Henry I, Count of Champagne
Henry I, known as the Liberal, was count of Champagne from 1152 to 1181. He was the eldest son of Count Thibaut II of Champagne and his wife, Henry took part in the Second Crusade under the leadership of Louis VII of France. On his fathers death, Henry chose to take Champagne, leaving the familys holdings to his younger brothers. At the time this may have been surprising, for the territories were richer and better developed. Henry must have foreseen the economic possibilities of Champagne, and it is during his rule that the county achieved its place as one of the richest and strongest of the French principalities. Henry established orderly rule over the nobles of Champagne, and could fairly reliably count on the aid of some 2,000 vassals, in addition, the counts court in Troyes became a renowned literary center. Walter Map was among those who found hospitality there, the scholar Stephen of Alinerre was among Henrys courtiers, becoming chancellor of the county in 1176. In 1179 Henry went to Jerusalem again with a party of French knights including his relatives Peter of Courtenay and Philip of Dreux, bishop of Beauvais.
Henry returned towards Europe by the route across Asia Minor. The ransom was paid by the Byzantine Emperor, Henry would die,16 March 1181. In 1164, Henry married Marie of France, daughter of Louis VII of France and he was buried there, as was his son Theobald III, but most of his descendants were buried elsewhere. He died in 1181 and was succeeded by their eldest son Henry, after Henry became king of Jerusalem, the younger son Theobald became count. The Court of Champagne as a Literary Center, abbot Hugh, An Overlooked Brother of Henry I, Count of Champagne. The Aristocracy in the County of Champagne, 1100-1300, Henry the Liberal, Count of Champagne, 1127-1181. The Leper King and His Heirs, Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Hildegarde of Burgundy
Hildegarde of Burgundy was a French noblewoman. She was the daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy with his second wife. She was, and by marriage, Duchess of Gascony and Aquitaine and she married William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine, she was his third wife. William and Hildegarde had these children together, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine Agnes of Aquitaine, Queen of Aragon, william’s birth was a cause of great celebration at the Aquitanian court, but the Church at first considered him illegitimate because of his parents’ consanguinity. This obliged his father to make a pilgrimage to Rome soon after his birth to seek approval of his marriage to Hildegarde
Marie of France, Countess of Champagne
Marie of France was a French princess and Countess consort of Champagne. She was regent of the county of Champagne in 1179-1181, and she was the elder daughter of King Louis VII of France and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. Her parents marriage was annulled in 1152, and custody of Marie and her sister, both Louis and Eleanor remarried quickly, with Eleanor becoming Queen of England as the spouse of King Henry II. Marie had numerous half-siblings, including kings Philip II of France and John, in 1160, when Louis married Adele of Champagne, he betrothed Marie and Alix to Adeles brothers. After her betrothal, Marie was sent to the abbey of Avenay in Champagne for her education, in 1164, Marie married Henry I, Count of Champagne. While her husband was away, Maries father died and her half-brother, Philip and he confiscated his mothers dower lands and married Isabelle of Hainaut, who was previously betrothed to Maries eldest son. This prompted Marie to join a party of disgruntled nobles—including Queen Adele, relations between Marie and her royal brother improved.
Her husband died soon after his return from the Holy Land, now a widow with four young children, Marie considered marrying Philip of Flanders, but the engagement was broken off suddenly for unknown reasons. Marie resumed regency when her son went on Crusade, governing Champagne from 1190 to Henrys death in 1197. She retired to the nunnery of Fontaines-les-Nones near Meaux, and died there in 1198, on 25 June 1562, the Huguenots took over the town of Meaux and devastated many edifices, including the Cathedral. Backed up by Parisian refugees, the Huguenots of the Meaux region called a meeting in the district and chose a leader, Louis de Meaux. They took the keys to the town, put guards at the gates and they attacked the sculpted stone decorations and liturgical furniture, it is on this occasion that the tomb of Marie de Champagne, in the choir, was destroyed. Marie was a patron of literature, including Andreas Capellanus, who served in her court and she was literate in French and Latin and maintained her own library.
A deep affection existed between Marie and her half-brother King Richard, and his celebrated poem Ja nuns hons pris, Eleanor of Aquitaine and Lady,2002 Evergates, Theodore. Aristocratic Women in Medieval France,1999
Otto I, Count of Burgundy
Otto I was Count of Burgundy from 1190 to his death and briefly Count of Luxembourg from 1196 to 1197. He was the son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor by his second wife Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy. Upon the death of his mother in 1184, his father granted him the Burgundian county, when Henry IV, Count of Luxembourg died without heirs in 1196, his county escheated to the Emperor and Henry VI enfeoffed his brother Otto. Theobald I, Count of Bar, who had married Ermesinde, daughter of late Count Henry IV, Count Palatine Ottos regional conflicts had become a severe threat to the power politics of his Hohenstaufen relatives. After Philip of Swabia had been elected King of the Romans in 1198, rivaling with the Welf duke Otto of Brunswick, in 1200 Otto was assassinated at Besançon, his death came in useful to many political actors. Otto was buried at St Stephens Cathedral, today the site of the Citadel of Besançon, Otto had married Margaret, daughter of Theobald V, Count of Blois, in 1192.
After her husbands death her brother-in-law King Philip enfeoffed her with the Burgundian county, upon Joannas death in 1205, Ottos second daughter, became countess and Philip married her to Otto I, Duke of Merania
Floris I, Count of Holland
Floris I of Holland was Count of Holland, called Frisia west of the Vlie, from 1049 to 1061. He was a son of Dirk III and Othelindis and he succeeded his brother Dirk IV, Count of Holland, who was murdered in 1049. He was involved in a war of a few Lotharingian vassals against the imperial authority, on a retreat from Zaltbommel he was ambushed and killed in battle at Nederhemert, on 28 June 1061. Gertrude married secondly in 1063 Robert the Frisian, Count of Flanders, who acted as guardian for the children of her previous marriage and as regent for his stepson until 1071
Anne of Kiev
Anne of Kiev, Anna Yaroslavna, Anna of Rus called Agnes, was the queen consort of Henry I of France, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Philip I of France, from 1060 until 1065. Anne founded St. Vincent Abbey in Senlis, Anne was born between 1024 and 1032. Her parents were Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod, there is not much information about her childhood, but she was evidently given a careful education, and could read and write, which was rare even among royal princesses at the time. In 1043–44, Anne was suggested to marry Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1049, the King of France sent an embassy to distant Kiev, which returned with Anne. But she did bring wealth to the match, including a jacinth which Suger mounted in the reliquary of St Denis and Henry I were married at the cathedral of Reims on 19 May 1051. Immediately after the ceremony, she was crowned queen of France and she became the first French queen to be crowned at Reims. Only one year after the marriage, Anne fulfilled her task by giving birth to an heir to the throne, Anne came to play an important personal role as queen of France.
As queen, it was her role to act as the manager of the court and household, supervise the upbringing of the royal children. But she came to play a political role, Queen Anne could ride a horse, was knowledgeable in politics, and actively participated in governing France. She accompanied Henry I on his travels around France. Many French documents bear her signature, written in old Slavic language, Henry I respected Anna so much that his many decrees bear the inscription With the consent of my wife Anna and In the presence of Queen Anna. French historians point out there are no other cases in the French history. On 4 August 1060, Henry I died and was succeeded by her son Philip I, by that time eight years old. During his minority, Anne, as a member of the council, acted as Regent of France. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent, Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.
In 1061, the Regent Anne reportedly took a fancy for Count Ralph IV of Valois. The traditional story describe how Ralph IV organized an abduction of Anne when she was hunting in the hunting grounds in Senlis and brought her to Crépy-en-Valois. Accused of adultery, Ralph IVs wife Eleanor de Montdidier appealed to Pope Alexander II, the Popes investigation resulted in the marriage between Anne and Ralph IV to be declared invalid and Ralph IV to be excommunicated in 1064
Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin, Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent, following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwins wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071, Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort. He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092, in 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time, after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.
In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his fathers, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals, in 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in 1100, he took control of Bourges. It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched, Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philips brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant, Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, according to Abbot Suger, Philip‘s children with Bertha were, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106
Henry I of France
Henry I was King of the Franks from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign and this is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy. A member of the House of Capet, Henry was born in Reims and he was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on 14 May 1027, in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his fathers death, the reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert, with the support of their mother and his mother, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032, he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had him in 1016. In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, in 1051, William married Matilda, the daughter of the count of Flanders, which Henry saw as a threat to his throne.
In 1054, and again in 1057, Henry invaded Normandy, Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor—all at Ivois. In early 1043, he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou, in October 1048, the two Henries met again and signed a treaty of friendship. The final meeting place in May 1056 and concerned disputes over Theobald III. The debate over the duchy became so heated that Henry accused the emperor of breach of contract, in 1058, Henry was selling bishoprics and abbacies, ignoring the accusations of simony and tyranny by the Papal legate Cardinal Humbert. Despite his efforts, Henry Is twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle, King Henry I died on 4 August 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie and was interred in Basilica of St Denis. He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France, at the time of his death, he was besieging Thimert, which had been occupied by the Normans since 1058. He was Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032, when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert, Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, but she died prematurely in 1034.
Henry married Matilda of Frisia, but she died in 1044, casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry married Anne of Kiev on 19 May 1051. They had four children, Philip I, vajay, S. Mathilde, reine de France inconnue,1971
Gertrude of Saxony
Gertrude of Saxony, known as Gertrude Billung, was a countess consort of Holland, and a countess consort of Flanders by marriage. She was regent of Holland during the minority of her son and she was the daughter of Bernard II, Duke of Saxony and Eilika of Schweinfurt. She married Floris I, Count of Holland c,1050, and upon his death, her son Dirk V became Count of Holland. Since he was young, she became regent. When Dirk V came into power, William I, Bishop of Utrecht, took advantage of the situation and her son withdrew to the islands of Frisia, leaving William to occupy the disputed lands. In 1063 Gertrude married Robert of Flanders, the son of Baldwin V of Flanders. This act gave Dirk the Imperial Flanders as an appanage – including the islands of Frisia west of the Frisian Scheldt and she and her husband acted as co-regents for the young count. She had a total of seven children with Floris I, Dirk V. Peter, a canon in Liége. Bertha, who married Philip I of France in 1072, matilda Adela, who married Count Baudouin I of Guînes.
From her second marriage to Robert I she had five children, who first married king Canute IV of Denmark, and was the mother of Charles the Good, count of Flanders. She married Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia, who married Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine, and was the mother of Thierry of Alsace, later count of Flanders. Philip of Loo, whose illegitimate son William of Ypres was a claimant to the county of Flanders, genealogy A-Z Medieval Lands Project on Gertrude of Saxony
Adelaide of Maurienne
Adelaide of Savoy was the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France. Adelaide was the daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II and she became the second wife of Louis VI of France, whom she married on 3 August 1113/14 in Paris, France. They had eight children, the second of whom became Louis VII of France, adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens. Her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI, during her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king. Among many other religious benefactions and Louis founded the monastery of St Peters at Montmartre, after Louis VIs death, Adélaide did not immediately retire to conventual life, as did most widowed queens of the time. Instead she married Matthieu I of Montmorency, with whom she had one child and she remained active in the French court and in religious activities. Adélaide is one of two queens in a legend related by William Dugdale, as the story goes, Queen Adélaide of France became enamoured of a young knight, William dAlbini, at a joust.
But he was engaged to Adeliza of Louvain and refused to become her lover. The jealous Adélaide lured him into the clutches of a hungry lion and this story is almost without a doubt apocryphal. In 1153 she retired to the abbey of Montmartre, which she had founded with Louis VII and she died there on 18 November 1154. She was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Pierre at Montmartre, not to be confused with his elder brother. Peter, married Elizabeth, Lady of Courtenay Nolan, Kathleen D. Capetian Women Facinger, a Study of Medieval Queenship, Capetian France, 987–1237 Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 5 (1968, 3–48
Louis VII of France
Louis VII was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, hence his nickname, immediately after the annulment of her marriage, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, to whom she conveyed Aquitaine. When Henry became King of England in 1154, as Henry II, Henrys efforts to preserve and expand on this patrimony for the Crown of England would mark the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England. Louis VIIs reign saw the founding of the University of Paris and he died in 1180 and was succeeded by his son Philip II. Louis was born in 1120 in Paris, the son of Louis VI of France. The early education of Prince Louis anticipated an ecclesiastical career, in October 1131, his father had him anointed and crowned by Pope Innocent II in Reims Cathedral. He spent much of his youth in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger, an advisor to his father who served Louis well during his early years as king.
Following the death of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Louis VI moved quickly to have Prince Louis married to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of the late duke, on 25 July 1137. In this way, Louis VI sought to add the large, on 1 August 1137, shortly after the marriage, Louis VI died, and Prince Louis became king of France, reigning as Louis VII. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure, she once declared that she had thought to marry a king. Louis and Eleanor had two daughters and Alix, in the first part of his reign, Louis VII was vigorous and zealous in his prerogatives. His accession was marked by no other than uprisings by the burgesses of Orléans and Poitiers. He soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II, the pope thus imposed an interdict upon the king. As a result, Champagne decided to side with the pope in the dispute over Bourges, the war lasted two years and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry-le-François, more than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.
Overcome with guilt and humiliated by ecclesiastical reproach, Louis admitted defeat, removed his armies from Champagne and he accepted Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges and shunned Raoul and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he declared his intention of mounting a crusade on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges, bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay on Easter 1146. In the meantime, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy in 1144, in exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin — a region vital to Norman security — to Louis