The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571
Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 was a chartered flight that crashed on a glacier at an elevation of 3,570 metres in the remote Andes. Among the 45 people on board, 28 survived the initial crash. Facing starvation and death, the survivors reluctantly resorted to cannibalism. After 72 days on the glacier, 16 people were rescued; the flight carrying 19 members of a rugby team, family and friends originated in Montevideo and was headed for Santiago, Chile. While crossing the Andes, the inexperienced co-pilot, in command mistakenly believed they had reached Curicó, despite instrument readings indicating otherwise, he turned north and began to descend towards what he thought was Pudahuel Airport. Instead, the aircraft struck the mountain, shearing off the rear of the fuselage; the forward part of the fuselage careered down a steep slope like a toboggan and came to rest on a glacier. Three crew members and more than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash, several others succumbed to cold and injuries.
On the tenth day after the crash, the survivors learned from a transistor radio that the search had been called off. Faced with starvation and death, those still alive agreed that should they die, the others might consume their bodies in order to live. With no choice, the survivors ate the bodies of their dead friends. Seventeen days after the crash, 27 remained alive when an avalanche filled the rear of the broken fuselage they were using as shelter, killing eight more survivors; the survivors had no source of heat in the harsh conditions. They decided. Sixty days after the crash, passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, lacking mountaineering gear of any kind, climbed from the glacier at 3,570 metres to the 4,670 metres peak blocking their way west. Over 10 days they trekked about 38 miles seeking help; the first person they saw was Chilean arriero Sergio Catalán, who gave them food and rode for ten hours to alert authorities. The story of the passengers' survival after 72 days drew international attention.
The remaining 16 survivors were rescued on 23 December 1972, more than two months after the crash. The survivors were concerned about what the public and family members of the dead might think about their acts of eating the dead. There was an initial public backlash, but after they explained the pact the survivors made to sacrifice their flesh if they died to help the others survive, the outcry diminished and the families were more understanding; the incident was known as the Andes flight disaster and, in the Hispanic world, as El Milagro de los Andes. Members of the amateur Old Christians Club rugby union team from Montevideo, were scheduled to play a match against the Old Boys Club, an English rugby team in Santiago, Chile. Club president Daniel Juan chartered an Uruguayan Air Force twin turboprop Fairchild FH-227D to fly the team over the Andes to Santiago; the aircraft carried 5 crew members. Colonel Julio César Ferradas was an experienced Air Force pilot who had a total of 5,117 flying hours.
He was accompanied by co-pilot Lieutenant-Colonel Dante Héctor Lagurara. There were 10 extra seats and the team members invited a few friends and family members to accompany them; when someone cancelled at the last minute, Graziela Mariana bought the seat so she could attend her oldest daughter's wedding. The aircraft departed Carrasco International Airport on 12 October 1972, but a storm front over the Andes forced them to stop overnight in Mendoza, Argentina. Although there is a direct route from Mendoza to Santiago 200 kilometres to the west, the high mountains require flight levels of 25,000 to 26,000 feet close to the FH-227D's maximum operational ceiling of 28,000 feet. Given that the FH-227 aircraft was loaded, this route would have required the pilot to carefully calculate fuel consumption and to avoid the mountains. Instead, it was customary for this type of aircraft to fly a longer 600 kilometres, 90-minute U-shaped route from Mendoza south to Malargüe using the A7 airway. From there aircraft flew west via the G-17 airway, crossing Planchón Pass, to the Chilean town of Curicó, from there north to Santiago.
The weather on 13 October affected the flight. On that morning, conditions over the Andes had not improved but changes were expected by the early afternoon; the pilot took off at 2:18 PM on Friday 13 October from Mendoza. He flew south from Mendoza towards Malargüe at flight level 180. Lagurara radioed the Malargüe airport with their position and told them they would reach 2,515 metres high Planchón Pass at 3:21 PM; the pass is the hand-off point for air traffic control from one side of the Andes to the other. At the pass, controllers in Mendoza transfer flight tracking to Pudahuel air traffic control in Santiago, Chile. Once across the mountains in Chile, south of Curicó, aircraft turn north and initiate descent into Pudahuel Airport in Santiago. Pilot Ferradas had flown across the Andes 29 times. On this flight he was training co-pilot Lagurara, pilot in command; as they flew through the Andes, clouds obscured the mountains. The aircraft FAU 571 had only 792 airframe hours; the aircraft was regarded by some pilots as underpowered, had been nicknamed by them as the "lead-sled."Given the cloud cover, the pilots were flying under instrument meteorological conditions at an altitude of 18,000 feet, could not visually confirm their location.
While some reports state the pilot incorrectly estimated his position using dea
Ice Nine Kills
Ice Nine Kills is an American metalcore band from Boston, Massachusetts who are signed to Fearless Records. Best known for its horror-inspired lyrics, Ice Nine Kills formed in its earliest incarnation in 2002 by high school friends Spencer Charnas and Jeremy Schwartz; the group pursued a style of ska-punk into their own innovative blend of rock, but have since shifted into a style, described as theatricore, melodic hardcore, post-hardcore, heavy metal, symphonic metal. Charnas is the only remaining founding member. To date, Ice Nine Kills has released three EPs: 2 Song Acoustic and The Predator. Five full-length studio albums: Last Chance to Make Amends, Safe Is Just a Shadow, The Predator Becomes the Prey, their most successful albums to date, their band name is derived from the fictional substance ice-nine from the science fiction novel Cat's Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut. Ice Nine Kills was founded in 2002 under the name "Ice Nine" by high school friends Spencer Charnas and Jeremy Schwartz, before recruiting drummer Grant Newsted in 2003 and swapped out their then-bassist for Hobie Boeschenstein in 2004, but changed their name to Ice Nine Kills just before releasing their debut independent album Last Chance to Make Amends on April 20, 2006.
However, they did record a demo, entitled "The Pop-Punk-Ska Years", in 2002, which would be released in 2009. The following year on November 20, 2007, Ice Nine Kills released their EP, The Burning through Red Blue Records; the band set out on several national tours in support of the EP including opening slots on tours with I See Stars and Eyes Set To Kill among others. By 2008, the group had been invited to open for well-known acts such as As I Lay Dying, A Day To Remember, Paramore and a one off performance on the Taste of Chaos 2009 tour; that same year, Ice Nine Kills released 2 acoustic tracks on an EP titled 2 Song Acoustic. In mid 2009, Schwartz decided to leave the band after struggling with life on the road, leaving Charnas as the only original member. Charnas recruited former members of the Rochester NY based post-hardcore band Remember Tomorrow which had disbanded; this shifted Ice Nine Kills' sound into more of an experimental metalcore sound to which Ferret Music took notice and signed the band in the spring of 2009 and after their appearance on Warped Tour 2009 the band began writing and recording their next record.
Ice Nine Kills released their second full-length album Safe Is Just a Shadow on July 12, 2010. Vocalist Dave Sieling, who has since left the band, contributed clean vocals along with Spencer Charnas; the album received praise from heavy metal magazine, Revolver in the 2010 Hottest Chicks in Rock Issue and subsequently the band was invited to attend the Revolver Golden Gods awards in Los Angeles CA on April 20, 2010. The band supported Safe Is Just a Shadow with a two-week appearance on Warped Tour 2010, a supporting slot with Michigan-based nu metal band Taproot; the band performed on a headlining tour in the summer of 2011 as well as a performance at the Darien Lake NY stop of Warped Tour 2011 on the Dzambo Stage. The band released a music video inspired by the film Inglourious Basterds for their song "The People Under the Stairs" on June 20, 2011; that same day the band announced their partnership with Outerloop Management who represent We Came as Romans and Periphery among others. On May 12, 2012, it was announced that the band would be the opening act for the 2012 edition of The All Stars Tour featuring Suicide Silence, The Word Alive, Dance Gavin Dance, I See Stars, Attila.
Prior to The All Stars Tour the band supported Like Moths To Flames on their first headlining tour in Canada in Early June as well as a small midwest run supporting Norma Jean in July. It was announced on August 16, 2012 that the band would be supporting We Came As Romans and Abandon All Ships for a Canadian Tour taking place September 11 through the 17th; the band would close out 2012 by taking part in the "Party with The Devil" tour with Attila, Make Me Famous and Adestria from October 26 to November 15, followed by a short run with Like Moths To Flames from December 2 to 9. On November 22, 2012, Ice Nine Kills released an official lyric video for their new single "The Coffin is Moving". On that same date, they launched a Kickstarter campaign to raise money to fund their New EP. On December 22 the band announced that they had raised over $21,000 for their Kickstarter campaign and that their new EP "The Predator" would be released on January 15, 2013. To celebrate this announcement they released a second single from the EP entitled "What I Never Learned In Study Hall" featuring guest vocals from Tyler Carter vocalist of Issues.
The acoustic version of the song was released on January 8 on the Take Action compilation volume 11 via Hopeless Records. On January 9 Ice Nine Kills announced tours throughout February and March in support of I See Stars, For All Those Sleeping, The Color Morale, more; the band's second EP entitled The Predator was released on January 15, 2013 and debuted at No. 9 on the Billboard Heatseekers chart. On March 13, 2013, the band announced they would be playing the first 2 weeks of the 2013 Vans Warped Tour on the Ernie Ball stage as well as The All Stars Tour featuring Every Time I Die, Chelsea Grin, Iwrestledabearonce, more. On April 26, 2013, the band released a stand-alone single called "The Product of Hate", the song was released as a fundraising way t
Metalcore is a fusion genre combining elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk. The word is a portmanteau of the two genres. Among other styles blending metal and hardcore, such as crust punk and grindcore, metalcore is noted for its use of breakdowns, which are slow, intense passages conducive to moshing. Pioneering metalcore bands—such as Integrity, Earth Crisis and All Out War —are described as leaning more toward hardcore, with their style sometimes being called metallic hardcore, whereas bands—such as Killswitch Engage, All That Remains, Trivium, As I Lay Dying, Bullet for My Valentine, Parkway Drive—are described as leaning more towards metal. Pantera and Sepultura have been influential to the development of metalcore in the 2000s, which saw many bands in the genre achieve commercial success. Black Flag and Bad Brains, among the originators of hardcore and emulated Black Sabbath. British punk rock groups such as Discharge and the Exploited took inspiration from heavy metal; the Misfits put out the Earth A.
D. album. Nonetheless and metal cultures and music remained separate through the first half of the 1980s. Cross-pollination between metal and hardcore birthed the crossover thrash scene, which gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984; the term "metalcore" was used to refer to these crossover groups. Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity, D. R. I. and Suicidal Tendencies played alongside thrash metal groups like Slayer. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which began in 1984, included groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front and Warzone; the Cro-Mags were among the most influential of these bands, drawing from Bad Brains, Motörhead and Black Sabbath. Cro-Mags embraced straight edge and Krishna consciousness. Another New York metal-influenced straight edge group of this time period is the Crumbsuckers. 1985 saw the development of the hardcore breakdown, an amalgamation of Bad Brains' reggae and metal backgrounds, which encouraged moshing. Agnostic Front's 1986 album Cause for Alarm, a collaboration with Peter Steele, was a watershed in the intertwining of hardcore and metal.
Between 1984 and 1995, a wave of metallic hardcore bands emerged, including Hogan's Heroes, Earth Crisis, Shai Hulud, Strife, Vision of Disorder Hatebreed, Disembodied. Integrity drew influence from the hardcore band G. I. S. M. and the thrash metal band Slayer, with others like Septic Death, Motörhead and Joy Division. Earth Crisis and Hatebreed borrowed from hardcore punk and death metal. Earth Crisis's albums Firestorm, Destroy the Machines and Gomorrah's Season Ends were influential to the development of the genre. Biohazard and Overcast were important early metalcore groups. Journalist Lars Gotrich wrote, "Along with key records by The Dillinger Escape Plan and Botch, Give Them Rope is an underground milestone that helped what was soon called'metalcore'. At the risk of sounding too reductive—metalcore was the natural progression where extreme metal and hardcore met, but with spiraling time signatures that somehow felt more aggressive." Shai Hulud's 1997 album Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion became influential in the latter part of the decade.
In the early 2000s, metalcore started to gain more prominence, with several independent metal labels, including Century Media and Metal Blade, signing metalcore bands. A new subgenre, melodic metalcore influenced by Swedish melodic death metal, has formed and came to the forefront of metalcore's rise to popularity. By 2002, Killswitch Engage's Alive or Just Breathing, was the prominent album that thrust metalcore into the spotlight. In 2004 into Shadows Fall's The War Within, Atreyu's The Curse debuted at numbers 21, 20, 36 on the Billboard album chart. In 2006, Atreyu's third studio album, A Death-Grip on Yesterday debuted at Number 9 on the Billboard 200, only to be followed up by 2007's Lead Sails Paper Anchor, which debuted at Number 8. All That Remains' single "Two Weeks" peaked at number 9 at the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in the U. S; the song peaked on the Modern Rock Tracks chart at number 38. In 2007, the songs "Nothing Left" by As I Lay Dying and "Redemption" by Shadows Fall were nominated for a Grammy award in the "Best Metal Performance" category.
An Ocean Between Us itself was a commercial success, debuting at number 8 on the "Billboard 200". In 2008 Welsh metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine's second album, Scream Aim Fire, went straight to number 4 on the Billboard 200, surpassed in 2010 by their third album Fever, which debuted at number 3 selling more than 71,000 copies in its first week in the United States and more than 21,000 in the United Kingdom. Bullet for My Valentine's 2006 album The Poison was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Underoath's fifth album Define the Great Line, released in 2006, peaked at number 2 on the Billboard 200 charts, selling 98,000 copies in its first week. Trivium have met with success, making the top 25 positions on charts in several countries, including the United States, top 10 positions in both Australia and the United Kingdom. Hatebreed, God Forbid, As I Lay Dying have charted; the Devil Wears Prada achieved some commercial success with their album, With Roots Above and Branches Below, peaking at number 11 on the Billboard 200 upon its release.
Underoath's album Lost in the Sound of Separation rea
Survive! is a 1976 Mexican thriller film directed by René Cardona Jr. The film was released on January 15, 1976 in Mexico and is based on the 1973 book Survive! by Clay Blair, based on the Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571. A Uruguayan rugby team crashes in the Andes Mountains and has to survive the cold temperatures and rough climate; as some of the people die, the survivors are forced to make a terrible decision between starvation and cannibalism. Hugo Stiglitz as Francisco Norma Lazareno as Silvia Luz María Aguilar as Mrs. Madero Fernando Larrañaga as Madero Pablo Ferrel as Raúl Leonardo Daniel as Carmelo Sara Guasch as Mamá de Silvia Gloria Chávez as Mujer que va a boda José Elías Moreno as Rodrigo Fernández The New York Times gave a negative review for Survive!, calling it "an irksomely dubbed film of rudimentary exposition with a sometimes tinny musical accompaniment". Roger Ebert gave the film zero stars, saying, "In most movies featuring a lot of blood and cuts and close-ups of festering wounds and all that, the typical audience laughs to break the tension.
With Survive! though, the audience tends to be a little more sober, a little more thoughtful. Maybe that's because we realize that underlying this rather dumb, uninspired crude film is a true story of such compelling power that we're forced to think and respond." Alive Survive! on IMDb Survive! at AllMovie
Alive (1993 film)
Alive is a 1993 American biographical survival drama film based on Piers Paul Read's 1974 book Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors, which details a Uruguayan rugby team's crash aboard Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 into the Andes mountains on Friday, October 13, 1972. Filmed on location in the Purcell Mountains in British Columbia, the film was directed by Frank Marshall, written by John Patrick Shanley, narrated by John Malkovich, it features an ensemble cast including Ethan Hawke, Josh Hamilton, Vincent Spano, Bruce Ramsay, John Haymes Newton, Illeana Douglas, Danny Nucci. One of the survivors, Nando Parrado, served as the technical advisor for the film; the film opens with a group of photographs of the Stella Maris College's Old Christians Rugby Team. Carlitos Páez points out several members of the team and reflects on the accident in a brief monologue. Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 flies over the Andes on October 13, 1972; the raucous rugby players and a few of their relatives and friends are eagerly looking forward to an upcoming match in Chile.
Upon emerging from clouds, the plane encounters turbulence and collides with a mountain. The wings and tail are separated from the fuselage, which slides down a mountain slope before coming to a stop. Six passengers and one flight attendant are die. Antonio, the team captain, coordinates efforts to help the injured. Roberto Canessa and Gustavo Zerbino, both medical students, aid the injured. Another six passengers soon die, including Nando's mother, Eugenia. Nando, who sustained a head injury, falls into a coma, his sister Susana has suffered harsh internal injuries; as the sun sets, the survivors make preparations for the night. Canessa discovers that the seat covers can be used as blankets; the survivors curl up beside one another to stay warm. Antonio, Roy Harley, Rafael Cano plug the gaping hole at the end of the fuselage with luggage to keep out the wind. Two passengers die overnight. With nothing to hunt or gather on the mountain, Antonio declares they will use rationing when the survivors find a tin of chocolates and a case of wine.
After seeing a plane fly past, they think it dips its wing, the survivors celebrate. Expecting to be rescued the next day, everyone except Javier, his wife Liliana, Antonio eat the remaining chocolates; this causes a quarrel among several others. Nando regains consciousness. After learning of his mother's death, Nando watches over Susana vigilantly. Knowing she will die of her injuries within a few days, he vows to set off on foot and find a way out of the mountains; when Carlitos reminds him that he will need food, Nando suggests eating the flesh of the deceased pilots to give him the strength to survive the journey to find help. Susana dies from her injuries; the survivors listen to a radio for word of their rescue but are devastated to hear the search called off after nine days. After great debate, the starving passengers decide to eat the flesh of their dead relatives and friends. Zerbino and Juan Martino set off to search for the tail of the plane in hopes of finding batteries for the plane's radio to transmit their location.
Among pieces of the wreckage, the teammates find additional corpses, but return to the group with news that the tail of the plane is a little farther away. In the week, an avalanche strikes the plane and fills much of the interior with snow. Eight of the survivors are smothered by the freeze to death. A second team, made up of Nando and Antonio "Tintin" Vizintin, sets out and find the tail of the plane. Unable to bring the batteries to the fuselage, they return to the fuselage to get Roy, thought to have experience with electrical equipment, they bring him to the tail of the plane to see. When Roy is unsuccessful, the team returns to the fuselage. Federico and Alberto die from their injuries, as does Rafael, leading Nando to convince a reluctant Canessa to search for a way out of the mountains, taking Tintin with them. Two days into the journey, they send Tintin back to the fuselage so they can appropriate his rations and continue on their own. After a 12-day trek, the two escape the mountains and alert the authorities of their companions' location.
As helicopters land on the mountain, the remaining 14 survivors celebrate. In the present, Carlitos describes how the survivors returned to the site of the crash and buried the corpses under a pile of stones, marked with a cross; the memorial to the 29 deceased and 16 survivors is shown. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 62% of 26 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. David Ansen of Newsweek said that, while, "Piers Paul Read's acclaimed book... paid special attention to the social structure that evolved among the group... Marshall... downplays the fascinating sociological details—and the ambiguities of character—in favor of action, heroism and a vague religiosity that's sprinkled over the story like powdered sugar."Others, such as Ray Green, praised the tactful nature of the film stating that, "despite the potential for lurid sensationalism, Marshall manages to keep his and the film's dignity by steering an downbeat course through some grim goings on thanks in no small manner to the allegorical ring of Shanley's stylized dialogue."
Green continues by describing the film as, "thrilling and engrossing as it is at times, Alive is more than an action film—in its own way it is a drama of ideas, of the human spirit as well." Roger Ebert wrote "There are some stories you can't tell. The story of the Andes survivors may be one of them." He questioned the realism of how normal the actors' bodies looked after
Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Warwickshire, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only.
Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria. These games appear to have resembled rugby football; the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union.
In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland, it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards.
There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively. Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only