Sanford J. Ungar
Sanford J. "Sandy" Ungar is an American journalist and the inaugural director of the Free Speech Project at Georgetown University. He was the 24th director of Voice of America. Ungar was born in the youngest of five children, his mother, Tillie Landau, born 1901 in Chrenif, a small village near Lviv, Ukraine, to a Jewish family. His father, Max Ungar, born 1895 in Slovakia, to a Jewish family. Ungar was raised in Pennsylvania where he attended Kingston High School. Several members of Ungar's family were killed in the Holocaust; as a child, Ungar was frightened by the stories told by several of his cousins who were holocaust survivors. Ungar obtained a bachelor's degree in Government magna cum laude from Harvard College and a master's degree in international history from the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he was a Rotary Foundation fellow. Upon completing graduate school, Ungar lived outside of the United States for three years, he intended to become a lawyer before becoming interested in "international opportunities."
During his time abroad, he was a correspondent for United Press International in Paris and for Newsweek in Nairobi. Upon returning to the United States, Ungar began work as a print journalist for The Washington Post, he wrote for The Atlantic and The Economist before working in an editorial position for the Foreign Policy. In 1975, he published FBI: An Uncensored Look Behind the Walls. From 1980–1982, he was the weekday host of NPR's All Things Considered, he has appeared on public and cable television, as a commentator or as the moderator of debates. In 1985, Ungar published Estrangement: America and the World, a collection of essays he edited while a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Ungar has spoken around the United States and in other countries on issues of American foreign policy and domestic politics, free expression, human rights, immigration. From 1986 until 1999, he was Dean of the School of Communication at American University in Washington, DC. In 1998, Ungar published Fresh Blood: The New American Immigrants.
The following year he published Africa: The People and Politics of an Emerging Continent. Ungar was the 24th director of the Voice of America, the U. S. government’s principal international broadcasting agency, from 1999–2001. In that capacity, he oversaw more than 900 hours a week of VOA broadcasts in English and 52 other languages to some 100 million people around the world. Ungar became the tenth President of Goucher College on July 1, 2001. In 2006, Ungar instituted a mandatory study abroad requirement for all students. Ungar resigned as president of Goucher on June 2014 after being away on sabbatical. In the fall of 2014, Ungar taught a freshman seminar as a visiting professor at Harvard College called Free Speech, a course he taught at Goucher, he joined the faculty of Georgetown University Spring 2015. At Georgetown, he is the director of the Free Speech Project, a grant recipient of the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Ungar is a Lumina Foundation Fellow. In 1972, Ungar won a George Polk Award for his book, The Papers & The Papers: An Account of the Legal and Political Battle over the Pentagon Papers.
In May 1999 he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by Wilkes University in his hometown of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He has traveled in Europe, Latin America, Asia, he serves on the boards of the Institute for Christian and Jewish Studies and the Association of American Colleges and Universities, is past chair of the Maryland Independent College and University Association. Mr. Ungar is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he is an appointed member of the U. S. Public Interest Declassification Board. In June 2000, at its annual convention in Buenos Aires, the Rotary Foundation gave him its Scholar Alumni Achievement Award. Ungar lives in Baltimore and Washington with his wife, Beth Ungar, a physician in the practice of internal medicine, they have a daughter, a son, Philip. Goucher College profile Sanford Ungar profile Appearances on C-SPAN Sanford J. Ungar on IMDb
National Recording Registry
The National Recording Registry is a list of sound recordings that "are culturally or aesthetically important, and/or inform or reflect life in the United States." The registry was established by the National Recording Preservation Act of 2000, which created the National Recording Preservation Board, whose members are appointed by the Librarian of Congress. The recordings preserved in the United States National Recording Registry form a registry of recordings selected yearly by the National Recording Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress; the legislative intent of the National Recording Preservation Act of 2000 was to develop a national program to guard America's sound recording heritage. The Act resulted in the formations of the National Recording Registry, The National Recording Preservation Board and a fund-raising foundation to aid their efforts; the act established the Registry for the purpose of maintaining and preserving sound recordings and collections of sound recordings that are culturally or aesthetically significant.
Beginning in 2002, the National Recording Preservation Board began selecting nominated recordings each year to be preserved. The first four yearly lists each included 50 selections. However, since 2006, 25 recordings have been selected annually. Thus, a total of 525 recordings have been preserved in the Registry as of 2018; each calendar year, public nominations are accepted for inclusion in that year's list of selections to be announced the following spring. Nominations are made in the following categories: Each yearly list has included a few recordings that have been selected for inclusion in the holdings of the National Archives' audiovisual collection; those recordings on the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry that are of a political nature will tend to overlap with the audiovisual collection of the National Archives. The list shows overlapping items and whether the National Archives has an original or a copy of the recording; the criteria for selection are as follows: Recordings selected for the National Recording Registry are those that are culturally or aesthetically important, and/or inform or reflect life in the United States.
For the purposes of recording selection, "sound recordings" are defined as works that result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken, or other sounds, but not including the sound component of a moving image work, unless it is available as an autonomous sound recording or is the only extant component of the work. Recordings may be a single group of related items. Recordings will not be considered for inclusion into the National Recording Registry if no copy of the recording exists. No recording should be denied inclusion into the National Recording Registry because that recording has been preserved. No recording is eligible for inclusion into the National Recording Registry until ten years after the recording's creation. On January 27, 2003, the following 50 selections were announced by the National Recording Preservation Board. In March 2004, the following 50 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. In April 2005, the following 50 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board.
In April 2006, the following 50 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. On March 6, 2007, the following 25 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. On May 14, 2008, the following 25 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. On June 10, 2009, the following 25 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. On June 23, 2010, the following 25 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. On April 6, 2011, the following 25 selections were announced. On May 23, 2012, the following 25 selections were made by the National Recording Preservation Board. On March 21, 2013, the following 25 selections were announced. On April 2, 2014, the following 25 selections were announced. On March 25, 2015, the following 25 selections were announced. On March 23, 2016, the following 25 selections were announced. On March 29, 2017, the following 25 selections were announced. On March 21, 2018, the following 25 selections were announced.
On March 20, 2019, the following 25 selections were announced As of 2018, the oldest recording on the list is Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville's Phonautograms which date back to the 1850s. The most recent is The Blueprint by Jay-Z released in 2001. Selections vary in duration. Both the early Edison recordings and the instrumental "Rumble" by Link Wray, as well as "Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley and His Comets clock in at under three minutes. Meanwhile, Georg Solti's recording of Wagner's complete Ring Cycle is 15 hours in duration and Alexander Scourby's recitation of the King James Bible is over 80 hours in length. Stevie Wonder: Lift Every Voice and Sing and Songs in the Key of Life John Coltrane: Giant Steps and A Love Supreme Scott Joplin: Ragtime piano rolls and Treemonisha Orson Welles: War of the Worlds and The Fall of the City Curtis Mayfield: People Get Ready and Super Fly Louis Armstrong: Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings, Canal Street Blues and Mack The Knife Joe Falcon: Allons à Lafayette and Anthology of American Folk Music Paul Robeson: Show Boat and Othello Bing Crosby: Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? and White Christmas Miles Davis: Ko-Ko and Kind of Blue Paul Simon: Sounds of Silence and Gracela
The Rush Limbaugh Show
The Rush Limbaugh Show is a conservative American talk radio show hosted by Rush Limbaugh on Premiere Networks. Since its nationally syndicated premiere in 1988, The Rush Limbaugh Show has become the highest-rated talk radio show in the United States; the Rush Limbaugh Show has a format. The program airs live and consists of Limbaugh's monologues, based on the news of the day, interspersed with parody ads, phone calls from listeners, conspiracy theories and a variety of running comedy bits. Limbaugh does live commercials during the show for sponsors, he sometimes promotes his own products, such as his political newsletter, The Limbaugh Letter, or his Rush Revere children's history books. Limbaugh features guests, such as a politician or fellow commentator. An edited instrumental version of The Pretenders' “My City Was Gone” has been Limbaugh's theme song since the start of his show. In 1999, Limbaugh stopped playing the song after a "cease and desist" order was issued by EMI. After the song's writer, Chrissie Hynde, said in a radio interview she did not mind the use of the song, an agreement was reached with EMI.
The show airs live on weekdays from noon to 3 p.m. Eastern time. A limited, decreasing, number of stations air it on tape delay; the program originates from Limbaugh's studios near his home in Palm Beach County, where Limbaugh has lived since 1996. WJNO, Limbaugh's affiliate in Palm Beach County, serves as the de facto flagship station. In the early years of the program, it originated from the studios of WABC in New York City, which as of 2013 still served as the home to some of the program's staff and broadcast facilities; the Rush Limbaugh Show airs on a network of 590 AM and FM affiliate stations throughout the United States all of which air the program live. During its existence, WRNO broadcast the program on shortwave radio. Limbaugh hosts his own online Internet streaming audio and video broadcast, through Streamlink; this broadcast is restricted to members of Limbaugh's “Rush 24/7” service, but can be heard on some stations' streaming audio feeds. Premiere Networks, a division of iHeartMedia, the largest U.
S. radio station owner, owns distribution rights to the program. The program is not heard on any stations in Canada, although stations along the northern border of the United States give the show coverage in much of southern Canada; the show has never been carried on any satellite radio service, is one of the few nationally syndicated talk radio programs not to be featured on satellite radio. Limbaugh attributes this decision to a desire to maximize value for his terrestrial radio affiliates; the Rush Limbaugh Show is unusual among syndicated radio programs. An official weekend edition of the program, consisting of "best of" clips from the weekday show, entitled The Rush Limbaugh Week in Review, launched in January 2008. In September 1992 President George H. W. Bush made an appearance on Limbaugh's show. Charlton Heston called in to the show in 1995 to read from Michael Crichton's book Jurassic Park. Secretary of State Colin Powell appeared on the show in November 2003 when Roger Hedgecock was guest-hosting the show.
Former President George W. Bush has appeared six times on the program; the first time was during the 2000 presidential campaign. In 2004, he "called in" to a live broadcast during the week of the 2004 Republican National Convention to give a preview of his nomination acceptance speech, he called in again in 2006. The fourth time was April 18, 2008, when Limbaugh asked the White House to speak with Bush to thank him for the ceremony welcoming Pope Benedict XVI, which awed Limbaugh; the fifth call was during the show's 20th anniversary celebration, in which then-President Bush congratulated Limbaugh. He appeared a sixth time for an interview regarding his autobiography, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010. Vice President Dick Cheney has made multiple appearances. In 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger called in to a live broadcast of the show a day after having called Limbaugh "irrelevant", adding, "I'm not his servant. I'm the people's servant of California," on an appearance on NBC's Today show.
Other notable guests who have called in to Limbaugh's show include former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, unsuccessful Supreme Court nominee Robert Bork, economist Thomas Sowell, former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, television writer Joel Surnow, who took calls about events in his show, 24. In December 2006, Sylvester Stallone made an appearance on the show to discuss his upcoming movie Rocky Balboa. On February 27, 2004, actor Jim Caviezel called in to the program to discuss The Passion of the Christ, in which Caviezel played the role of Jesus Christ. Republican vice presidential nominee Governor Sarah Palin called into a show before a rally in October 2008 to discuss the election and the economic distortion and impact of Senator Obama's tax policy. Phil Gingrey, a congressman who compared shows such as Limbaugh and Sean Hannity to "throwing bricks" in January 2009, gave an interview on Limbaugh's show the following day. Limbaugh has had author and Washington Times columnist Bill Gertz on his show to discuss Gertz's boo
Melissa Block is an American radio host and journalist. She co-hosted NPR's All Things Considered news program from 2003 until August 14, 2015. In August 2015 she became a Special Correspondent for NPR, responsible for detailed profiles of newsworthy figures, long-form stories and series on topical issues, she began her NPR career in 1985 as an editorial assistant for ATC and rose to become ATC's senior producer. From 1994 to 2002, she was a New York reporter and correspondent for NPR, her reporting after the September 11 attacks helped earn NPR a Peabody Award in 2001. In 2008, Block was recording an interview in Chengdu, when the area was struck by a 7.9 magnitude earthquake. Her earthquake coverage earned her a Peabody Award, a duPont-Columbia Award, a National Headliner Award, the Society of Professional Journalists' Sigma Delta Chi Award, her coverage of the 9/11 terrorist attacks earned NPR a George Foster Peabody Award. Her reporting from Kosovo in 1999 for NPR won an Overseas Press Club Award.
She graduated from Radcliffe College, Harvard University and was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Geneva. Michele Norris Robert Siegel NPR biography
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Robert Charles Siegel is an American radio journalist. He was one of the co-hosts of the National Public Radio evening news broadcast All Things Considered from 1987 until his retirement in January 2018. Siegel was born June 1947 in New York City, to parents Joseph and Edith Siegel, his father was a commercial education teacher, his mother a secretary at Stuyvesant High School. He grew up at Stuyvesant Town—Peter Cooper Village, his maternal grandfather claimed to descend from rabbinical scholar Mordechai Yoffe and Siegel has identified on-air as Jewish. After graduating in 1964 from Stuyvesant, Siegel studied at Columbia University, graduating in 1968. During this time he was an anchor for the reporting of the 1968 Columbia demonstrations at the college radio station, WKCR-FM. Siegel's first professional broadcasting job was at WGLI in Babylon, New York, where he "did morning newscasts and a show, part phone-ins, part Top Forty, all under the pseudonym Bob Charles." After a year at Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Siegel left academia for good and worked for WRVR in New York from 1971 to 1976.
Siegel was hired as a newscaster for NPR in Washington, D. C. in 1976, he has held various news and production jobs at NPR since then. In broadcasts prior to the Panama Canal Treaty debates, he was referred to as "Bob," rather than his preferred "Robert." From 1979 to 1983 he was based in London. Upon his return to America, he became the director of the News and Information Department, was responsible for overseeing production of both All Things Considered and Morning Edition, as well as the creation of Weekend Edition. Since 1987, he has been a host of All Things Considered, he took a short break in 1992 to host Talk of NPR's call-in talk show. In 2010, Siegel was presented with the John Chancellor Award for Excellence in Journalism by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. Additionally, Siegel has won three Silver Batons from Alfred I. DuPont-Columbia University, as well as the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award. In April 2017, Siegel announced, his last day on the program was January 5, 2018.
Siegel has made cameo appearances in several television shows, including The Simpsons, Northern Exposure, BoJack Horseman and the film Yesterday Was a Lie. On the week of June 5, 2018, Siegel guest-hosted NPR's On Point. In 1973 Siegel married Jane Claudia Schwartz, who works for the United States Department of Commerce. Robert Siegel on IMDb
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and