Statue of Liberty (Seattle)
The Statue of Liberty, or Lady Liberty, is a replica of the Statue of Liberty, installed at Seattle's Alki Beach Park, in the U. S. state of Washington. It was installed in 1952 by the Boy Scouts of America and underwent a significant restoration in 2007 after repeated vandalism had damaged the sculpture; the sculpture was donated to the city by the Boy Scouts of America in 1952, as part of the Strengthen the Arm of Liberty campaign. It was installed in February 1952 at a site near the landing spot of the Denny Party, who named the first settlement there "New York Alki" before moving to modern-day Downtown Seattle; the site was near a location proposed for a "grand monument" in the 1911 city plan outlined by Virgil Bogue. The original statue was constructed using stamped copper sheets and was damaged by vandals; the entire statue was knocked off its base by vandals in 1975, requiring $350 in repairs funded by the city's parks department. A miniature version of the statue, left inside the larger statue's pedestal base, was re-discovered with a ripped arm that mirrored the acts of an earlier vandal.
It was the site of a temporary memorial after the September 11 attacks, with flowers and flags left around the statue. The statue was used as the backdrop to several protests against the U. S. invasion of Iraq and the subsequent Iraq War. The Northwest Programs for the Arts announced plans in 2004 to re-cast the entire sculpture in bronze and began soliciting donations to fund the project; the statue's crown was stolen during the campaign, which received a $15,000 grant from the city's neighborhoods department to complete the project. The old statue was removed in July 2006 and sent to a foundry in Tacoma to be re-cast in bronze and painted copper green; the $140,000 restoration project was completed the following year and the statue was re-installed at Alki Beach on September 11, 2007. The statue is 7.5 feet tall, about 5 percent of the original's height, faces north towards Elliott Bay. A new, 4.5-foot pedestal was designed for the statue, sitting in a new plaza built by the city's parks department and dedicated in September 2008.
List of public art in Seattle Replicas of the Statue of Liberty Statue of Liberty – Alki, Washington at Waymarking.com
Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience
The Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience is a history museum of the culture and history of Asian Pacific Americans located in Seattle, Washington's Chinatown-International District, founded in 1967. It is a Smithsonian Institution affiliate, the only pan-Asian Pacific American community-based museum in the US. In February 2013 it was recognized as one of two dozen affiliated areas of the U. S. National Park Service; the Wing Luke Museum's collections have over 18,000 items, including artifacts, documents and oral histories. Parts of the museum's collections are viewable through its online database. There is an oral history lab inside the museum for staff and public use; the Wing houses temporary and permanent exhibitions related to Asian American history and cultures. The museum represents over 26 ethnic groups; the museum uses a community-based exhibition model to create exhibits. As part of the community-based process, the museum conducts outreach into communities to find individuals and organizations to partner with.
The museum forms a Community Advisory Committee to determine the exhibit's direction. Staff at the museum conduct research, gather materials, records relevant oral histories under the guidance of the CAC; the CAC determines the exhibit's overall design and content. This process can take 12 to 18 months. In 1995, the Wing Luke Museum received the Institute for Museum and Library Services National Award for Museum Service for its exhibit process. Award-winning exhibits by the museum include Do You Know Bruce?, a 2014 exhibit on Bruce Lee. The Association of King County Historical Organizations awarded Do You Know Bruce? the 2015 Exhibit Award. The museum is named for Seattle City Council member Wing Luke, the first Asian American elected to public office in the Pacific Northwest. Luke suggested the need for a museum in the Chinatown-International District in the early 1960s to preserve the history of the changing neighborhood. After Luke died in a small plane crash in 1965, friends and supporters donated money to start the museum he envisioned.
The Wing Luke Memorial Museum, as it was first named, opened in 1967 in a small storefront on 8th Avenue. The museum focused on Asian folk art, but soon expanded its programming to reflect the diversity of the local community; the museum exhibited work emerging local artists, by the 1980s pan-Asian exhibits made by community volunteers became central to the museum. In 1987 the Wing Luke Museum moved to a larger home on 7th Avenue and updated its name to Wing Luke Asian Museum, it achieved national recognition in the 1990s under the direction of local journalist Ron Chew, a pioneer of the community based model of exhibit development that placed personal experiences at the center of exhibit narratives. Today the museum continues to present exhibits and programs that promote social justice, multicultural understanding and tolerance. In 2008 the museum moved to a larger building at 719 South King Street, in the renovated 1910 East Kong Yick Building; the Museum continued addressing civil rights and social justice issues, while preserving historic spaces within the building including the former Gee How Oak Tin Association room, the Freeman SRO Hotel, a Canton Alley family apartment, the Yick Fung Mercantile.
In 2010 the museum changed its name to the Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience, informally "The Wing." The East Kong Yick Building, where the Museum is located, along with the West Kong Yick Building, were funded by 170 Chinese immigrants in 1910. In addition to storefronts, the East Kong Yick Building contained the Freeman Hotel, used by Chinese and Filipino immigrants until the 1940s; the museum's galleries now share the building with re-creations of the Gee How Oak Tin Association's meeting room and apartments that were inside the hotel. The museum preserves the contents of a general store, Yick Fung Co. which the owner donated in its entirety. The museum is in Seattle's Chinatown-International District next to Canton Alley a residential and communal area; the Wing runs Chinatown Discovery Tours, a tour service founded in 1985 that takes visitors to significant sites within the neighborhood. Official website
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside cities. National parks and Country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and Provincial parks are administered by sub-national government agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks and trees, but may contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer and football, paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities; some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills; the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands square kilometers, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers.
In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are overseen by a park ranger or a park warden. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides and games of chance or skill. English deer parks were used by the aristocracy in medieval times for game hunting, they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks; these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown.
As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development. Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities; the design of a park may determine, willing to use it. Walkers may feel unsafe on a mixed-use path, dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may affect children's rates of use of parks according to sex.
Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can benefit pollinators, some parks have been redesigned to accommodate them better; some organisations, such as Xerces Society are promoting this idea. City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group, a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects, they argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.
Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities. There are a number of features. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility, appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can contribute to a feeling of safety. While Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has been used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in Stockholm, Sweden to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks, their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the
Gas Works Park
Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is a 19.1-acre public park on the site of the former Seattle Gas Light Company gasification plant, located on the north shore of Lake Union at the south end of the Wallingford neighborhood. The park was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 2, 2013, more than a decade after being nominated. Gas Works park contains remnants of the sole remaining coal gasification plant in the United States; the plant operated from 1906 to 1956 and was bought by the City of Seattle for park purposes in 1962. The park opened to the public in 1975; the park was designed by Seattle landscape architect Richard Haag, who won the American Society of Landscape Architects Presidents Award of Design Excellence for the project. The plant's conversion into a park was completed by Daviscourt Construction Company of Seattle, it was named Myrtle Edwards Park, after the city councilwoman who had spearheaded the drive to acquire the site and who died in a car crash in 1969.
In 1972, the Edwards family requested that her name be taken off the park because the design called for the retention of much of the plant. In 1976, Elliott Bay Park, just north of Seattle's Belltown neighborhood, was renamed Myrtle Edwards Park. Gas Works Park incorporates numerous pieces of the old plant; some stand as ruins, while others have been reconditioned and incorporated into a children's "play barn" structure, constructed in part from what was the plant's exhauster-compressor building. A web site affiliated with the Seattle Times newspaper says, "Gas Works Park is the strangest park in Seattle and may rank among the strangest in the world." Gas Works Park features an artificial kite-flying hill with an elaborately sculptured sundial built into its summit. The park was for many years the exclusive site of a summer series of "Peace Concerts"; these concerts are now shared out among several Seattle parks. The park has for many years hosted one of Seattle's two major Fourth of July fireworks events.
The park is the traditional end point of the Solstice Cyclists and the start point for Seattle's World Naked Bike Ride. The park constituted one end of the Burke-Gilman bicycle and foot trail, laid out along the abandoned right-of-way of the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway. However, the trail has now been extended several kilometers northwest, past the Fremont neighborhood toward Ballard; the soil and groundwater of the site was contaminated during operation as a gasification plant. The 1971 Master Plan called for "greening" the park through bio-phytoremediation. Although the presence of organic pollutants had been reduced by the mid-1980s, the US Environmental Protection Agency and Washington State Department of Ecology required additional measures, including removing and capping wastes, air sparging in the southeast portion of the site to try to remove benzene, a theoretical source of pollutants reaching Lake Union via ground water. There are no known areas of surface soil contamination remaining on the site today, although tar still oozes from some locations within the site and is isolated and removed.
Despite its somewhat isolated location, the park has been the site of numerous political rallies. These included a seven-month continuous vigil under the name PeaceWorks Park, in opposition to the Gulf War; the vigil began at a peace concert in August 1990 and continued until after the end of the shooting war. Among the people who participated in the vigil at one point or another were former congressman and future governor Mike Lowry, then-city-councilperson Sue Donaldson, 1960s icon Timothy Leary, beat poet Allen Ginsberg. Gas Works Park has been a setting for films such as Singles and 10 Things I Hate About You, it has been featured twice on the travel-based television reality show The Amazing Race: once as the finish line for Season 3 and another time as the starting line for Season 10. The building is a Washington State Landmark. Gas Works Park occupies a 20.5 acres promontory between the northwest and northeast arms of Lake Union. Little is known of pre–Euro-American site history, but there were Native American settlements around Lake Union.
Native names for Lake Union include Kah-chug, Tenas Chuck, Xa’ten. In the mid-19th century Thomas Mercer named it "Lake Union" in expectation of future canals linking it to Puget Sound and to Lake Washington. Dense forests still came down to the water's edge and the lake drained into Salmon Bay through a stream "full of windfalls and brush, impassable for a canoe". Lake Union in the 1860-70s was a popular vacation spot with Seattleites for summer house-boating and picnicking. Several sawmills were operating on Lake Union's shore by the 1850s, taking advantage of the dense forests. Beginning in 1872, Seattle Coal and Transportation Company ferried coal from its Renton Hill mines across the lake for portage across to Puget Sound. In the 1880s came the Denny sawmill at the south end of Lake Union, brick manufacturing, ship building, a tannery, iron works. Canals with small locks were cut in 1885 from Lake Washington to Lake Union, from Lake Union to Salmon Bay; these were suitable for transporting logs, but not for shipping.
The arrival of the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway in 1887 ensured that Lake Union would continue to be a focus for industrial development. In 1900 the Seattle Gas Light Company began to purchase lots on this promontory and its coal gas plant went into operation in 1906. At the time the neighborhood was known as Edgewater Seattle Gas Light Company purchased lots on the north shore promontory from 1900 to 1909. Despite t
Seward Park (Seattle)
Seward Park is a municipal park which covers 300 acres. It is located in southeast Seattle, Washington, U. S. A in the neighborhood of the same name; the park occupies all of a forested peninsula that juts into Lake Washington. It contains one of the last surviving tracts of old-growth forest within the city of Seattle; the park is named for U. S. Secretary of State William Seward. One approaches the park from the north by Lake Washington Boulevard S, from the south by Seward Park Avenue S. or from the west by S Orcas Street. The main parking lot and a tennis court are located in the southwest corner; the most used trail is a car-free loop around the park. It is flat and 2.4 mi. The perimeter trail was repaved in 2007. Other trails run through the interior, including a few car-accessible roads that lead to amenities including an amphitheater and picnic area. Seward Park features numerous small beaches, the largest one on its southwest side, as well as a playground and an arts center; the 300 acres of Seward Park have about a 120 acres surviving remnant of old growth forest, providing a glimpse of what some of the lake shore looked like before the city of Seattle.
With trees older than 250 years and many less than 200, the Seward Park forest is young. The area has been inhabited since the end of the last glacial period; the People of the Large Lake had resource sites. The Duwamish called Bailey Peninsula "Noses" for rocky points, or "noses", at the north and south ends evident before the completion of the Lake Washington Ship Canal in 1916 lowered the level of Lake Washington; the marshy isthmus was called cka’lapsEb, Lushootseed for “neck”. The purchase of the park was suggested as early as 1892, but was sidelined due to its distance from what was the city. However, the Olmsted Brothers assimilated it into its plan for Seattle parks, the city of Seattle bought Bailey Peninsula in 1911 for $322,000, named the park after William H. Seward, former United States Secretary of State, of Alaska Purchase fame. At the entrance to the park, in a wooded island filled with flowers between the circular entrance and exit road, there is a little-known monument: a taiko-gata stone lantern, a gift of friendship from the City of Yokohama, Japan, to the City of Seattle, given in 1930 in gratitude to Seattle's assistance to Yokohama after the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.
Since at least early July, 2004, the park has become a home to wild rabbits and a growing colony of feral Peruvian conures, who were released into the wild by their owners. They fly between Maple Leaf in northeast Seattle; the park is home to two nesting pairs of bald eagles, who can be seen flying over Lake Washington and diving to the water's surface to catch fish and ducks. Renovation on the Tudor-style house at the entrance to Seward Park—originally the Seward Park Inn, a Seattle city landmark—was completed early in 2008 and is now the Seward Park Environmental & Audubon Center. Programming at the Center and in the park includes school, community, arts in the environment, special events; the Center includes exhibits, an extensive library, a laboratory, a small gift shop. Seward Park offers at least five unique experiences; the first Seward Park experience is the beach on Andrews' Bay. Flanked by a broad lawn and with full facilities, it is one of Seattle's several lakeshore beaches. On the other side of this beach is the second experience: a playground, tennis courts, several large parking lots.
This is the most social part of Seward Park, the lot features neighboring residents sometimes throw impromptu parties in this area of the park. The third experience is in the "upper lots," which provide parking for a large picnic area and an outdoor amphitheatre. Civic events are held in the amphitheatre, which has beautiful views of the old-growth forest, it has become a well-known spot to celebrate, the diversity of both Seattle and its South End; these parking lots can host impromptu parties. The fourth experience is the old growth forest itself. Granite trail markers help hikers navigate; the fifth experience is the paved perimeter of the park, a favorite place for neighbors and visitors alike to walk, run and blade. The perimeter reminds its user of the vast metropolis, Seattle, since it affords to the south of the park a view of Mount Rainier dominating South Lake Washington, as well as Boeing plants. Sites and works regarding William H. Seward "Seward Park". Seattle Parks and Recreation.
Not recorded, 2006-08-10. Retrieved not recorded, 2006-08-21. "Seward Park History". Seattle Parks and Recreation. 2003-06-30. Retrieved not recorded, 2006-08-21. Sherwood, Don. "Seward Park". PARK HISTORY: Sherwood History Files. Seattle Parks and Rec
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, any vessel. Naval mines can be used offensively, to hamper enemy shipping movements or lock vessels into a harbour. Mines can be laid in many ways: by purpose-built minelayers, refitted ships, submarines, or aircraft—and by dropping them into a harbour by hand, they can be inexpensive: some variants can cost as little as US$2000, though more sophisticated mines can cost millions of dollars, be equipped with several kinds of sensors, deliver a warhead by rocket or torpedo. Their flexibility and cost-effectiveness make mines attractive to the less powerful belligerent in asymmetric warfare; the cost of producing and laying a mine is between 0.5% and 10% of the cost of removing it, it can take up to 200 times as long to clear a minefield as to lay it. Parts of some World War II naval minefields still exist because they are too extensive and expensive to clear.
It is possible for some of these 1940s-era mines to remain dangerous for many years to come. Mines have been employed as offensive or defensive weapons in rivers, estuaries and oceans, but they can be used as tools of psychological warfare. Offensive mines are placed in enemy waters, outside harbours and across important shipping routes with the aim of sinking both merchant and military vessels. Defensive minefields safeguard key stretches of coast from enemy ships and submarines, forcing them into more defended areas, or keeping them away from sensitive ones. Minefields designed for psychological effect are placed on trade routes and are used to stop shipping from reaching an enemy nation, they are spread thinly, to create an impression of minefields existing across large areas. A single mine inserted strategically on a shipping route can stop maritime movements for days while the entire area is swept. International law requires nations to declare when they mine an area, to make it easier for civil shipping to avoid the mines.
The warnings do not have to be specific. Precursors to naval mines were first invented by Chinese innovators of Imperial China and were described in thorough detail by the early Ming dynasty artillery officer Jiao Yu, in his 14th century military treatise known as the Huolongjing. Chinese records tell of naval explosives in the 16th century, used to fight against Japanese pirates; this kind of naval mine was loaded in a wooden box, sealed with putty. General Qi Jiguang made several timed, to harass Japanese pirate ships; the Tiangong Kaiwu treatise, written by Song Yingxing in 1637 AD, describes naval mines with a rip cord pulled by hidden ambushers located on the nearby shore who rotated a steel wheellock flint mechanism to produce sparks and ignite the fuse of the naval mine. Although this is the rotating steel wheellock's first use in naval mines, Jiao Yu had described their use for land mines back in the 14th century; the first plan for a sea mine in the West was by Ralph Rabbards, who presented his design to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1574.
The Dutch inventor Cornelius Drebbel was employed in the Office of Ordnance by King Charles I of England to make weapons, including a "floating petard" which proved a failure. Weapons of this type were tried by the English at the Siege of La Rochelle in 1627. American David Bushnell developed the first American naval mine for use against the British in the American War of Independence, it was a watertight keg filled with gunpowder, floated toward the enemy, detonated by a sparking mechanism if it struck a ship. It was used on the Delaware River as a drift mine. In 1812 Russian engineer Pavel Shilling exploded an underwater mine using an electrical circuit. In 1842 Samuel Colt used an electric detonator to destroy a moving vessel to demonstrate an underwater mine of his own design to the United States Navy and President John Tyler. However, opposition from former President John Quincy Adams scuttled the project as "not fair and honest warfare." In 1854, during the unsuccessful attempt of the Anglo-French fleet to seize the Kronstadt fortress, British steamships HMS Merlin, HMS Vulture and HMS Firefly suffered damage due to the underwater explosions of Russian naval mines.
Russian naval specialists set more than 1500 naval mines, or infernal machines, designed by Moritz von Jacobi and by Immanuel Nobel, in the Gulf of Finland during the Crimean War of 1853-1856. The mining of Vulcan led to the world's first minesweeping operation. During the next 72 hours, 33 mines were swept; the Jacobi mine was designed by German-born, Russian engineer Jacobi, in 1853. The mine was tied to the sea bottom by an anchor. A cable connected it to a galvanic cell which powered it from the shore, the power of its explosive charge was equal to 14 kilograms of black powder. In the summer of 1853, the production of the mine was approved by the Committee for Mines of the Ministry of War of the Russian Empire. In 1854, 60 Jacobi mines were laid in the vicinity of the Forts Pavel and Alexander, to deter the British Baltic Fleet from attacking them, it phased out its direct competitor the Nobel mine on the insistence of Admiral Fyodor Litke. The Nobel mines were bought from Swedish industrialist Immanuel Nobel who had entered into collusion with Russian head of navy Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov.
Despite their high cost t
Denny Park (Seattle)
Denny Park is a park located in the South Lake Union neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. It occupies the block bounded by John Street and Denny Way on the north and south and Dexter and 9th Avenues N. on the west and east. Denny Park is Seattle's oldest park. In 1861 pioneer David Denny donated the land to the city as Seattle Cemetery. In 1883, the graves were removed and the cemetery was converted to a park, the city's first. By 1904, the surrounding area had become residential, the park was improved with formally designed planting beds and other play equipment, a sand lot and a play field; the Denny School, an elementary school, stood southeast of the park from 1884 to 1928. Children were, from the earliest, regular users of the park; the park stood on the north slope of Denny Hill. Between 1900 and 1931, the landscape of central Seattle was reshaped by a series of regrading projects. Denny Regrade No. 1, around 1910, lowered the land to the west of the park by some 60 feet. Some surviving Seattle pioneers demanded that the park remain unchanged.
The result, was that access to the park from the downtown side was impossible by car due to the grade. In Denny Regrade No. 2, around 1930, the park was once again planted in a formal style. In 1948, over the strenuous objections of the Denny family, a Parks and Recreation building was built within the park to house this growing city department. For several years, before all of the space was required for Parks personnel, the lower level of the new building housed the Washington Society for Crippled Children. By 1964, Parks Department personnel had inhabited the building. Today, Denny Park is undergoing extensive renovation. Phase 1 opened on May 2, 2009. Future phases include a history element highlighting early Seattle. A diverse coalition of park supporters called Friends of Denny Park have invested many hours to bring their need for a safe and vital park environment to the attention of the City; this group is working, in partnership with City Departments, to revitalize the park to serve the children and other constituents who populate two of Seattle's fastest growing neighborhoods—South Lake Union and Denny Triangle.
Denny Park Restoration Sherwood History Files