Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Aksel Christian Henrik Hansen was a Danish sculptor, one of the most productive of his times. The son of a stonemason, Hansen was born in Odense in 1853. After an apprenticeship with his father, he studied architecture at the Danish Academy. While following the classical tradition of Herman Wilhelm Bissen, he was influenced by French Naturalism and the Art Nouveau style; this emerging trend can be seen in his masterpiece, Echo, in Copenhagen's Rosenborg Castle Gardens, as well as in Gustav Lotze's tomb with its slender female figures in Odense's Assistens Cemetery. His statue of Uffe den Spage, outside the Østerbro Stadium, shows how the Nordic character is reflected in ancient legends. Among his best known works are the six giants in the guardroom at Christiansborg Palace and the equestrian statue of King Christian IX in Odense's Royal Gardens. Ecjo, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Copenhagen (1888( Hans Tausen Monument, Funen Christian IV, Odense Palace, Odense Ancient hunter, Dalgas Boulevard, Copenhagen Ambrosius, Frederick's Church, Copenhagen
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, separate from Copenhagen Municipality, but both are a part of the City of Copenhagen, it occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015. Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two; some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, being one of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen. However, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or "posh", area, and is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens, Søndermarken, Hostrups Have. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as several stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg.
The Copenhagen S-train system has several stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station and Flintholm station. Frederiksberg's original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the reciter of eldritch times; the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title. In Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as "the old thul". Thula translates like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda. By 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy, it was regarded as Copenhagen's border to the west. People lived here since the Bronze Age; the history of Frederiksberg goes back to 2 June 1651 when King Frederik III gave 20 Danish—Dutch peasants the rights to settle at Allégade, founded the town named "Ny Amager" or "Ny Hollænderby". Farming was not successful, in 1697 most of the town burned down; this meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, the land reverted to the crown by Frederik III's son Christian V. In 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke.
He named the palace Frederichs Berg, the rebuilt town at the foot of the hill changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the local houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land, but rather used the properties as country houses; the town changed from a farming community to a merchant town, with craftsmen and merchants. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the cramped city for the open land, to be near the royals; the town grew with population growing from 1,000 in 1770, to 1,200 in 1800, to 3,000 in 1850. In 1852 Parliament removed restrictions which prohibited permanent construction outside Copenhagen's city walls. Numerous residential areas were constructed, starting in the eastern part near Copenhagen, ending in the western part farthest away from Copenhagen in 1950; this led to rapid population growth. Today Frederiksberg consists entirely of 3- to 5-story residential houses, large single-family homes, large parks.
On aerial pictures Frederiksberg stands out from the surrounding city of Copenhagen as a green area with few large roads. It is considered to be one of Copenhagen's more prestigious areas to live in. Frederiksberg, which lies west of central Copenhagen, is surrounded by boroughs forming part of the city of Copenhagen – the result of an expansion of the Copenhagen Municipality's boundary in 1901, which did not include Frederiksberg in the list of municipalities to be incorporated in the enlarged area. Frederiksberg is thus a municipal island within the country's capital – a unique phenomenon in present-day Europe. Other than administratively, however, it is indistinguishable in character from the districts of Copenhagen city which surround it. Frederiksberg has several stations on the Copenhagen Metro system, is home to the tallest residential structure in Denmark and the second tallest residential building in Scandinavia: the 102-metre high Domus Vista; the Danmark Rundt cycling race traditionally finishes on Frederiksberg Alle in a sprint finish.
Frederiksberg houses the University of Copenhagen's Frederiksberg Campus, Copenhagen Business School, 9 public schools, 3 private schools, 1 technical college, more. The Lycée Français Prins Henrik, a French international school, is in Frederiksberg; the 3 streets Gammel Kongevej, Godthåbsvej, Falkoner Alle are the busiest shopping streets. The town houses the Frederiksberg Centret shopping mall. Frederiksberg Campus Frederiksberg Gardens Frederiksberg Hospital Frederiksberg Palace Frederiksberg Town Hall Copenhagen Business School Copenhagen Zoo Royal Danish Military Academy Population of Frederiksberg
Hellerup is a district of Gentofte Municipality in the suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. The most urban part of the district is centred on Strandvejen and is bordered by Østerbro to the south and the Øresund to the east, it comprises Tuborg Havn, the redeveloped brewery site of Tuborg Breweries, with the Waterfront Shopping Center, a marina and the headquarters of several large companies. Other parts of the district consist of single family detached homes. Local landmarks include the art Øregaard Museum. With an area of 515 hectares, Hellerup covers 20% of the municipality; the district is bounded by the municipal border with Copenhagen to the south, the Øresund to the east, Charlottenlund Forrest to the north, Lyngbyvej to the southwest and Niels Andersens Vej/Eivindsvej to the northwest. As of a January 2012, Hellerup had a population of 18,781; the Hellerup postal district includes a somewhat larger area since part of Østerbro has the postal code 2900 Hellerup. In spite of its name, with the suffix -rup, Hellerup does not originate in an old village.
In the 18th century the area was still open countryside with scattered country houses. One of them, was renamed Hellerupgård when it was acquired by Johan David Heller in 1748, it would lend its name to the modern district of Hellerup. Hellerupgård was purchased by the merchant and shipowner Erich Erichsen, he commissioned the French architect Joseph-Jacques Ramée to built a new house in 1802. Other country houses included Blidah and Taffelbay. One of the oldest properties in the area was Vartov, a former watermill, acquired by Frederick II in 1566 and used as a hunting lodge, it was converted into a hospital for the poor in 1607 and used as a home for beggers after a new hospital was built closer to the city. The navel officer Charles Frédéric le Sage de Fontenay acquired it in the 18th century and converted it into a country house. A harbor was built on the coast between 1869 and 1873; the new Tuborg Brewery was inaugurated that same year. In 1887, Carl Ludvig Ibsen began to acquire land in the area with the intension to sell it off in lots to developers and private citizens.
He purchased Hellerupgård, Lille Mariendal and Slukefter in Hellerup as well as Smakkegård, Rygård, Lundegård and Stengård in Gentofte. The land in Hellerup alone added up to 37 hectares, he reclaimed an area along the coast just north of Tuborg Breweries, leading to the creation of the three parallel streets resulted in the streets Frederikkevej, Marievej og Carolinevej. He did not build on the land himself but prepared it with sewers and roads and sold it off in lots to developers and private citizens. In the mid-1890s, redevelopment of the areas on the west side of Strandvejen began, resulting in streets such as Ryvangs Allé, Svanemøllevej, Callisensvej and Tuborgvej. A new gasworks, Strandvejsgasværket, opened adjacent to Tuborg Breweries in 1893. Many of the new homes had electricity. In 1916, Ibsen placed his remaining land in a company, A/S De Ibsenske Grunde i Gjentofte Sogn, which existed until 1945. Notable sites in Hellerup include "Store og Lille Tuborg", which lent the name to the Tuborg breweries that opened on the site and operated until the merger of the companies brewing operations with Carlsberg.
As of 1996, it has been a residential area with numerous apartments overlooking the harbour. The site is home to the headquarters of several Danish and international companies, among them Saxo Bank. Hellerup is home to the science center Experimentarium; the coast road, runs through the main thoroughfare of the town and is home to numerous shops and boutiques. Other features of Strandvejen are the beach at Charlottenlund Beach Charlottenlund Palace. Hellerup has two churches, one built in 1900 and the other in 1959; the ASA Film studio, founded in 1936, was based in Hellerup and produced some of the most notable films in Denmark. Øregård Gymnasium was founded in 1903 as Plock Ross School. In 1919 Gentofte municipality took over the school, renamed Øregård Gymnasium. In 1924, the school moved into a new main building designed by architects GB Hagen and Edward Thomsen. Tranegård School is a junior school attended by the four children of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary. Rygaards International School is located in Hellerup.
Hellerup School or Hellerup skole in Danish, is located in Hellerup. It's known as the school of the future because of the open layout, international contacts and project-based education, it runs a 5 year Math and Science program in collaboration with Gammel Hellerup Gymnasium, where teachers from Gammel Hellerup Gymnasium teaches the student from the school. Stine Fischer Christensen, actress Eske Willerslev, biologist Rane Willerslev, anthropologist Gentofte Web Atlas Denmark Tourism Site
Nyelandsvej is a street in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from Falkoner Allé in the southeast to a roundabout at the north end of Dalgas Boulevard in the northwest; the more urban, eastern part of the street, between Falkoner Allé and Nordre Fasanvej, separates an area with Copenhagen Business School's Solbjerg Campus and Frederiksberg Centret to the south from the Svømmehal Quarter to the north. The western part of the street is the site of the multi-purpose venue Keddelhallen and follows the south side of Frederiksberg Hospital before entering an area with Single-family detached homes. Nyelandsvej was established in 1883-84 and received its name on 17 April 1884, it is named for Stephan Peter Nyeland, provisionmaster at the Navel Department, who owned a country estate on Falkonér Allé between 1837 and 1875 on whose land part of Nyelandsvej and Bentzonsvej. Københavns Mælkeforsyning, whose name was changed to Solbjerg Majeri, opened on the street at No. 25 in 1884.
Its old buildings were ereplaced by new ones in the 1920s and it developed into one of the largest employers in Frederiksberg. It had direct access to Frederiksberg Station's fraight teraain; the dairy closed in the mid-1970s. The street section west of Nordre Fasanvej was established in 1884 but was called Bergersvej until 1900. Copenhagen County Hospital was built on the north side of the road in the 1890s; the buildings became part of Frederiksberg Hospital when Copenhagen County Hospital completed its move to Gentofte in 1939. Frederiksberg Incineration Plant opened on the other side of the street in 1903. Skolen på Nyelandsvej at No. 23. is a public primary school. It was built in 1891–92 to design by Christian Laurits Thuren. No. 27– is the former home of Frederiksberg Seminarium and now houses Metropolitan University College's Department of Education and Learning. The Godthaab Church was inaugurated in 1911. Designed by Gotfred Tvede, it is part of a complex which included Godhaab Parish's day care center and General Classens Asyl.
The adjacent residential building were built from 1913 by Arbejdernes Andels-Boligforening efterto design by Viggo Thalbitzer, og er det første eksempel i Danmark på et boligbyggeri ud fra almennyttige principper. The multi-purpose venue Keddelhallen is occupies the surviving buildings of Frederiksberg Incineration Plant, they were adapted for their current use in 2001. Fasanvej Station is situated kust south of the intersection with Nordre Fasanvej, it is served by the M1 and M2 lines of Copenhagen Metro
Assault on Copenhagen (1659)
The assault on Copenhagen on 11 February 1659 was a major battle during the Second Northern War, taking place during the siege of Copenhagen by the Swedish army. During the Northern Wars, the Swedish army under Charles X Gustav of Sweden, after invading the Danish mainland of Jutland, swiftly crossed the frozen straits and occupied most of the Danish island of Zealand, with the invasion beginning on February 11, 1658; this forced the Danes to sue for peace. A preliminary treaty, the Treaty of Taastrup, was signed on February 18, 1658 with the final treaty, the Treaty of Roskilde, signed on February 26, 1658, granting Sweden major territorial gains; the Swedish king, was not content with his stunning victory, at the Privy Council held at Gottorp on July 7, Charles X Gustav resolved to wipe his inconvenient rival from the map of Europe. Without any warning, in defiance of international treaty, he ordered his troops to attack Denmark-Norway a second time; the Swedish armies had never left Denmark after the peace and occupied all of Denmark apart from the capital, Copenhagen.
After a failed assault, Copenhagen was put under siege in the hope of breaking the defense by starvation. In October 1658 however a Dutch relief fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam defeated the Swedish fleet in the Battle of the Sound and lifted the sea blockade so that supplies and an auxiliary army could reach the capital; the Dutch were an ally of Denmark from the Anglo-Dutch Wars and were afraid that Swedish control of the Baltic would ruin their profitable trade in this area. After the Copenhageners had withstood about six months of siege and attacks, the Swedes attempted to take the city by a grand assault, as a prolonged siege no longer offered any hope of success, now that the sea lanes had been opened by the Dutch; the Copenhageners had been forewarned by spies, so they had planned their defences well and stockpiled weapons and ammunition. The walls of Copenhagen bristled with about 300 pieces of cannon and other artillery, while a diverse mixture of weapons, ranging from muskets and arquebuses to morningstars, boiling water and tar had been readied for action.
Craftsmen and other civilians were divided into nine companies, each of these companies was allocated a part of the wall to defend. The professional soldiers were stationed at the outer field works and Slotsholmen; the Swedish army consisted of about 9,000 professional soldiers, while the Danish defenders, a mixture of professionals and raw civilians, were of an equal number. The Swedes started the action by making a diversionary attack at Christianshavn and Slotsholmen at the evening on 9 February, they were repulsed, the Swedes left one of their assault bridges behind, which the Danes captured and measured. They found that the Swedish assault bridges were 36 feet long, thus they realised that they could render these bridges useless by making the ice free parts of the moats wider than that; the moats and the beaches had been kept free of ice, now the ice free zones were widened to 44 feet with help from 600 Dutch marines. The ice was thick, the work was done in heavy snowfall from 4 o'clock in the afternoon till evening on the 10 February.
Spies reported that the Swedish army had moved from their camp, Carlstad, at Brønshøj and had taken up positions behind Valby Hill, when the Swedes began their assault about midnight the same evening, they met heavy resistance. The main assaults were made against Christianshavn and Vestervold, but the chopped-up ice and the massed weaponry on the wall made the densely packed attackers pay a horrific toll in lives. Still, they fought their way to the top of the wall, fierce hand-to-hand fighting broke out; when the Swedes realised that the assaults on the Western part of the wall were in trouble, the choice was made to make a supporting attack at Østerport. The Swedes got close to Nyboder and were in the process of crossing the moat, when they fell victim to a well-conducted ambush, they withdrew with heavy losses. At about five in the morning the Swedes retreated, they had taken severe losses. Before the walls 600 bodies were counted, many more had perished in the ice-cold water and were never found.
On top of that there were many wounded. The Danes had only suffered about 17 dead; the Dutch in the spring of 1659 sent a second fleet and army under Vice-Admiral De Ruyter to further reinforce the city and cut the Swedish supply lines so that the siege would have to be lifted altogether. After Nyborg had been taken by a Dutch-Danish force, the Danish Isles were abandoned by the Swedes. Negotiations were opened and the Treaty of Copenhagen was signed on May 27, 1660, it marked the conclusion of the Second Northern War between Sweden and the alliance of Denmark and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In conjunction with the Treaty of Roskilde, it ended a generation of warfare and established the present-day borders of Denmark and Sweden. Fortifications of Copenhagen Lars Ericson, "Köpenhamn 1659, Följden av en felritad karta" in Svenska slagfält. Stockholm, 2003, pp. 206–14. ISBN 91-46-20225-0