony, this is the start of a new life for me, my wife, for my kids." He moved from Lahore to Karachi with his wife and kids. On 3 September 2014, the couple tweeted that they were expecting their first baby—the third child of the Akram family. On 27 December 2014, Shaniera delivered Aiyla Sabeen Rose Akram, in Melbourne. In 1988, Akram signed for Lancashire County Cricket Club in England. From 1988 to 1998, he opened their bowling attack in their ECB Trophy and Hedges Cup, National League tournaments.
He was a favourite of the local British fans, who used to sing a song called "Wasim for England" at Lancashire's matches. In 1998, with Akram as captain, Lancashire won the ECB Trophy and Axa League and finished second in the championship tournament despite losing only five matches in all competitions throughout the season. Akram made his Test cricket debut for Pakistan against New Zealand in 1985, in his second Test match, he claimed 10 wickets. A few weeks prior to his selection into the Pakistan team, he was an unknown club cricketer who had failed to make it to his college team, he came to the trials at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore in Pakistan, but for the first two days he did not get a chance to bowl. On the third day, he got a chance. Akram was hence given an opportunity to play for Pakistan, without any significant domestic experience. Akram's rise in international cricket was rapid during the late 1980s, he was a part of the Pakistan team that toured the West Indies in 1988. However, a groin injury impeded his career in the late 1980s.
Following two surgeries, he re-emerged in the 1990s as a fast bowler who focused more on swing and accurate bowling. Akram started his ODI career against New Zealand in Pakistan in 1984 under the captaincy of Zaheer Abbas, he rose to prominence by taking five wickets in his 3rd ODI against
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
Duncan Andrew Gwynne Fletcher is a Zimbabwean ex-cricketer and the former coach of the Indian cricket team. He was the coach of the England cricket team from 1999–2007, is credited with the resurgence of the England team in Test cricket in the early 2000s. Fletcher was born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia and was one of five brothers in a Rhodesian farming family. Fletcher took Zimbabwe to victory in the 1982 ICC Trophy. Fletcher never played Test cricket in his playing career. Under Fletcher the England cricket team achieved famous series victories away to Sri Lanka, West Indies and South Africa between 2000–2004. In 2004 England won an English record 8 consecutive tests, beating New Zealand 3–0 and West Indies 4–0 at home before winning the first test in South Africa, his most famous and largest achievement however came in September 2005, when he became the first coach of the English team to win an Ashes series for 18 years when England secured 2–1 victory over Australia. In recognition of this winning the Ashes after 18 years, Fletcher was conferred with the OBE.
On 13 September 2005 Fletcher was awarded British citizenship after a five-year wait. Although both his parents and all his grandparents were ethnically English, i.e. of English/British descent, Fletcher had been denied citizenship by virtue of the fact he spent most of his time abroad—touring with the England team. After the Ashes series win of 2005, the Home Secretary, Charles Clarke, intervened to award Fletcher his long-sought citizenship. Fletcher received heavy criticism from all quarters after preferring Ashley Giles to Monty Panesar as England's main spinner in the first two Tests of the 2006-07 Ashes series. Following defeat to Australia by 206 runs in the third test on 18 December 2006 which saw England relinquish the Ashes 15 months after gaining them, the England and Wales Cricket Board confirmed that Fletcher's position as head coach was under review. Despite a brief reprieve in early 2007 when England won the Commonwealth Bank Series, Fletcher came under increased criticism as England performed poorly in the World Cup, which culminated in a nine wicket loss to South Africa in which the team were booed off the field by England's Barmy Army.
It was announced, on 19 April 2007, that his 8-year tenure as coach was to end following England's final Super 8 match against the West Indies on Saturday 21 April 2007. England's test record improved as soon as Fletcher took over in 1999, however the fortunes of the one-day side plummeted under Fletcher and the only major success in one day cricket under the Fletcher era came a mere three months before his exit, as England won the Commonwealth Bank Series by defeating Australia early in 2007. In November 2007 Fletcher confirmed that he was considering a switch to rugby, stating "I'd like to be a rugby consultant. I have some ideas... I love my rugby, I would rather watch rugby than cricket. I'm passionate about it, it's the game I'd like to have been involved in." On 5 November 2007 Fletcher's autobiography Behind The Shades was published. In November 2008 it was announced that Fletcher would take on a consultancy role with Hampshire for the 2009 season, days he took a similar role with the South Africa team ahead of their Test series with Bangladesh and Australia.
Fletcher was appointed coach of the India national cricket team on 27 April 2011, with a two-year contract. Fletcher had been one of the leading candidates for the appointment and bagged the job ahead of names like former New Zealand skipper Stephen Fleming and former Zimbabwe skipper Andy Flower. Fletcher is reported to have been outgoing India coach Gary Kirsten's recommendation. Under Fletcher's coaching, the Indian national team achieved 8 series victory in a row in 2013 including Champions Trophy, his contract was not renewed. He was replaced as coach by Anil Kumble. Fletcher's sister, Ann Grant captained the Zimbabwe women's field hockey team which won the gold medal in the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, his brother, Allan Fletcher, played seven first-class games for Rhodesia in the late 1970s. FACEBOOK PAGE OF DUNCAN FLETCHER Cricinfo page on Duncan Fletcher Duncan Fletcher article, – hero or culprit