College baseball is baseball that is played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education. In comparison to football and basketball, college competition in the United States plays a role in developing professional players. Moving directly from school to the professional level is more common in baseball than in football or basketball. However, if players enroll at a college, they must complete three years to regain eligibility, unless they reach age 21 before starting their third year of attendance. Players who enroll at junior colleges regain eligibility after one year at that level, in the most recently completed 2016 season, there were 300 NCAA Division I teams in the United States. As with most other U. S. intercollegiate sports, competitive college baseball is played under the auspices of the NCAA or the NAIA, the NCAA writes the rules of play, while each sanctioning body supervises season-ending tournaments. The final rounds of the NCAA tournaments are known as the College World Series, the College World Series for Division I takes place in Omaha, Nebraska in June, following the regular season.
The playoff bracket for Division I consists of 64 teams, with four teams playing at each of 16 regional sites, the 16 winners advance to the Super Regionals at eight sites, played head-to-head in a best-of-three series. The eight winners advance to the College World Series, an elimination tournament to determine the two national finalists. The finalists play a series to determine the Division I national champion. In 2016, Coastal Carolina won the College World Series, the first intercollegiate baseball game took place in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, on July 1,1859, between squads representing Amherst College and Williams College. As these efforts resulted in players and overall programs, more television. The ESPN family of greatly increased television coverage of the NCAA playoffs. Soon, in many regions, baseball came to be considered a major sport. And even non-warm weather schools started to recognize baseballs potential and began to put more emphasis on it. Nebraska, Notre Dame, and Oregon State are three examples of cold weather schools with very successful programs.
The first two made the College World Series when warm-weather schools placed major emphasis on baseball as well as had the advantage of playing earlier and more games because of favorable climates. Oregon State won back-to-back national championships in 2006 and 2007, at time, archrival Oregon had been without baseball for a quarter-century
Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas and Montana. It is larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase.
The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the region
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Scholars agree that the groups influence has waned since the end of World War II in 1945, with the growing influence of other ethnic groups. The term is used in Australia and Canada for similar elites. The term is used by sociologists to include all Americans of Northern European ancestry regardless of their class or power. People rarely call themselves WASPs, except humorously, the acronym is typically used by non-WASPs. Historically, Anglo-Saxon referred to the language of indigenous inhabitants of England before about 1150, since the 19th century it has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself, to refer to Protestants of principally English descent. Anglo-Saxon carries Germanic connotations by its roots in the ancient territories of present-day Germany, the former of which England and English is ultimately derived. The W and P were added in the 1950s to form a witty epithet with an undertone of waspishness and that is, they are wealthy, they are Anglo-Saxon in origin, and they are Protestants.
To their Waspishness should be added the tendency to be located on the eastern seaboard or around San Francisco, to be school and Ivy League educated. The term was popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment and Caste in America. The concept of Anglo Saxon and especially Anglo Saxon Protestantism evolved in the late 19th century, historian Richard Kyle says, Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps – the liberals and fundamentalists. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene, American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The political, cultural and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, before WASP came into use in the 1960s the term Anglo Saxon filled some of the same purposes. Anglo-Saxons by 1900 was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally and it was often used in claims for the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, much to the annoyance of outsiders.
For example, Josiah Strong boasted in 1890, In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000 souls. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons had increased to about 20,500,000, like the newer term WASP, the old term Anglo-Saxon was used derisively by writers hostile to an informal alliance between Britain and the U. S. The negative use was common among Irish Americans and writers in France. It remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, Irish-American humorist Finley Peter Dunne popularized the ridicule of Anglo Saxon, even calling President Theodore Roosevelt one. To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance, argues California politician Tom Hayden, the depiction of the Irish in the films of John Ford was a counterpoint to WASP standards of rectitude
The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late 19th to mid 20th century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race. People of the Nordic type were to be found in the Nordic countries. The psychological traits of Nordics were described as truthful, competitive, naïve, other supposed sub-races were the Alpine race, Dinaric race, East Baltic race, and the Mediterranean race. Nordicism was an ideology of racial separatism which viewed Nordics as a racial group. This ideology was popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in some Northwestern, the Nazis claimed that the Nordic race was the most superior of the Aryan race and constituted a master race. In the mid-19th century, scientific racism developed the theory of Aryanism, holding that Europeans were an innately superior branch of humanity, Aryanism was derived from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages constituted a distinctive race or subrace of the larger Caucasian race. Its principal proponent was Arthur de Gobineau in his Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, though Gobineau did not equate Nordic peoples with Aryans, he argued that Germanic people were the best modern representatives of the Aryan race.
Adapting the comments of Tacitus and other Roman writers, he argued that pure Northerners regenerated Europe after the Roman Empire declined due to dilution of its leadership. By the 1880s a number of linguists and anthropologists argued that the Aryans themselves had originated somewhere in northern Europe, the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley agreed with him, coining the term Xanthochroi to refer to fair-skinned Europeans, as opposed to darker Mediterranean peoples, whom Huxley called Melanochroi. It was Huxley who concluded that the Melanochroi, who he described as dark whites, are of a mixture of the Xanthochroi, the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche referred in his writings to blond beasts, amoral adventurers who were supposed to be the progenitors of creative cultures. In On the Genealogy of Morals, he wrote, In Latin malus and it was the Russian-born French anthropologist Joseph Deniker that initially proposed nordique as an ethnic group. He defined nordique by a set of characteristics, The concurrence of fair, somewhat wavy hair, light eyes, reddish skin, tall stature.
American economist William Z. Ripley purported to define scientifically a Teutonic race in his book The Races of Europe and he divided Europeans into three main subcategories, Teutonic and Mediterranean. Georges Vacher de Lapouge had called this race Homo Europaeus, Madison Grant, in his book The Passing of the Great Race, took up Ripleys classification. He described a Nordic or Baltic type, long skulled, very tall, fair skinned, with blond or brown hair and light coloured eyes. By 1902 the German archaeologist Gustaf Kossinna identified the original Aryans with the north German Corded Ware culture and he placed the Indo-European Urheimat in Schleswig-Holstein, arguing that they had expanded across Europe from there. By the early 20th century this theory was established, though far from universally accepted. Sociologists were soon using the concept of a race to model the migrations of the supposedly more entrepreneurial
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
White Americans are Americans who are considered or reported as White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those having origins in any of the peoples of Europe. Like all official U. S. racial categories, White has a not Hispanic or Latino and a Hispanic or Latino component, the term Caucasian is often used interchangeably with White, although the terms are not synonymous. Whites constitute the majority, with a total of about 246,660,710, non-Hispanic Whites totaled about 197,870,516, or 62. 06% of the U. S. population. Definitions of who is White have changed throughout the history of the United States, the term White American can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the 2000 U. S. census states that racial categories generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria, the Census Bureau defines White people as follows, White refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa.
It includes people who indicated their race as White or reported entries such as Irish, Italian, Arab, Moroccan or Caucasian. In U. S. Hispanic and Latino Americans as a make up a racially diverse group. In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U. S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their race in the Some other race section, the US Census considers the write-in response of Caucasian or Aryan to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing. In the contemporary United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered White, the definition of White has changed significantly over the course of American history. Among Europeans those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Spaniards, Swedes, Finns, early on in the United States, white generally referred to those of British ancestry or northern and northwestern European descent.
David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves. The process of officially being defined as white by law came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. Scholars such as David Roediger, Paul Gilroy, and others have based some of their work on this notion, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful positions, controlling almost all political and cultural institutions. Whites made up 79. 8% or 75% of the American population in 2008 and this latter number is sometimes recorded as 77. 1% when it includes about 2% of the population who are identified as white in combination with one or more other races. The largest ethnic groups among White Americans were Germans, followed by Irish and English, White Americans are projected to remain the majority, though with their percentage decreasing to 72% of the total population by 2050
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are typically agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE. Some definitions of professional limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest, in narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession. Although sometimes incorrectly referred to as professions, occupations such as skilled construction, the completion of an apprenticeship is generally associated with skilled labour, or trades such as carpenter, mason, painter and other similar occupations. A related distinction would be that a professional does mainly mental work, although professional training appears to be ideologically neutral, it may be biased towards those with higher class backgrounds and a formal education.
His evidence is both qualitative and quantitative, including examinations, industry statistics and personal accounts of trainees. A key theoretical dispute arises from the observation that established professions are subject to strict codes of conduct, some have thus argued that these codes of conduct, agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, are a key element of what constitutes any profession. Thus, as people became more and more specialized in their trade, they began to profess their skill to others, with a reputation to uphold, trusted workers of a society who have a specific trade are considered professionals. Ironically, the usage of the word profess declined from the late 1800s to the 1950s, centre for the Study of Professions Organizational culture Professional boundaries Professional sports
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of multiracial backgrounds. While some of the used in the past are considered insulting and offensive. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in parts of the world. In North America, studies have found that the population is continuing to grow. Because of a decline in racism, multiracial people no longer feel the need to hide their heritage, in many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, mixed-race people make up the majority of the population. While defining race is controversial, race remains a commonly used term for categorization, insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will naturally be subjective. Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. The revised OMB standards identify a minimum of five categories, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian.
Perhaps the most significant change for Census 2000 was that respondents were given the option to one or more races on the questionnaire to indicate their racial identity. Census 2000 race data are shown for people who reported a race either alone or in combination with one or more other races, in the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish, caboclo, cafuzo and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and these terms are in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world. In Canada, the Métis are an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent. Half-breed is a term that referred to people of partial Native American ancestry, it is now considered pejorative. Mestee, once used, is now used mostly for members of historically mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Redbones. In South Africa, and much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person, while the term is socially accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common, the well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, were illustrations of the different classifications. Most Brazilians of all groups are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research
1889 College Football All-America Team
The 1889 College Football All-America team was the first College Football All-America Team. The team was selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Weeks Sports, the team selected by Whitney in 1889 marked the origin of the All-America teams that have since appeared in every collegiate sport from mens ice hockey to womens gymnastics. All eleven members of the 1889 All-America team played for three teams—Harvard, Princeton or Yale, known as the Big Three of college football. The first ever All-America team included the football coach Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pudge Heffelfinger, Snake Ames, Edgar Allan Poe, Arthur Cumnock. Amos Alonzo Stagg, Yales All-American end, Stagg became a football coach at the University of Chicago from 1892 to 1932. Staggs teams won seven championships and seven Big Ten Conference championships. William Heffelfinger, Yales guard, Pudge Heffelfinger was a native of Minnesota who was considered the greatest lineman of his time, Heffelfinger was paid $500 in 1892 to play for the Allegheny Athletic Association, making him the first professional football player.
He was the football coach at the University of California, Lehigh University. He published a booklet called Heffelfingers Football Facts and was one of the charter inductees into the College Football Hall of Fame. Ames is credited with being the first player to execute a fake punt, Ames moved west to coach Purdue University from 1891 to 1892. Hector Cowan, Princetons tackle, Hec Cowan helped lead the 1889 Princeton team to a perfect 10–0 record, Pudge Heffelfinger said of Cowan, He had the strongest shoulders and arms Ive ever been up against and his stubby legs drove like pistons when he carried the ball. Hector could carry a couple of tacklers on his back, yet he was plenty fast in the open and he served as the coach at the University of Kansas from 1894 to 1896. Edgar Allan Poe, Princetons quarterback, Poe was named after his relative, after Princeton beat Harvard, 41–15, a Harvard man reportedly asked a Princeton alumnus whether Poe was related to the great Edgar Allan Poe. According to the story, the alumnus looked at him in astonishment and replied, Poe graduated Phi Beta Kappa and served as the Attorney General of the State of Maryland from 1911 to 1915.
Arthur Cumnock, Harvards Cumnock was known as a fierce tackler and has been ranked by one author as perhaps the greatest player in that schools long football tradition, Cumnock went into the cotton mill business and was the treasurer of one of the largest corporations in New England. Roscoe Channing, Princetons halfback Channing served with Theodore Roosevelts Rough Riders in the Spanish American War, for many years, he was the President of Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company, a copper mining company in Flin Flon, Canada. Charles O. Gill, Yales Gill coached at the University of California in 1894
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities