London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The National (band)
The National is an American rock band from Cincinnati, formed in 1999. The band consists of Matt Berninger, Aaron Dessner, Bryce Dessner, Scott Devendorf and Bryan Devendorf. Founded by Berninger, Aaron Dessner, Scott and Bryan Devendorf, The National released their self-titled debut album, The National, on Brassland Records, an independent record label founded by Dessner and his twin brother, Bryce Dessner. Bryce, who had assisted in recording the album, soon joined the band, participating as a full member in the recording of its follow-up, Sad Songs for Dirty Lovers. Leaving behind their day jobs, the National signed with Beggars Banquet Records and released their third studio album, Alligator, to widespread critical acclaim; the band's fourth and fifth studio albums and High Violet, increased their exposure significantly. In 2013, the band released its sixth studio album, Trouble Will Find Me, nominated for Best Alternative Music Album at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards. In 2017 the band released the album Sleep Well Beast, which won the Grammy award for Best Alternative Music Album at the 60th Annual Grammy Awards.
Their eighth studio album, I Am Easy to Find, is scheduled for release on May 17, 2019. Four of the band's albums were included on NME's 2013 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. Matt Berninger and Scott Devendorf met in 1991 while attending the University of Cincinnati's DAAP college of graphic design program, where they met Mike Brewer, Casey Reas and Jeff Salem. Together, the five of them formed the lo-fi garage band Nancy, named after Berninger's mother, aspiring to sound like Pavement; the band was together for five years, released one album, Ruther 3429, on Wife Records before breaking up after Berninger, Devendorf and Salem moved to Brooklyn. Bryan and Aaron were childhood friends who played in several bands together over the years; when their last effort, Project Nim, broke up in 1998, they joined Matt and Scott in Brooklyn via the Devendorf relationship. When the band was formed in 1999, it was called "The National", although the domain name of the band's website is americanmary.com because, according to Matt Berninger, "t's a song off our first record.
We never thought of changing the name, although we should have." Several of the members continued to work day jobs, including being involved in New York's dot-com boom, while performing free Sunday night shows at Lower East Side venue Luna Lounge. Their first album The National was released in 2001 on Brassland Records, a label founded by band members Aaron and Bryce Dessner, along with their friend Alec Hanley Bemis; when reviewing the album, Jason MacNeil of No Depression wrote, "... The National has created nearly a dozen picture-perfect Americana bar-soaked gems with its debut album. From the opening notes of'Beautiful Head', the delicate line between polished roots-oriented pop and alt-country has been walked so deliberately with the payoff so favorable." The National's second album Sad Songs for Dirty Lovers, released in 2003, was the band's first collaboration with record producers, Paul Heck and Peter Katis, who would also produce the band's critically acclaimed albums and Boxer. After the release of the album, renowned DJ Bernard Lenoir invited them to perform on his Black Sessions twice on France Inter.
Publications such as Uncut and the Chicago Tribune named it an album of the year. In 2004, they released the Cherry Tree EP; the EP featured "All the Wine," a song. The release of the EP garnered further success and landed them on a successful tour with The Walkmen. In the same year, the band quit their day jobs and signed to a new label, Beggars Banquet Records, because the process of running their own label was becoming "too complicated", their first album on Beggars Banquet, was released in 2005. The album was met with much critical acclaim and featured in "Album of the Year" charts in the Los Angeles Times, Insound and many other publications; the album allowed. NME and Pitchfork Media ranked Alligator as a top album of the 2000s. Alligator brought the band increased attendance at concerts, including sold-out shows at The Troubadour in Los Angeles and Webster Hall in New York, they played at numerous festivals including the 2006 Pitchfork Music Festival and Leeds Festivals and more. Alligator went on to sell over 200,000 copies worldwide.
Their fourth album, was released on May 22, 2007, received widespread critical praise. The album features contributions including Sufjan Stevens and Doveman, it was voted as the No. 2 best album of the year by Stereogum.com and the No. 1 album of the year by Paste. The song "Slow Show" from Boxer was featured on the NBC series Chuck and Parenthood, as well as on The CW's One Tree Hill in its fifth season; the song "Start a War" was featured on the international science fiction series Defying Gravity, ABC's Brothers and Sisters, Fox's House, NBC's Parenthood, NBC's Friday Night Lights, Lionsgate film Warrior. The track "Fake Empire" was featured in the Season 2 Premiere of the HBO series Hung and on the third episode of season 2 of NBC's Chuck and in the pilot episode of Southland. An instrumental version of the song was featured in Barack Obama's campaign video "Signs of Hope and Change" during his 2008 United States presidential campaign, the song was played at the 2008 Democratic National Convention.
On September 26, 2007, the band performed "Apartment Story" on The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson. In the summer of 2008, along with Modest Mouse, they opened for R. E. M. on the promotional tou
Mudhoney is an American alternative rock band. Formed in Seattle, Washington in 1988 following the demise of Green River, Mudhoney's members are singer and rhythm guitarist Mark Arm, lead guitarist Steve Turner, bassist Guy Maddison and drummer Dan Peters. Original bassist Matt Lukin left the band in 1999. Mudhoney's early releases on the Sub Pop label their debut single "Touch Me I'm Sick" and the Superfuzz Bigmuff EP, were massively influential on the Seattle music scene. More than any other release of the era they inspired the dirty, high-distortion sound that would become grunge. On, Mudhoney mixed heavy blues rock and punk rock into their sound at various stages. Although the band has found little commercial success during its long career, which has yielded nine studio albums, it has inspired countless grunge and alternative rock musicians. Mudhoney started in Bellevue, Washington, a suburb of Seattle in 1980. While at Bellevue Christian High School, Mark McLaughlin and some friends started Mr. Epp and the Calculations, a band named after a math teacher of his.
The band was a joke band rather than a serious one. Mr. Epp and the Calculations played their first real show in 1981. To make the band seem more serious, Mr. Epp added a second guitarist Steve Turner, in a small garage band called The Ducky Boys. Mark Arm and Steve Turner became instant friends. Mr. Epp and the Calculations appeared on KZAM-AM radio and were introduced as "the worst band in the world." They played their last show on February 1984 with Malfunkshun at Seattle's Metropolis. Mark Arm and Steve Turner formed a joke-punk band called The Limp Richerds in 1984 near the end of Mr. Epp but this band ended shortly after Mr. Epp's ending as well. Green River was formed in 1984 when Arm and Turner recruited Alex Vincent as drummer, who had played with Turner in the short-lived Spluii Numa. Bassist Jeff Ament joined the band after arriving in Seattle with his band Deranged Diction. Stone Gossard, another of Turner's former bandmates, was recruited as second guitarist. Green River recorded their debut EP, Come on Down, in 1985, it is regarded as the first true "grunge" record.
Turner left the band after its release due to his distaste of the band's hard rock leanings. He was replaced by Bruce Fairweather. After recording another EP and a full-length album, the band disbanded in late 1987. Gossard and Fairweather went on to join Mother Love Bone. Following lead singer Andrew Wood's death and Ament went on to form Pearl Jam, Fairweather joined Love Battery. In January 1988, Arm reunited with Turner to form Mudhoney. Turner wanted to start a band, he and Arm began songwriting with Bundle of Hiss drummer Dan Peters. The trio decided that Matt Lukin, who had left Melvins, should join the band as bassist, they named themselves after the Russ Meyer film Mudhoney. In 1988, the band recorded and released their debut EP, Superfuzz Bigmuff, their first single, "Touch Me I'm Sick", on the Sub Pop label; the single attracted attention and the band enjoyed moderate success in the United States. Mudhoney became Sub Pop's flagship band. Sonic Youth, who were fans of the band, had invited Mudhoney to join them for a tour in the UK in 1989.
After this tour Superfuzz Bigmuff entered the British indie charts and they received a respectable amount of press coverage. The band released their first album, Mudhoney, in 1989. Kurt Cobain listed Superfuzz Bigmuff as one of his favourite albums in his journal in 1993, they released their second album, Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge, in 1991. After the album's release they were offered a deal with Reprise Records, they joined the label in 1992. Mudhoney's first album with Reprise was Piece of Cake. In a 2008 Mojo magazine article, Turner explained the album references "how things had come to them... the songs were kinda half-baked..." They contributed a track "Overblown" at this time to the soundtrack to the film Singles. With their 1995 album My Brother the Cow they mixed their earlier and more recent sound, but Turner explained in an article in Mojo, "There was a backlash after Kurt killed himself; the English press were so angry. Those were some of the worst reviews we'd gotten. We were mocked for still existing."
The press was not all negative, as the album received praise in certain U. S. publications, including People magazine: "Leave the brooding anthems to Pearl Jam. Mudhoney delivers pure grunge—messy music that casts a powerful spell."In 1996, Mudhoney appeared in the comedy movie Black Sheep, starring Chris Farley and David Spade. The band was shown performing at an MTV concert and speaking with Farley backstage. Tomorrow Hit Today was released in September 1998; the album demonstrated a blues-rock influence, the band used record producer Jim Dickinson, who worked with The Rolling Stones. They recorded the set in three different cities. After a few years of touring, Reprise decided to release Mudhoney. Subsequently, Lukin left the band, they released March to Fuzz, a retrospective compilation album. Mudhoney continued to play some concerts in the Pacific Northwest, recruited permanent bassist Guy Maddison who had played with Arm in one of his many side projects, Bloodloss. In 2002, following their return to Sub Pop, the band recorded and released a new studio album, Since We've Become Tran
Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds
Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds are an Australian rock band formed in Melbourne in 1983 by vocalist Nick Cave, multi-instrumentalist Mick Harvey and guitarist Blixa Bargeld. The band has featured international personnel throughout its career and presently consists of Cave and multi-instrumentalist Warren Ellis, bassist Martyn P. Casey, guitarist George Vjestica, keyboardist/percussionist Toby Dammit and drummers Thomas Wydler and Jim Sclavunos; the band has released sixteen studio albums and completed numerous international tours, has been considered "one of the most original and celebrated bands of the post-punk and alternative rock eras in the'80s and onward". The band was founded in 1983 following the demise of Cave and Harvey's former group the Birthday Party, the members of which met at a boarding school in Victoria. By the release of their fifth studio album Tender Prey in 1988, they shifted from post-punk towards an experimental alternative rock sound incorporating various influences throughout their career.
For example, the 2008 album Dig, Dig!!! and the side-project Grinderman were influenced by garage rock. Synthesizers and minimal guitar work feature prominently on Push the Sky Away, recorded after Harvey's departure from the band in 2009; the project that would evolve into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds began following the demise of The Birthday Party in August 1983. Both Cave and Harvey were members of the Birthday Party, along with guitarist Rowland S. Howard and bassist Tracy Pew. During the recording sessions of the Birthday Party's scheduled EPs Mutiny/The Bad Seed, internal disputes developed in the band; the difference in Cave and Howard's approach to songwriting was a major factor, as Cave explained in an interview with On The Street: "the main reason why The Birthday Party broke up was that the sort of songs that I was writing and the sort of songs that Rowland was writing were just at odds with each other." Following the departure of Harvey, they disbanded. Cave said that "it would have gone on longer, but Mick has the ability to judge things much more than the rest of us."
An embryonic version of what would become Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds was formed in the Birthday Party's then-home of London in September 1983, with Cave, Einstürzende Neubauten guitarist Bargeld, Magazine bassist Barry Adamson, Jim G. Thirlwell; the band was formed as a backing band for Cave's intended solo project Man Or Myth?, approved by the record label Mute Records. During September and October 1983, they recorded material with producer Flood, although the sessions were cut short due to Cave's touring with the Immaculate Consumptive, another project formed with Thirlwell, Lydia Lunch and Marc Almond. In December 1983 Cave returned to Melbourne, where he formed a temporary line-up of his backing band, due to Bargeld's absence, that included Pew and guitarist Hugo Race; the band performed their first live show at Seaview in St. Kilda on 31 December 1983. Following a short Australian tour, during a period when they were without management and his band returned to London. Cave, Bargeld and Adamson formed the project's first consistent line-up, while Cave's longtime girlfriend Anita Lane was credited as a lyricist on the band's debut album.
The group, which up to this time had been nameless, adopted the moniker Nick Cave and the Cavemen, which they used for the first six months of their career. However, they were renamed Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds in May 1984, in reference to the final Birthday Party EP The Bad Seed, they began recording sessions for their debut album in March 1984 at London's Trident Studios and these sessions, together with the abandoned Man Or Myth? Sessions from September–October 1983 that were recorded at The Garden studios, formed the album From Her to Eternity, released on Mute Records in 1984. Race, touring guitarist Edward Clayton-Jones, left to form the Wreckery in Melbourne. After the departure of Race and Lane, the remaining members relocated to West Berlin, Germany, in 1985 and released a second album The Firstborn Is Dead; the album was influenced by the gothic Americana of the American South and blues music, exemplified in songs such as "Tupelo" and "Blind Lemon Jefferson", which reference the birth of Elvis Presley and Blind Lemon Jefferson respectively.
Released the following year, the cover version album Kicking Against the Pricks explored such influences more directly with renditions of material by Johnny Cash, John Lee Hooker and Lead Belly. The 1986 album marked the arrival of Swiss drummer Thomas Wydler, a member of Die Haut, featured guest appearances from Race and Birthday Party guitarist Howard, who had toured with the Bad Seeds as a substitute member in 1985. Pew's death from an epileptic seizure occurred in 1986; the band garnered an increased following due to a second 1986 album release, Your Funeral, My Trial, which coincided with Adamson's departure. Tender Prey, the dark, brooding 1988 follow-up, saw the arrival of American guitarist Kid Congo Powers—Harvey made the transition to bass—and short-tenured German keyboardist Roland Wolf; the single "The Mercy Seat" chronicled an unrepentant prisoner on death row and further increased the group's critical acclaim and commercial attention. The track was covered by Johnny Cash on his 2000 album American III: Solitary Man.
Despite the increasing level of success, the drug-related issues of band members became problematic. The documentary film The Road to God Knows Where, directed by Uli M Schueppel, depicts a five-week period of the United States leg of their 1989 tour. Cave and his ba
Neutral Milk Hotel
Neutral Milk Hotel was an American indie rock band formed in Ruston, Louisiana by singer and songwriter Jeff Mangum in the late 1980s. The band is noted for its experimental sound, abstract lyrics, eclectic instrumentation; the first release under the Neutral Milk Hotel moniker was the 1994 EP Everything Is, a short collection of tracks featuring Mangum. On the band's full-length debut album On Avery Island, which followed shortly thereafter, Mangum was joined by childhood friend and Apples in Stereo frontman Robert Schneider, who contributed production and instrumentation. Upon the album's release, the full band was formed and extensive touring began. Neutral Milk Hotel released In the Aeroplane Over the Sea in 1998, which became their best-known and most critically acclaimed album. Although the album did not meet commercial success at the time of release, it has gone on to sell over 300,000 copies and received critical acclaim from several publications, including Pitchfork Media, Magnet Magazine, AllMusic, The Pazz & Jop poll.
Despite growing popularity, the group disbanded in 1999 after Mangum became disenchanted with touring and the music press having a nervous breakdown. Neutral Milk Hotel is a part of the Elephant 6 Recording Company; the band was one of Elephant 6's three first projects, alongside The Apples in Stereo and The Olivia Tremor Control. On April 29, 2013, the band announced a reunion tour for the fall of 2013 with the lineup that played on In the Aeroplane Over the Sea via their record label's website. After that, they continued to play concerts sporadically until going on indefinite hiatus in mid-2015. Jeff Mangum, along with high-school friends Will Cullen Hart and Bill Doss, formed The Olivia Tremor Control, with Mangum appearing on their first release, the California Demise 7". Prior to recording for friends under the Neutral Milk Hotel moniker, Mangum recorded a few cassettes under the name Milk; these are the earliest known recordings that Mangum executed himself. There were only an estimated dozen or so copies made of this tape, none of, made public.
It was revealed c. 2006 on the Elephant 6 online forums that another tape under said name, entitled Beauty, was released, along with several recordings under the name Ruby Bulbs. Neutral Milk Hotel began as a recording project for Mangum, in the late 1980s, he produced several demo cassettes, among them 1991's Invent Yourself a Shortcake, 1992's Beauty, 1993's Hype City Soundtrack, along with two more from this period unnamed. Although found on the Internet, these demos capture the project at a embryonic stage: songs are played in between various sound collages and tape experiments, one of which consists only of a six-minute conversation between Mangum and Hart. Another track, "Digestion Machine", features a varied collage of voices answering the question asked by Mangum, "What does the digestion machine mean to you?". The more accessible "Synthetic Flying Machine" titled "Up and Over" became "The King of Carrot Flowers Pt. 3" on In the Aeroplane Over the Sea. During this period, Mangum was wandering the country, staying with friends, in a state of perpetual unemployment.
It was in these circumstances. Speaking, the'band' consisted of Mangum and whoever else was present at the time; this is obvious on Neutral Milk Hotel's first release, a 7" record entitled Everything Is, recorded when Mangum was spending time in Seattle, released on Cher Doll Records in 1993. A full album, On Avery Island, this time recorded in Denver, Colorado on a four-track reel-to-reel tape machine, where Mangum was backed by the album's producer Robert Schneider of The Apples in Stereo, Rick Benjamin of The Perry Weissman 3, Lisa Janssen of Secret Square, it was released by Merge Records in 1996. After the release of Avery Island, Neutral Milk Hotel became a fully-fledged band, as Julian Koster, Scott Spillane, Jeremy Barnes joined Mangum, the band now being based in New York City. Soon after this, they moved to Athens, where many of Mangum's friends had begun to settle, the Elephant 6 had begun to take root. After this, the band went back to Denver; the band's second album, In the Aeroplane Over the Sea, released in 1998 and produced by Robert Schneider, is notable as a critically acclaimed and popular album.
It is inspired by the story of Holocaust victim Anne Frank. During live performances, including the one released under the title Live at Jittery Joe's, Mangum has described some of the songs of this album as based on urgent, recurring dreams he had of a Jewish family during World War II; the album was praised by critics for its wildly inventive instrumentation and Mangum's provocative and impassioned lyrics. Although it was met with scant response from the general public when it was released, the recording has continued to gain momentum in indie music circles, selling over 300,000 copies, according to Merge Records. However, the record took its toll on Mangum; the band abruptly went on hiatus, turning down all requests for shows, including a support slot for R. E. M. Before Neutral Milk Hotel began their indefinite hiatus, Mangum played live at a house show on December 5, 1998 in Athens on Chris Bilheimer's birthday; the bill was shared with Elf Power, the audience was made up completely of friends and bandmates.
Playing solo and acoustic, Mangum opened the set
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
My Bloody Valentine (band)
My Bloody Valentine are an Irish-English rock band formed in Dublin in 1983. Since 1987, its lineup has consisted of founding members Kevin Shields and Colm Ó Cíosóig, with Bilinda Butcher and Debbie Googe, their music is best known for its merging of dissonant guitar textures with ethereal melody and unorthodox production techniques. They helped to pioneer the alternative rock subgenre known as shoegazing during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Following several unsuccessful early releases and membership changes, My Bloody Valentine signed to Creation Records in 1988; the band released a number of successful EPs, including You Made Me Realise and Tremolo, the studio albums Isn't Anything and Loveless, with the latter described as their magnum opus, as well as one of the best albums of the 1990s. In 1992, My Bloody Valentine signed to Island Records and recorded several albums worth of unreleased material, remaining inactive. Googe and Ó Cíosóig left the band in 1995, were followed by Butcher in 1997.
Unable to complete a follow-up to Loveless, Shields isolated himself and, in his own words, "went crazy". In 2007, he announced that he had reunited with his bandmates, My Bloody Valentine subsequently embarked on a world tour, their long-delayed third studio album m b v was released in 2013. In 1978, Kevin Shields and Colm Ó Cíosóig were introduced to each other at a karate tournament in South Dublin; the duo became friends in what has been described as "an overnight friendship" and formed The Complex, a punk rock band, with Liam Ó Maonlaí, Ó Cíosóig's friend from Coláiste Eoin. The band, who performed "a handful of gigs" consisting of Sex Pistols and Ramones songs, disbanded when Ó Maonlaí left to form Hothouse Flowers. Shields and Ó Cíosóig formed A Life in the Day, a post-punk trio, but failed to secure performances with more than a hundred people present. Following A Life in the Day's dissolution, Shields and Ó Cíosóig formed My Bloody Valentine in early 1983 with lead vocalist David Conway.
Conway, who performed under the pseudonym Dave Stelfox, suggested a number of potential band names, including the Burning Peacocks, before the trio settled on My Bloody Valentine. Shields has since claimed he was unaware that My Bloody Valentine was the title of a 1981 Canadian slasher film when the name was suggested. My Bloody Valentine experienced a number of line-up changes during their initial months. Lead guitarist Stephen Ivers and bassist Mark Ross were recruited in April 1983 and the band would rehearse near Smithfield and Temple Bar in rehearsal spaces owned by Aidan Walsh. Walsh, who booked some of the band's early performances, said the rehearsals were "too noisy" and "crazy" that "next door were giving out hell". Ross left the band in December 1983 and was replaced by Paul Murtagh, who left the band in early 1984. In March 1984, Shields and Conway recorded the band's first demo on a four-track recorder in Shields' parents' home in Killiney. Shields and Ó Cíosóig overdubbed bass and drum tracks at Litton Lane Studios, the tape was used to secure a contract with Tycoon Records.
Soon after recording the demo, Ivers left My Bloody Valentine and Conway's girlfriend, Tina Durkin, joined as a keyboard player. Around this time, Conway, on the suggestion of Shields, contacted Gavin Friday, the lead vocalist of the post-punk band Virgin Prunes. According to Shields, Conway approached Friday in Finglas, asked him for advice and was told to "get out of Dublin." Shields agreed with the advice, commenting in January 1991 that "there was no room for us" in Ireland. Friday provided the band with contacts that secured them a show in Netherlands; the band relocated to the Netherlands after the show and lived there for a further nine months, opening for R. E. M. on one occasion on 8 April 1984. Due to a lack of opportunities and a lack of correct documentation, the band relocated to West Berlin, Germany in late 1984 and recorded their debut mini album, This Is Your Bloody Valentine; the album failed to receive much attention and the band returned temporarily to the Netherlands, before settling in London, United Kingdom in the middle of 1985.
Following their relocation to London in 1985, members of My Bloody Valentine lost contact with each other while looking for accommodation and Tina Durkin, not confident in her abilities as a keyboard player, left the band. When the remaining three members regained contact with one another, the band decided to audition bassists, as they lacked a regular bassist since their formation. Shields acquired Debbie Googe's telephone number from a contact in London, invited her to audition and subsequently recruited her as a bassist. Googe managed to attend rehearsals. Rehearsal sessions were held at Salem Studios, connected to the independent record label Fever Records; the label's management were impressed with the band and agreed to release an extended play, provided the band would finance the recording sessions themselves. Released in December 1985, Geek! failed to reach the band's expectations. Due to the band's slow progress, Shields contemplated relocating to New York City, where members of his family were living at the time.
However, Creation Records co-founder Joe Foster had decided to establish his own record label, Kaleidoscope Sound and persuaded My Bloody Valentine to reco