Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks and spinning kicks, fast kicking techniques. Taekwondo is a combative sport and was developed during the 1940s and 1950s by Korean martial artists with experience in martial arts such as karate, Chinese martial arts, indigenous Korean martial arts traditions such as Taekkyeon and Gwonbeop; the oldest governing body for taekwondo is the Korea Taekwondo Association, formed in 1959 through a collaborative effort by representatives from the nine original kwans, or martial arts schools, in Korea. The main international organisational bodies for taekwondo today are the International Taekwon-Do Federation, founded by Choi Hong Hi in 1966, the partnership of the Kukkiwon and World Taekwondo, founded in 1972 and 1973 by the Korea Taekwondo Association. Gyeorugi, a type of full-contact sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000; the governing body for taekwondo in the Olympics and Paralympics is World Taekwondo.
Beginning in 1945, shortly after the end of World War II, new martial arts schools called kwans opened in Seoul. These schools were established by Korean martial artists with backgrounds in Japanese and Korean martial arts; the umbrella term traditional taekwondo refers to the martial arts practiced by the kwans during the 1940s and 1950s, though in reality the term "taekwondo" had not yet been coined at that time, indeed each Kwan was practicing its own unique style of martial art. During this time taekwondo was adopted for use by the South Korean military, which increased its popularity among civilian martial arts schools. After witnessing a martial arts demonstration by the military in 1952, South Korean President Syngman Rhee urged that the martial arts styles of the kwans be merged. Beginning in 1955 the leaders of the kwans began discussing in earnest the possibility of creating a unified style of Korean martial arts; the name Tae Soo Do was used to describe this unified style. This name consists of the hanja 跆 tae "to stomp, trample", 手 su "hand" and 道 do "way, discipline".
Choi Hong Hi advocated the use of the name Tae Kwon Do, i.e. replacing su "hand" by 拳 kwon "fist", the term used for "martial arts" in Chinese. The new name was slow to catch on among the leaders of the kwans. In 1959 the Korea Taekwondo Association was established to facilitate the unification of Korean martial arts. In 1966, Choi broke with the KTA to establish the International Taekwon-Do Federation - a separate governing body devoted to institutionalizing his own style of taekwondo. Cold War politics of the 1960s and 1970s complicated the adoption of ITF-style taekwondo as a unified style, however; the South Korean government wished to avoid North Korean influence on the martial art. Conversely, ITF president Choi Hong Hi sought support for the martial art from all quarters, including North Korea. In response, in 1973 South Korea withdrew its support for the ITF; the ITF continued to function as an independent federation headquartered in Toronto, Canada. After Choi's retirement, the ITF split in 2001 and again in 2002 to create three separate federations each of which continues to operate today under the same name.
In 1973 the South Korean government's Ministry of Culture and Tourism established the Kukkiwon as the new national academy for taekwondo. Kukkiwon now serves many of the functions served by the KTA, in terms of defining a government-sponsored unified style of taekwondo. In 1973 the KTA and Kukkiwon supported the establishment of the World Taekwondo Federation to promote taekwondo as an international sport. WT competitions employ Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. For this reason, Kukkiwon-style taekwondo is referred to as WT-style taekwondo, sport-style taekwondo, or Olympic-style taekwondo, though in reality the style is defined by the Kukkiwon, not the WTF. Since 2000, taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts that are included in the Olympic Games, it started as a demonstration event at the 1988 games in Seoul, a year after becoming a medal event at the Pan Am Games, became an official medal event at the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport.
Taekwondo is characterized by its emphasis on head-height kicks and spinning kicks, fast kicking techniques. In fact, World Taekwondo sparring competitions award additional points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the head, or both. To facilitate fast, turning kicks, taekwondo adopts stances that are narrower and taller than the broader, wide stances used by martial arts such as karate; the tradeoff of decreased stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility in Kukkiwon-style taekwondo. The emphasis on speed and agility is a defining characteristic of taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong Hi; the results of that analysis are known by ITF practitioners as Choi's Theory of Power. Choi based his understanding of power on biomechanics and Newtonian physics as well as Chinese martial arts. For example, Choi observed that the power of a strike increases quadratically with the speed of the strike, but increases only linearly with the mass of the striking object.
In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating power. This principle w
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Jennifer Lynn Lopez is an American singer, actress and producer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on In Living Color, where she remained a regular until she decided to pursue an acting career in 1993. For her first leading role in the 1997 Selena biopic of the same name, Lopez received a Golden Globe nomination and became the first Latin actress to earn over US$1 million for a film, she went on to star in Anaconda and Out of Sight establishing herself as the highest-paid Latin actress in Hollywood. Lopez ventured into the music industry with her debut studio album On the 6, which helped propel the Latin pop movement in American music. With the simultaneous release of her second studio album J. Lo and her romantic comedy The Wedding Planner in 2001, Lopez became the first woman to have a number one album and film in the same week, her 2002 remix album, J to tha L–O! The Remixes, became the first in history to debut at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200; that year, she released her third studio album This Is Me...
And appeared in Maid in Manhattan. After starring in Gigli, a critical and commercial failure, Lopez subsequently starred in the successful romantic comedies Shall We Dance? and Monster-in-Law. Her fifth studio album, Como Ama una Mujer, received the highest first-week sales for a debut Spanish album in the United States. Following an unsuccessful period, she returned to prominence in 2011 with her appearance as a judge on American Idol, released her seventh studio album Love?. In 2016, she began starring in the crime drama series Shades of Blue and commenced a residency show, Jennifer Lopez: All I Have, at Planet Hollywood Las Vegas. Since 2017, Lopez has served as a judge on World of Dance. In 2018, she starred in the film Second Act. With a cumulative film gross of US$3 billion and estimated global sales of 80 million records, Lopez is regarded as the most influential Latin performer in the United States. In 2012, Forbes ranked her as the most powerful celebrity in the world, as well as the 38th most powerful woman in the world.
Time listed her among the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018. Her most successful singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 include: "If You Had My Love", "Love Don't Cost a Thing", "I'm Real", "Ain't It Funny", "Jenny from the Block", "All I Have", "On the Floor", one of the best-selling singles of all time. For her contributions to the music industry, Lopez has received a landmark star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, the Billboard Icon Award and the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award among other honors, her other ventures include clothing lines, fragrances, a production company, a charitable foundation. Jennifer Lynn Lopez was born on July 24, 1969, in The Bronx borough of New York City, to Puerto Rican parents Guadalupe Rodríguez and David López, she has an older sister, a younger sister, Lynda, a journalist. David worked the night shift at the Guardian Insurance Company before becoming a computer technician at the firm, while Guadalupe was a homemaker; when Lopez was born, the family was living in a small apartment in the Castle Hill neighborhood.
A few years her parents had saved up enough money to be able to purchase a two-story house, considered a big deal for the poor family. At the age of five, Lopez began taking dancing lessons, she toured New York with her school. Her parents stressed the importance of work ethic and being able to speak English, they encouraged their three daughters to put on performances at home—singing and dancing in front of each other and their friends so that they would stay "out of trouble". Lopez spent her entire academic career in Catholic schools. In school, Lopez did gymnastics, ran track on a national level, was a member of the school's softball team, she excelled athletically rather than academically. While attending her final year of high school, Lopez learned about a film casting, seeking several teenage girls for small roles, she auditioned and was cast in My Little Girl, a low-budget film co-written and directed by Connie Kaiserman. Lopez acted as a young woman at a center for troubled girls. After she finished filming her role in the film, Lopez realized that she wanted to become a "famous movie star".
To please her parents, she enrolled in Baruch College, only to drop out after one semester. She told her parents about her dream of becoming a movie star, but they insisted that it was a "really stupid" idea and that "no Latinos did that"; the differences in opinions led Lopez to move out of their family home and into an apartment in Manhattan. During this period, Lopez performed in regional productions of the musicals Jesus Christ Superstar and Oklahoma!. From there, she was hired for the chorus in a Golden Musicals of Broadway, which toured Europe for five months, she was unhappy with the role. She got a job on the show Synchronicity in Japan, where she acted as a dancer and choreographer. Lopez was selected as a backup dancer for the New Kids on the Block in 1991 and performed with them during their performance of "Games" at the 18th Annual American Music Awards. Shortly after, Lopez gained her first regular high-profile job as a Fly Girl dancer on the television program In Living Color, she applied for the job.
Out of 2,000 applicants, Lopez made it to the finals. She was the runner-up but received the role when the winner was unable to accept the job, she moved to Los Angeles to film the series and remained a r
Sandra Annette Bullock is an American actress and philanthropist. She was the highest paid actress in the world in 2010 and 2014. In 2015, Bullock was chosen as People's Most Beautiful Woman, was included in Time's 100 most influential people in the world in 2010. Bullock is the recipient including an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award. After making her acting debut with a minor role in the thriller Hangmen, Bullock received early attention for her supporting work in the action film Demolition Man, her breakthrough came in the action thriller Speed. She established herself in the 1990s, with leading roles in the romantic comedies While You Were Sleeping and Hope Floats, thrillers The Net and A Time to Kill. Bullock achieved further success in the following decades with the comedies Miss Congeniality, Two Weeks Notice, The Proposal, The Heat, Ocean's 8, the drama Crash, the thrillers Premonition and Bird Box. Bullock was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actress and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Drama for portraying Leigh Anne Tuohy in the biographical drama The Blind Side.
She was nominated in the same categories for playing an astronaut stranded in space in the science fiction thriller Gravity, her highest-grossing live-action release. In addition to her acting career, Bullock is the founder of the production company Fortis Films, she has produced some of the films in which she has starred, including Miss Congeniality 2: Armed and Fabulous and All About Steve. She was an executive producer of the ABC sitcom George Lopez and made several appearances during its run. Bullock was born in Arlington, Virginia, on July 26, 1964, the daughter of John W. Bullock, an Army employee and part-time voice coach from Birmingham and Helga Mathilde Meyer, an opera singer and voice teacher from Germany. Bullock's maternal grandfather was a German rocket scientist from Nuremberg. John, in charge of the Army's Military Postal Service in Europe, was stationed in Nuremberg when he met Helga, they married in Germany and moved to Arlington, where John worked with the Army Materiel Command before becoming a contractor for The Pentagon.
Bullock has a younger sister, Gesine Bullock-Prado, who served as president of Bullock's production company Fortis Films. Bullock was raised in Germany and Austria for 12 years, grew up speaking German, she had a Waldorf education in Nuremberg. As a child, while her mother went on European opera tours, Bullock stayed with her aunt Christl and cousin Susanne, the latter of whom married politician Peter Ramsauer. Bullock studied ballet and vocal arts as a child and accompanied her mother, taking small parts in her opera productions. In Nuremberg, she sang in the opera's children's choir. Bullock has a scar above her left eye, caused by a fall into a creek when she was a child. While she maintains her American citizenship, Bullock applied for German citizenship in 2009. Bullock attended Washington-Lee High School, where she was a cheerleader and performed in school theater productions. After graduating in 1982, she attended East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, where she received a BFA in Drama in 1987.
While at ECU, she performed in multiple theater productions including Three Sisters. She moved to Manhattan, New York, where she supported herself as a bartender, cocktail waitress, coat checker while auditioning for roles. While in New York, Bullock took acting classes with Sanford Meisner, she appeared in several student films, landed a role in an Off-Broadway play No Time Flat. Director Alan J. Levi was impressed by Bullock's performance and offered her a part in the made-for-television film Bionic Showdown: The Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman; this led to her being cast in a series of small roles in several independent films as well as in the lead role of the short-lived NBC television version of the film Working Girl. She went on to appear in several films, such as Love Potion No. 9, The Thing Called Love and Fire on the Amazon, before rising to early prominence with her supporting role in the sci-fi action film Demolition Man. Bullock's big breakthrough came in 1994, when she starred as one of the passengers of a city bus containing a bomb in the action thriller Speed alongside actor Keanu Reeves.
She was required to read for Speed to make sure there was the right chemistry between her and Reeves. She recalls that they had to do "all these physical scenes together, rolling around on the floor and stuff." Speed garnered acclaim from critics who, according to Rotten Tomatoes, asserted it was a "terrific popcorn thriller outstanding performances from Keanu Reeves, Dennis Hopper, Sandra Bullock". It took in US$350 million worldwide. After the success of Speed, Bullock established herself as a Hollywood leading actress. In the romantic comedy While You Were Sleeping, she portrayed a lonely Chicago Transit Authority token collector who saves the life of a man. While the film made US$182 million globally, it received positive reviews, with Rotten Tomatoes' critical consensus reading: "While You Were Sleeping is built wholly from familiar ingredients, but assembled with such skill—and with such a charming performance from Sandra Bullock—that it gives formula a good name." She received her first Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.
In 1995, Bullock starred in the thriller The Net as a computer programmer who stumbles upon a conspiracy that puts h
Contemporary R&B is a music genre that combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop and electronic music. The genre features a distinctive record production style, drum machine-backed rhythms, pitch corrected vocals, a smooth, lush style of vocal arrangement. Electronic influences are becoming an increasing trend and the use of hip hop or dance-inspired beats are typical, although the roughness and grit inherent in hip hop may be reduced and smoothed out. Contemporary R&B vocalists are known for their use of melisma, popularized by vocalists such as Michael Jackson, R. Kelly, Craig David, Stevie Wonder, Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey. Contemporary R&B originated at the end of the disco era, in the late-1970s, when Michael Jackson and Quincy Jones added more electronic elements to the sound of the time to create a smoother dancefloor-friendly sound; the first result was Off the Wall, which—according to Stephen Thomas Erlewine from AllMusic—"was a visionary album, that found a way to break disco wide open into a new world where the beat was undeniable, but not the primary focus" and "was part of a colorful tapestry of lush ballads and strings, smooth soul and pop, soft rock, alluring funk".
Richard J. Ripani wrote that Janet Jackson's Control was "important to the development of R&B for a number of reasons", as she and her producers, Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, "crafted a new sound that fuses the rhythmic elements of funk and disco, along with heavy doses of synthesizers, sound effects, a rap music sensibility." Ripani wrote that "the success of Control led to the incorporation of stylistic traits of rap over the next few years, Janet Jackson was to continue to be one of the leaders in that development." That same year, Teddy Riley began. This combination of R&B style and hip hop rhythms was termed new jack swing and was applied to artists such as Michael Jackson, Bobby Brown, Keith Sweat, Al B. Sure!, Guy and Bell Biv DeVoe. In contrast to the works of Boyz II Men and similar artists, other R&B artists and groups from this same period began adding more of a hip-hop sound to their work, like the innovative group Jodeci; the synthesizer-heavy rhythm tracks of new jack swing were replaced by grittier East Coast hip hop-inspired backing tracks, resulting in a genre labeled hip hop soul by Mary J. Blige and producer Sean Combs who had mentored group Jodeci in the beginning and helped them with their unique look.
The style became less popular by the end of the 1990s, but experienced a resurgence. In 1990, Mariah Carey released Vision of Love, it was immensely popular peaking at number 1 in many worldwide charts including the Billboard Hot 100, it propelled Mariah's career. The song is said to have popularized the use of melisma and brought it in to mainstream R&B. During the mid-1990s, Whitney Houston's The Bodyguard: Original Soundtrack Album sold over 40 million copies worldwide becoming the best-selling soundtrack of all time. Janet Jackson's self-titled fifth studio album janet. which came after her historic multimillion-dollar contract with Virgin Records, sold over twenty million copies worldwide. Boyz II Men and Mariah Carey recorded several Billboard Hot 100 No. 1 hits, including "One Sweet Day", a collaboration between both acts, which became the longest-running No. 1 hit in Hot 100 history. Carey released a remix of her 1995 single "Fantasy", with Ol' Dirty Bastard as a feature, a collaboration format, unheard of at this point.
Carey, Boyz II Men and TLC released albums in 1994 and 1995 -- II and CrazySexyCool. In the late 1990s, neo soul, which added 1970s soul influences to the hip hop soul blend, led by artists such as D'Angelo, Erykah Badu, Lauryn Hill and Maxwell. Hill and Missy Elliott further blurred the line between hip hop by recording both styles. Beginning in 1995, the Grammy Awards enacted the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album, with II by Boyz II Men becoming the first recipient; the award was received by TLC for CrazySexyCool in 1996, Tony Rich for Words in 1997, Erykah Badu for Baduizm in 1998 and Lauryn Hill for The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill in 1999. At the end of 1999, Billboard magazine ranked Mariah Carey and Janet Jackson as the first and second most successful artists of the 1990s. In the second half of the 1990s, The Neptunes and Timbaland set influential precedence on contemporary R&B and hip hop music. R&B acts such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Janet Jackson, Mariah Carey and Toni Braxton are some of the best-selling music artists of all time.
Following periods of fluctuating success, urban music attained commercial dominance during the early 2000s, which featured massive crossover success on the Billboard charts by R&B and hip hop artists. In 2001, Alicia Keys released "Fallin"', it peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, Mainstream Top 40 and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs charts. It won three Grammy Awards in 2002, including Song of the Year, Best R&B Song, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, it was nominated for Record of the Year. Beyoncé's solo studio debut album Dangerously in Love has sold over 5 million copies in the United States and earned five Grammy Awards. Usher's Confessions sold 1.1 million copies in its first week and over 8 million copies in 2004, since it has been certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America and, as of 2016, has sold over 10 million copies in the US and over 20 million copies worldwide. Confessions had four consecutive Billboard Hot 100 number one singles—"Yeah!", "Burn", "Confessions Part II" and "My Boo".
In 2004, all 12 songs that topped Billboard Hot 100 were
Epic Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, Inc. the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. The label was founded predominantly as a jazz and classical music label in 1953, but expanded its scope to include a more diverse range of genres, including pop, R&B, hip hop. Epic Records has released music by artists including Glenn Miller, Tammy Wynette, George Michael, The Yardbirds, Shakin Stevens, Cheap Trick, Meat Loaf, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Ted Nugent, Sly & the Family Stone, The Hollies, Celine Dion, ABBA, Culture Club, Dave Clark Five, Gloria Estefan, Pearl Jam, Rage Against the Machine, Michael Jackson. Along with Arista, Columbia and RCA Records, Epic is one of Sony Music Entertainment's four flagship record labels. Artists who have signed to Epic Records include French Montana, Fiona Apple, Sara Bareilles, Jennifer Lopez, Keyshia Cole, Hardwell, Fifth Harmony, Jennifer Hudson, Zara Larsson, Mariah Carey, Ozzy Osbourne, Judas Priest, Busta Rhymes, Rick Ross, 21 Savage, Travis Scott, DJ Khaled, Meghan Trainor, Camila Cabello, Swizz Beatz and Louis Tomlinson.
Epic Records was launched in 1953 by the Columbia Records unit of CBS for the purpose of marketing jazz and classical music that did not fit the theme of its more mainstream Columbia Records label. Initial classical music releases were from Philips Records which distributed Columbia product in Europe. Pop talent on co-owned Okeh Records were transferred to Epic which made Okeh a rhythm and blues label. Epic's bright-yellow and blue logo became a familiar trademark for many jazz and classical releases; this has included such notables as the Berlin Philharmonic, Charles Rosen, the Juilliard String Quartet, Antal Doráti conducting the Hague Philharmonic and George Szell conducting the Cleveland Orchestra. By 1960, Epic became better known for its signing of newer, fledgling acts. By the end of the 1960s, Epic earned its first gold records and had evolved into a formidable hit-making force in rock and roll, R&B and country music. Among its many acts, it included Roy Hamilton, Bobby Vinton, The Dave Clark Five, The Hollies, Tammy Wynette, The Yardbirds, July, Helen Shapiro and Jeff Beck.
Several of the British artists on the Epic roster during the 1960s were the result of CBS's Epic/Okeh units' international distribution deal with EMI. Epic was involved in a notable "trade" of artists. Graham Nash was signed to Epic because of his membership in The Hollies; when the newly formed Crosby, Stills & Nash wanted to sign with Atlantic Records, Ahmet Ertegün worked out a deal with Clive Davis whereby Richie Furay's new band Poco would sign with Epic. Epic's commercial success continued to grow in the 1970s with releases from ABBA in the UK, Cheap Trick, The Clash, Charlie Daniels, Heart, The Isley Brothers, The Jacksons, George Jones, Meat Loaf, Johnny Nash, Ted Nugent, REO Speedwagon, Minnie Riperton, Charlie Rich, Sly & the Family Stone, Steve Vai, Edgar Winter. Contributing to the label's success was its distribution of Philadelphia International Records, which produced additional hit records by acts such as The Three Degrees and McFadden and Whitehead. During the 1960s, Epic oversaw the smaller subsidiary CBS labels including Okeh Records and Date Records.
In 1968, Epic recordings began being distributed in the UK by CBS after the distribution deal with EMI expired that year. Sony Corporation bought CBS Records in 1987, the company was renamed Sony Music in 1991, it began splitting European operations into two separate labels and Columbia, in 1992, in 1997, Sony Music Australia and New Zealand followed suit. In 2004, Sony merged with music distributor BMG, bringing Arista Records, Columbia Records, Epic Records, J Records, Jive Records, RCA Records, Zomba Group of Companies to one parent company known as Sony BMG Music Entertainment. In 2008, Sony bought out BMG for $1.2 billion, bringing all affiliated labels together as Sony Music Entertainment International, SMEI. The merger was approved by the European Union in 2009. Epic's 1980s and 1990s mainstream success were fueled by its signing and releasing of albums by notable acts such as Michael Jackson, Culture Club, the Miami Sound Machine and Gloria Estefan and George Michael, Adam Ant, Living Colour, Dead or Alive, Cyndi Lauper, Ozzy Osbourne, Pearl Jam, Luther Vandross, Stevie Ray Vaughan, Rage Against the Machine, Céline Dion, Oasis among others.
One of the label's greatest financial payoffs came via the release of Thriller, the 1982 album by Michael Jackson, which went on to achieve 51–65 million in worldwide sales, becoming the biggest selling album in history. Epic Soundtrax was founded in 1992, it was central to Epic's 1990s success, with 11 releases cumulatively selling more than 40 million records over a three-year period. Notable releases included soundtrack albums for Honeymoon in Vegas, Sleepless in Seattle, Forrest Gump and Judgement Night. In July 2011, L. A. Reid became the CEO of Epic Records, signing artists such as TLC, Toni Braxton, Cher Lloyd, Avril Lavigne, Future, Yo Gotti, Meghan Trainor, DJ Khaled and Travis Scott. Epic signed the winners of The X Factor during the seasons that Reid appeared on the show. In 2013, Sylvia Rhone, former president of Universal Motown, launched the imprint Vested In Culture through Epic Records. A year she was named president of the label. In November 2014, Mosley Music Group created