Hunsdon House is a historic house in Hunsdon, England, northwest of Harlow. Originally constructed in the 15th century, it was most notably the estate of Henry VIII of England and it has been rebuilt several times since then, and is no longer as grand as it was in the Tudor era. It is a Grade I listed building, upon the Yorkist Edward IVs accession to the throne in 1471, the land was returned to the Oldhall family. John Oldhall died in the Battle of Bosworth and with the Lancastrians back in power, Henry traded it to his mother Margaret Beaufort for Old Soar Manor in Kent in 1503. After the deaths of Margaret and her husband Edmund Tudor, her son Henry VII gave it to Thomas Howard, Howards son reduced the height of the tower for safety reasons in 1524. When Henry VIII retook possession in 1525 after Howards death, he set about expanding the house into an estate in the Tudor style, complete with royal apartments. Although he visited frequently and enjoyed hunting in the deerpark, the house was used for his children, especially Mary.
She even inherited the house after the death of her father, prince Edward notably spent much time at Hunsdon, most famously in 1546 when his portrait was painted with the house in the background. Elizabeth I made Henry Carey the first Baron Hunsdon, after first granting the house to him in 1559, in 1623, the house suffered a structural failure during a sermon given by a local friar to an audience of about 300 people in an upper chamber. The floor collapsed, resulting in 94 deaths, the incident was known as The Fatal Vespers. The manor stayed in the Carey family for over 100 years, after which it passed to the Bluck family, much of Henry VIIIs expansions were torn down in the early 17th century, and the moat was filled some time in the 18th century. The house was rebuilt at the beginning of the 19th century, one last renovation in 1983 revealed some of the 15th-century brickwork. The current house is less than a quarter of its size under Henry VIII, Tudor architecture Category, Tudor England
Rothamsted Manor is a former manor and current manor house, situated in Harpenden Rural in the English county of Hertfordshire. The first recorded mention of Rothamsted is in 1212, when Richard de Merston owned lands there, in 1221, a house with a chapel and garden are referred to in a land grant. By 1292 Rothamsted had passed to the Nowell family, passing to the Cresseys by 1355, by this time there was a substantial manor house, with at least 16 rooms. In 1623 Edmund Bardolph sold Rothamsted to Anne Wittewronge, the Wittewronges were calvinists who had fled religious persecution in Ghent in 1564, and had founded a brewery in London. In the 17th century, Sir John Wittewronge, Annes son, the manor remained with the Wittewronge family until 1763, when Thomas Wittewronge died and the manor passed to his cousin John Bennet. He in turn left the manor to John Bennet Lawes, the son of his sister, in 1843, Sir John Bennet Lawes, the son of the earlier John Bennet Lawes, founded the Rothamsted Experimental Station, an agricultural research station, on the grounds of the manor.
In 1931, his descendents decided to sell the estate, and after a public appeal. The remainder of the estate is used by Rothamsted Research. The manor house serves as accommodation for staff and as a function venue, web site of Rothamsted Manor Limited
Sir Ninian Comper was a Scottish-born architect. He was one of the last of the great Gothic Revival architects, noted for his churches and he is well known for his stained glass, his use of colour and his subtle integration of Classical and Gothic elements which he described as unity by inclusion. Comper was born in Aberdeen, the eldest of five children of Ellen Taylor of Hull and he was educated at Glenalmond School in Perthshire and attended a year at the Ruskin School of Art in Oxford. On moving to London, he was articled to Charles Eamer Kempe and his fellow-Scot William Bucknall took him into partnership in London in 1888 and Ninian was married to Grace Bucknall in 1890. Bucknall and Comper remained in partnership until 1905, John the Evangelist in Oxford and St Cyprians, Clarence Gate, the Lady Chapel at St Matthews, Lady Chapel and gilded paintings in the chancel of All Saints, Margaret Street. He designed the building for infants for St Mary & St John School on Hertford Street in Oxford which is now called the Comper Foundation Stage School.
Comper is noted for re-introducing the English altar, a surrounded by riddel posts. Comper designed a number of altar screens, inspired by medieval originals. Wymondham Abbey, has one of the finest examples, only one major ecclesiastical work of Compers is in the United States, the Leslie Lindsey Chapel of Bostons Emmanuel Episcopal Church. The work is a product of and testimony to Compers design capability. Comper designed its altar, altar screen, lectern, dozens of statues, all its furnishings and appointments, and most notably the stained glass windows. The chapel commemorates Leslie Lindsey and Stewart Mason, her husband of ten days, from 1912 Ninian and Grace lived in London at The Priory, Beulah Hill, a house designed by Decimus Burton, where he entertained friends such as John Betjeman. He had a studio nearby at Knights Hill, close to the worlds first Gothic Cemetery at West Norwood. After the studio was destroyed in World War II it was relocated to a building in his garden, Comper was knighted by King George VI in 1950.
On 22 December 1960 he died in The Hostel of God in Clapham and his body was brought back to Norwood for cremation at West Norwood Cemetery. His ashes were interred beneath the windows he designed in Westminster Abbey. Lindsey Chapel, Its History & Architecture, Boston, MA, Emmanuel Church in the City of Boston. Basic Biographical Details, John Ninian Comper, basic Biographical Details, Bucknall & Comper
Church of St Mary the Virgin, Baldock
The Church of St Mary the Virgin is a parish church of the Church of England in Baldock in Hertfordshire. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the church on the site dated to about 1150 and was built by the Knights Templar before being largely rebuilt in about 1330 by the Knights Hospitaller. It is a Grade I listed building, the advowson or patronage of the church of St. It was granted, together with the manor of Baldock, to the Knights Hospitaller, who expanded it in about 1330, the latter in 1343 granted it for two years to Sir Walter de Manny, after which it presumably reverted to the Hospitallers. In 1359 it was claimed by the Crown as parcel of the Holy Trinity church of Weston, the patronage was transferred before 1829 to the Lord Chancellor. The latter held it until 1865, when it was transferred to the Bishop of Rochester, who presented until 1877, since 1902 the presentation has been in the hands of the bishop and the Marquess of Salisbury alternately. The Fraternity or Gild of Jesus at St Marys in Baldock was founded in 1459, at that date it had a master, churchwardens and sisters, and found a priest who helped the parson of the church in his duties.
At the inquiry of 1548 William Tybie was the brotherhood priest, in 1550 it was granted, with the lands belonging, to John Cock. Byrd is remembered for giving Charles I a drink of wine from this chalice when he passed through Baldock and he was eighty eight before he passed away. And died in the year When one and sixes three made up the Quere, for a time Byrds assistant or lecturer was William Sherwin, who was either silenced or ejected. The churchs plate includes a cup and cover paten of 1629, the Rev. John Smith, Rector of the church from 1832 to 1870 and who is buried in the churchyard, was the first to decipher the complete text of the Diary of Samuel Pepys. Smith laboured on the Diaries for three years, from 1819 to 1822 and his transcription, which is kept in the Pepys Library, was the basis for the first published edition of the diary, edited by Lord Braybrooke, released in two volumes in 1825. The 19th century rectory beside the church, built in 1871, today it is a nursery, while a rather more modest modern rectory is located in Pond Lane.
St Marys has two church schools - St Marys Infant and St Marys Junior Schools, which share a site on St Marys Way in Baldock. The parasychologist Peter Underwood married in the church in 1944, the church is built of flint rubble with stone dressings, while the tower is coated with Roman cement. Pieces of moulding and columns of a building are used in the walls. The roofs of the chapel and north aisle are of slate. The church consists of a chancel and south chapels, nave and south aisles, west tower, and north and south porches
Hertfordshire is a county in southern England, bordered by Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the north-east, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west and Greater London to the south. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region, in 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 living in an area of 634 square miles. Four towns have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents, Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the market town for the medieval agricultural county derives its name from a hart. Elevations are high for the region in the north and west and these reach over 240m in the western projection around Tring which is in the Chilterns. The countys borders are approximately the watersheds of the Colne and Lea, hertfordshires undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by green belt. The countys landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, Leavesden filmed much of the UK-based $7.7 Bn box office Harry Potter film series and has the countrys studio tour.
Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill and his martyrs cross of a yellow saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with motorways and railways, providing access to London. The largest sector of the economy of the county is in services, Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing, the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems, there is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period. It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age and this was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is believed to have taken place.
Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyrs cross of a saltire on a blue background is reflected in the flag. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire, with the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the county was part of the East Saxon kingdom
Verulamium was a town in Roman Britain. It was sited in the southwest of the city of St Albans in Hertfordshire. A large portion of the Roman city remains unexcavated, being now park and agricultural land, the ancient Watling Street passed through the city. Much of the site and its environs is now classed as an ancient monument. Before the Romans established their settlement, there was already a centre in the area which belonged to the Catuvellauni. This settlement is usually called Verlamion, the etymology is uncertain but the name has been reconstructed as *Uerulāmion, which would have a meaning like of the broad hand in Brittonic. In this pre-Roman form, it was among the first places in Britain recorded by name, the settlement was established by Tasciovanus, who minted coins there. The Roman settlement was granted the rank of municipium around AD50, meaning its citizens had what were known as Latin Rights and it grew steadily, by the early 3rd century, it covered an area of about 125 acres, behind a deep ditch and wall.
It is the location of the martyrdom of the first British martyr saint, Saint Alban, Verulamium contained a forum, basilica and a theatre, much of which were damaged during two fires, one in 155 and the other in around 250. One of the few extant Roman inscriptions in Britain is found on the remnants of the forum, the town was rebuilt in stone rather than timber at least twice over the next 150 years. Occupation by the Romans ended between 400 and 450, more remains under the nearby agricultural land which have never been excavated were for a while seriously threatened by deep ploughing. St Albans Abbey and the associated Anglo-Saxon settlement were founded on a hill outside the Roman city, the site of the abbey may have been a location where there was reason to believe that St Alban was executed or buried. More certainly, the abbey is near the site of a Roman cemetery and it is unknown whether there are Roman remains under the medieval abbey. An archaeological excavation in 1978, directed by Martin Biddle, failed to find Roman remains on the site of the chapter house.
David Nash Ford identifies the community as the Cair Mincip listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britains. The modern city takes its name from Alban, either a citizen of Verulamium or a Roman soldier, who was condemned to death in the 3rd century for sheltering Amphibalus, a Christian. Alban was converted by him to Christianity, and by virtue of his death, since much of the modern city and its environs is built over Roman remains, it is still common to unearth Roman artefacts several miles away. A complete tile kiln was found in Park Street some six miles from Verulamium in the 1970s, no trace of it is left, but Aubrey noted, At Verulam is to be seen, in some few places, some remains of the wall of this Citie
St Albans Cathedral
St Albans Cathedral, formally the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban, and referred to locally as the Abbey, is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England. Much of its dates from Norman times. It ceased to be an abbey in the 16th century and became a cathedral in 1877, probably founded in the 8th century, the present building is Norman or Romanesque architecture of the 11th century, with Gothic and 19th-century additions. According to Bede, whose account of the life is the most elaborate, Alban lived in Verulamium. At that time Christians began to suffer cruel persecution, Alban met a Christian priest fleeing from persecutors, and sheltered him in his house for a number of days. Alban was so impressed with the faith and piety that he soon converted to Christianity. Eventually Roman soldiers came to seize the priest, but Alban put on his cloak, Alban was brought before a judge and was sentenced to beheading. It was at this place that his head was struck off, immediately one of the executioners delivered the fatal stroke, his eyes fell out and dropped to the ground alongside Albans head.
In legends, it is said that Albans head rolled downhill, St Albans Cathedral stands near the supposed site of Albans martyrdom and a well does exist at the bottom of the hill, Holywell Hill. However, the dates from the 19th century and the name of the street may derive from the Halywell river. The date of Albans execution is a matter of debate and is given as circa 250 — scholars suggest dates of 209,254 or 304. The tomb of St Amphibalus is in the Cathedral, a memoria over the execution point and holding the remains of Alban existed at the site from the mid-4th century, Bede mentions a church and Gildas a shrine. Bishop Germanus of Auxerre visited in 429 and took a portion of the apparently still bloody earth away, the style of this structure is unknown, the 13th century chronicler Matthew Paris claimed that the Saxons destroyed the building in 586. Offa II of Mercia, who ruled in the 8th century, is said to have founded the Benedictine abbey, all religious structures are dated from the foundation of Offas abbey in 793.
The abbey was built on Holmhurst Hill—now Holywell Hill—across the River Ver from the ruins of Verulamium, again there is no information to the form of the first abbey. The abbey was sacked by the Danes around 890 and, despite Pariss claims. There was an intention to rebuild the abbey in 1005 when Abbot Ealdred was licensed to remove building material from Verulamium, with the town resting on clay and chalk the only tough stone is flint. This was used with a mortar and either plastered over or left bare
Moor Park (house)
Not to be confused with the Tudor palace called The More located 1 mile away to the north east. Moor Park is a Grade I listed Palladian mansion set within several hundred acres of parkland to the south-east of Rickmansworth in Hertfordshire and it is called Moor Park Mansion because it is in the old park of the Manor of More. After The More became a ruin, in about 1617 the 3rd Earl of Bedford built a new house on the hill to the southwest of the old palace, within the deer park. The house was rebuilt in 1678–9 for James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, Styles had the house remodelled in the 1720s. The principal architect was Giacomo Leoni, initially assisted by the painter Sir James Thornhill, Leoni refaced the house with Portland stone and added a great Corinthian portico on the south front and Tuscan colonnades. Inside, Thornhill was commissioned to paint the Great Hall and the Grand Stair, complete with a dome in imitation of St. Peters, Thornhill quarrelled with Styles and left the project before its completion.
The paintings on the Grand Stair date from 1732 and depict the Origin of the Seasons from Ovids Metamorphoses by Francesco Sleter, all that remains of Styles work on the Grand Stair is a single panel over a doorway, uncovered during restoration work in 2002. After Styles falling-out with Thornhill, Amigoni was commissioned to paint the four pictures in the Great Hall—the story of Jupiter and Io, again from Ovids Metamorphoses. The wall paintings in the erroneously named Thornhill Room are probably by Sleter and Amigoni, while the ceiling was painted earlier by Antonio Verrio, and depicts Aurora. In 1752 the house was bought by Admiral Lord Anson who commissioned Capability Brown to remake the formal gardens in sweeping landscape style with a small lake. Horace Walpole was not impressed, I was not much struck with it and he has undulated the horizon in so many artificial molehills, that it is full as unnatural as if it was drawn with a rule and compasses. Further owners succeeded at regular intervals until the estate was sold to the Robert Grosvenor.
Earl Grosvenor, son of the Duke of Westminster, built the gateway at Batchworth Heath and planted the grounds with trees. Lord Leverhulme purchased Moor Park and commissioned golf course designer Harry Colt to lay out the courses that now surround the mansion, the operation was planned in a first-floor room, now named the Arnhem Room. Moor Park Golf Club now has its clubhouse in the building, country Life Book of Castles and Houses in Britain. London, Newnes Books, Hamlyn Publishing Group, Moor Park and Sir James Thornhill
Old Gorhambury House
Old Gorhambury House located near St Albans, England, is a ruined Elizabethan mansion, a leading and early example of the Elizabethan prodigy house. It was built in 1563–68 by Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper and it is a Grade I listed building. The house was partly from bricks taken from the old Abbey buildings at St Albans. The estate passed in 1652 to Annes second husband Sir Harbottle Grimston, Master of the Rolls, the surviving remains include a two-storey porch and clock tower. The site is maintained by English Heritage and is free to visit, in the years 1777–84, the current Palladian-style Gorhambury House was built nearby. Designed by Sir Robert Taylor and commissioned by James Bucknall Grimston, 3rd Viscount Grimston, it replaced Old Gorhambury House and it remains the home of the Earl of Verulam. The current house is a member of Historic Houses Association and is open for tours at certain times
St Mary's Church, Hemel Hempstead
St Marys Church, Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, is the parish church of the town and its oldest place of worship. Its construction was commenced in 1140 and was dedicated in 1150 although construction continued for another 30 years and it is cruciform in shape, with chancel, the first part to be built, nave south and north transepts, and a tower. A spire, one of the tallest in Europe was added in the 14th century with a height of 200 feet. It is topped by a weather vane. The church is built from the local stone and flint with some addition of Roman bricks. The architecture is Norman throughout apart from porches added in the 14th and 15th centuries, a 19th century vestry was added on the north east corner. In 1302 a cell to Ashridge Priory was founded in Hemel Hempstead, a door at the base of the tower allowed the monks access to the church and avoided them mixing with the townspeople. It is not known why such a church was constructed in what at the time was a small hamlet.
The church contains a memorial to Sir Astley Paston Cooper, there is a Walker organ which was refurbished in 2008. A ring of five bells was recorded in the reign of Edward VI, none of these remain and the present ring is of 8 bells dating from 1590 to 1767. In 1950, as part of the 800th anniversary, the bells were retuned by Gillett and Johnston of Croydon, the eight bells are inscribed as follows,1. Lester and Pack -17582, lester and Pack -17583. Chandler made me -16884, praise the Lord -16335. God save King James -16047, sana Manet Christi -16178. Lester and Pack -1767 The font is original Norman, although surrounded by 19th century decoration, St Marys Church guidebook with forward by the rector Peter Cotton,2008 A virtual walk around St Marys Church. A History of the County of Hertford, volume 2, St Marys parish website Diocese of St Albans
Beechwood Park (mansion)
Beechwood Park was a mansion, near Markyate, England. It now houses Beechwood Park School, ralph de Tony held this site, in the manor of Flamstead, as recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. As King of England, William the Conqueror would have expected this new Lord of the Manor to protect St Albans Abbey and its pilgrims. Ralph de Tonys grandson Roger IV de Toesny founded a Benedictine nunnery, St Giles in the Wood Priory, the Dissolution of the Monasteries resulted in the destruction of the nunnery of St Giles in 1537. The Manor House on the site was used frequently by Henry VIII, in 1537, the site was let to Sir John Tregonwell by Henry VIII. Shortly afterwards, the king granted it by Letters Patent dated September 30,1539, to Richard Page, the property subsequently passed first to George Ferrers, and in 1628 to Thomas Saunders of Long Marston. In 1698 his great grand-daughter Anne Saunders married Sir Edward Sebright, one of six children, only Anne herself survived childhood. A monument in St Leonards Church, Flamstead, is a memorial attributed to William Stanton to the death of her brothers and sisters.
Edward Sebright moved from Worcestershire to his bride’s home in Hertfordshire, further changes were made in the 18th century, a Library was added at the start of the 19th century, and the courtyard covered over in 1854. In 1880 the tenant was Mr W. B. Greenfield, in 1908 he was the tenant of Haynes Park, Bedfordshire. The Sebrights fell on hard times after World War I, the Second World War brought changes to Beechwood. Firstly the Sebright family, with the requisitioning of the house by the government, moved into a house that they owned. The main house became the headquarters for Spillers Foods, which had evacuated from London, an airfield was built in the grounds to land damaged or obsolete planes. Specially constructed hangars were used to house these planes and care was taken to camouflage the strip, at the end of the war the house first became a girls school, which eventually closed in 1961 due to lack of funds. A new coeducational preparatory school was opened in 1964 which continues to this day