Ash Wednesday is a Christian holy day of prayer and fasting. It is preceded by Shrove Tuesday and falls on the first day of Lent, the six weeks of penitence before Easter. Ash Wednesday is traditionally observed by Western Christians. Most Latin Rite Roman Catholics observe it, as do some Protestants like Anglicans, Methodists, some Reformed churches, Baptists and Independent Catholics; as it is the first day of Lent, Christians begin Ash Wednesday by marking a Lenten calendar, praying a Lenten daily devotional, abstaining from a luxury that they will not partake of until Eastertide arrives. Ash Wednesday derives its name from the placing of repentance ashes on the foreheads of participants to either the words "Repent, believe in the Gospel" or the dictum "Remember that you are dust, to dust you shall return." The ashes are prepared by burning palm leaves from the previous year's Palm Sunday celebrations. Many Christian denominations emphasize fasting, as well as abstinence during the season of Lent and in particular, on its first day, Ash Wednesday.
The First Council of Nicæa spoke of Lent as a period of fasting for forty days, in preparation for Eastertide. In many places, Christians abstained from food for a whole day until the evening, at sunset, Western Christians traditionally broke the Lenten fast, known as the Black Fast. In India and Pakistan, many Christians continue this practice of fasting until sunset on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, with some fasting in this manner throughout the whole season of Lent. In the Roman Catholic Church, Ash Wednesday is observed by fasting, abstinence from meat, repentance – a day of contemplating one's transgressions. On Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, Roman Catholics between the ages of 18 and 59 are permitted to consume one full meal, along with two smaller meals, which together should not equal the full meal; some Catholics will go beyond the minimum obligations put forth by the Church and undertake a complete fast or a bread and water fast until sunset. Ash Wednesday and Good Friday are days of abstinence from meat, as are all Fridays during Lent.
Some Roman Catholics continue fasting throughout Lent, as was the Church's traditional requirement, concluding only after the celebration of the Easter Vigil. Where the Ambrosian Rite is observed, the day of fasting and abstinence is postponed to the first Friday in the Ambrosian Lent, nine days later. A number of Lutheran parishes teach communicants to fast on Ash Wednesday, with some people choosing to continue doing so throughout the entire season of Lent on Good Friday. One Lutheran congregation's A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent recommends that the faithful "Fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday with only one simple meal during the day without meat". In the Church of England, throughout much of the Worldwide Anglican Communion, the entire forty days of Lent are designated days of fasting, while the Fridays are designated as days of abstinence in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, with the Traditional Saint Augustine's Prayer Book: A Book of Devotion for Members of the Anglican Communion defining "Fasting meaning not more than a light breakfast, one full meal, one half meal, on the forty days of Lent."
The same text defines abstinence as refraining from flesh meat on all Fridays of the Church Year, except for those during Christmastide. The historic Methodist homilies regarding the Sermon on the Mount stress the importance of the Lenten fast, which begins on Ash Wednesday; the United Methodist Church therefore states that: There is a strong biblical base for fasting during the 40 days of Lent leading to the celebration of Easter. Jesus, as part of his spiritual preparation, went into the wilderness and fasted 40 days and 40 nights, according to the Gospels. Rev. Jacqui King, the minister of Nu Faith Community United Methodist Church in Houston explained the philosophy of fasting during Lent as "I'm not skipping a meal because in place of that meal I'm dining with God"; the Reformed Church in America describes Ash Wednesday as a day "focused on prayer and repentance." The liturgy for Ash Wednesday thus contains the following "Invitation to Observe a Lenten Discipline" read by the presider: We begin this holy season by acknowledging our need for repentance and our need for the love and forgiveness shown to us in Jesus Christ.
I invite you, therefore, in the name of Christ, to observe a Holy Lent, by self-examination and penitence, by prayer and fasting, by practicing works of love, by reading and reflecting on God's Holy Word. Many of the Churches in the Reformed tradition retained the Lenten fast in its entirety, although it was made voluntary, rather than obligatory. Ashes are ceremonially placed on the heads of Christians on Ash Wednesday, either by being sprinkled over their heads or, in English-speaking countries, more by being marked on their foreheads as a visible cross; the words used traditionally to accompany this gesture are, "Memento, quia pulvis es, et in pulverem reverteris." This custom is credited to Pope Gregory I the Great. In the 1969 revision of the Roman Rite, an alternative formula was introduced and given first place "Repent, believe in the Gospel" and the older formula was translated as "Remember that you are dust, to dust you shall return." The old formula, based on the words spoken to Adam and Eve after their sin, reminds worshippers of their sinfulness and mortality and thus, implicitly, of their need to repent in time.
The newer formula makes explicit. Various manners of placing the ash
Transubstantiation is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that in the Eucharistic offering bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ; the reaffirmation of this doctrine was expressed, using the word "transubstantiate", by the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215. It was challenged by various 14th-century reformers, John Wycliffe in particular; the manner in which the change occurs, the Roman Catholic Church teaches, is a mystery: "The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ." The precise terminology to be used to refer to the nature of the Eucharist and its theological implications has a contentious history in the Protestant Reformation. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the doctrine has been discussed under the term of metousiosis, coined as a direct loan-translation of transsubstantiatio in the 17th century.
In Eastern Orthodoxy in general, the Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist is more discussed using alternative terms such as "trans-elementation", "re-ordination", or "change". The belief that the bread and wine that form the matter of the Eucharist become the body and blood of Christ appears to have been widespread from an early date, with early Christian writers referring to them as his body and the blood, they speak of them as the same blood which suffered and died on the cross. The short document known as the Teaching of the Apostles or Didache, which may be the earliest Christian document outside of the New Testament to speak of the Eucharist, says, "Let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. A figure, there could not have been, unless there were first a veritable body. An empty thing, or phantom, is incapable of a figure. If, however, He pretended the bread was His body, because He lacked the truth of bodily substance, it follows that He must have given bread for us."The Apostolic Constitutions says: "Let the bishop give the oblation, The body of Christ.
And let the deacon take the cup. Let us prove that this is not what nature made, but what the blessing consecrated, the power of blessing is greater than that of nature, because by blessing nature itself is changed.... For that sacrament which you receive is made, but if the word of Elijah had such power as to bring down fire from heaven, shall not the word of Christ have power to change the nature of the elements?... Why do you seek the order of nature in the Body of Christ, seeing that the Lord Jesus Himself was born of a Virgin, not according to nature? It is the true Flesh of Christ, crucified and buried, this is truly the Sacrament of His Body; the Lord Jesus Himself proclaims: "This Is My Body." Before the blessing of the heavenly words another nature is spoken of, after the consecration the Body is signified. He Himself speaks of His Blood. Before the consecration it has another name, and you say, that is, It is true. Let the heart within confess what the mouth utters, let the soul feel. Other fourth-century Christian writers say that in the Eucharist there occurs a "change", "transelementation", "transformation", "transposing", "alteration" of the bread into the body of Christ.
In AD 400, Augustine quotes Cyprian: "For as Christ says'I am the true vine,' it follows that the blood of Christ is wine, not water.
Marylebone is an area in the West End of London, part of the City of Westminster. Bounded by Oxford Street to the south, Marylebone Road to the north, Edgware Road to the west and Great Portland Street to the east, the area east of Great Portland Street up to Cleveland Street, known as Fitzrovia since the 1940s, was East Marylebone. Marylebone gets its name from a church dedicated to St Mary, represented now by St Marylebone Parish Church; this stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the surrounding area became known as St Mary at the Bourne, afterwards corrupted to Marybourne, Mary-la-bonne, now Marylebone; the received pronunciation is'MARRY-le-bn', however'MAR—le-bone’ is used. It is a common misunderstanding; the manor of Tyburn is mentioned in the Domesday Book as a possession of Barking Abbey valued at 52 shillings, with a population no greater than 50. Early in the 13th century it was held by 3rd Earl of Oxford.
At the end of the 15th century Thomas Hobson bought up the greater part of the manor. Tyburn manor remained with the Crown until the southern part was sold in 1611 by James I, who retained the deer park, to Edward Forest, who had held it as a fixed rental under Elizabeth I. Forest's manor of Marylebone passed by marriage to the Austen family; the deer park, Marylebone Park Fields, was let out in small holdings for dairy produce. In 1710, John Holles, Duke of Newcastle, purchased the manor for £17,500, his daughter and heir, Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, by her marriage to Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, passed it into the family of the Earl of Oxford, one of whose titles was Lord Harley of Wigmore, she and the earl, realising the need for fashionable housing north of the Oxford Road, commissioned the surveyor and builder John Prince to draw a master plan that set Cavendish Square in a rational grid system of streets. The Harley heiress Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley married William, 2nd Duke of Portland, took the property, including Marylebone High Street, into the Bentinck family.
Such place names in the neighbourhood as Cavendish Square and Portland Place reflect the Dukes of Portland landholdings and Georgian-era developments there. In 1879 the fifth Duke died without issue and the estate passed through the female line to his sister, Lucy Joan Bentinck, widow of the 6th Baron Howard de Walden. A large part of the area directly to the west was constructed by the Portman family and is known as the Portman Estate. Both estates have aristocratic antecedents and are still run by members of the aforementioned families; the Howard de Walden Estate owns and manages the majority of the 92 acres of real estate in Marylebone which comprises the area from Marylebone High Street in the west to Robert Adam's Portland Place in the east and from Wigmore Street in the south to Marylebone Road in the north. In the 18th century the area was known for the raffish entertainments in Marylebone Gardens, the scene of bear-baiting and prize fights by members of both sexes, for the duelling grounds in Marylebone Fields.
The Crown repurchased the northern part of the estate in 1813. The Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone was a metropolitan borough of the County of London between 1899 and 1965, after which, with the Metropolitan Borough of Paddington and the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster it was merged into the City of Westminster. Marylebone was the scene of the Balcombe Street siege in 1975, when Provisional Irish Republican Army terrorists held two people hostage for a week. Marylebone is characterised by major streets on a grid pattern such as Gloucester Place, Baker Street, Marylebone High Street, Wimpole Street, Harley Street and Portland Place, with smaller mews between the major streets. Mansfield Street is a short continuation of Chandos Street built by the Adam brothers in 1770, on a plot of ground, underwater. Most of its houses are fine buildings with exquisite interiors, which if put on the market now would have an expected price in excess of £10 million, it has attracted people who understand attractive buildings – at Number 13 lived religious architect John Loughborough Pearson who died in 1897, designer of Castle Drogo and Delhi Sir Edwin Lutyens, who died in 1944.
Across the road at 61 New Cavendish Street lived Natural History Museum creator Alfred Waterhouse. Queen Anne Street is an elegant cross-street which unites the northern end of Chandos Street with Welbeck Street; the painter JMW Turner moved to 47 Queen Anne Street in 1812 from 64 Harley Street, now divided into numbers 22 and 23, owned the house until his death in 1851. It was known as "Turner's Den", becoming damp, dusty, with dozens of Turner's works of art now in the National Gallery scattered throughout the house, walls covered in tack holes and a drawing room inhabited by cats with no tails. During the same period a few hundred yards to the east, Chandos House in Chandos Street was used as the Austro-Hungarian Embassy and residence of the fabulously extravagant Ambassador Prince Paul Anton III Esterhazy, seeing entertainment on a most lavish scale; the building is one of the finest surviving Adam houses in London, now lets rooms. Marylebone is home to the histor
Churchman is an evangelical Anglican academic journal published by the Church Society. It was known as The Churchman and started in 1880 as a monthly periodical before moving to quarterly publication in 1920; the name change to "Churchman" came in 1977. The editor-in-chief is Gerald Bray. Early editors included Walter Purton, William McDonald Sinclair, Augustus Robert Buckland, Henry Wace, William Griffith Thomas and Guy Warman, from 1910 to 1914. Contributors to Churchman have included: J. C. Ryle, J. Stafford Wright, C. Sydney Carter, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, Philip Edgecumbe Hughes, Arthur Pollard, J. I. Packer, Alan Stibbs, John Stott, Roger Beckwith and J. A. Motyer. Among contributors have been Mary Strong, who in her introduction to "Letter of the Scattered Brotherhood" state she submitted and were published in The Churchman across a span of 14 years letters and writings from anonymous writings of genuine religious experience; these were published in a collection: "Letters of the Scattered Brotherhood", 1948, New York, Harper & Row and subsq.
The copyright continues. Official website BiblicalStudies.org.uk: Index for Churchman, accessed by decade → year → volume → issue → article
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion are the defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. The Thirty-nine Articles form part of the Book of Common Prayer used by both the Church of England and the Episcopal Church. Several versions are available online; when Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church and was excommunicated, he formed a new Church of England, which would be headed by the monarch rather than the pope. At this point, he needed to determine what its doctrines and practices would be in relation to the Roman Catholic Church and the new Protestant movements in continental Europe. A series of defining documents were written and replaced over a period of 30 years as the doctrinal and political situation changed from the excommunication of Henry VIII in 1533, to the excommunication of Elizabeth I in 1570; these positions began with the Ten Articles in 1536, concluded with the finalisation of the Thirty-nine articles in 1571.
The Thirty-nine articles served to define the doctrine of the Church of England as it related to Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practice. The articles went through at least five major revisions prior to their finalisation in 1571; the first attempt was the Ten Articles in 1536, which showed some Protestant leanings – the result of an English desire for a political alliance with the German Lutheran princes. The next revision was the Six Articles in 1539 which swung away from all reformed positions, the King's Book in 1543, which re-established most of the earlier Roman Catholic doctrines. During the reign of Edward VI, Henry VIII's only son, the Forty-two Articles were written under the direction of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer in 1552, it was in this document that Calvinist thought reached the zenith of its influence in the English Church. These articles were never put into action, due to Edward VI's death and the reversion of the English Church to Roman Catholicism under Henry VIII's elder daughter, Mary I.
Upon the coronation of Elizabeth I and the re-establishment of the Church of England as separate from the Roman Catholic Church, the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion were initiated by the Convocation of 1563, under the direction of Matthew Parker, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The articles pulled back from some of the more extreme Calvinist thinking and created the peculiar English reformed doctrine; the Thirty-nine Articles were finalised in 1571, incorporated into the Book of Common Prayer. Although not the end of the struggle between Catholic and Protestant monarchs and citizens, the book helped to standardise the English language, was to have a lasting effect on religion in the United Kingdom, elsewhere through its wide use; the Church of England's break with Rome inaugurated a period of doctrinal confusion and controversy as both conservative and reforming clergy attempted to shape the church's direction, the former as "Catholicism without the Pope" and the latter as Protestant. In an attempt "to establish Christian quietness and unity", the Ten Articles were adopted by clerical Convocation in July 1536 as the English Church's first post-papal doctrinal statement.
The Ten Articles were crafted as a rushed interim compromise between reformers. Historians have variously described it as a victory for Lutheranism and a success for Catholic resistance, its provisions have been described as "confusing". The first five articles dealt with doctrines that were "commanded expressly by God, are necessary to our salvation", while the last five articles dealt with "laudable ceremonies used in the Church"; this division reflects how the Articles originated from two different discussions earlier in the year. The first five articles were based on the Wittenberg Articles negotiated between English ambassadors Edward Foxe, Nicholas Heath and Robert Barnes and German Lutheran theologians, including Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon; this doctrinal statement was itself based on the Augsburg Confession of 1530. The five principal doctrines were the Bible and ecumenical creeds, penance, the Eucharist and justification; the core doctrine in the Ten Articles was justification by faith.
Justification –, defined as remission of sin and accepting into God's favour – was through "the only mercy and grace of the Father, promised unto us for his Son’s sake Jesus Christ, the merits of his blood and passion". Good works would follow, not precede, justification. However, the Lutheran influence was diluted with qualifications. Justification was attained "by contrition and faith joined with charity". In other words, good works were "necessarily required to the attaining of everlasting life". To the disappointment of conservatives, only three of the traditional seven sacraments were mentioned; the Articles affirm the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, stating that "under the form and figure of bread and wine... is verily and contained the self-same body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ". This definition was acceptable to those who held to transubstantiation or sacramental union, but it condemned sacramentarianism. More controversially for the reformers, the Articles maintained penance as a sacrament and the priest's authority to grant divine absolution in confession.
Articles six through ten focused on secondary issues. Purgatory, a central concern of medieval religion, was placed in the non-essential articles. On the question of its existence, the Ten Articles were ambiguous, it stated, "the place where be, the name thereof, kind of pains there" was "u
Passion of Jesus
In Christianity, the Passion is the short final period in the life of Jesus beginning with his triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his crucifixion and his death on Good Friday. It includes, among other events, the last supper, Jesus' agony in the garden, his arrest by the Sanhedrin priests, his trial before Pontius Pilate; those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events are known as the "Passion narratives". In some Christian communities, commemoration of the Passion includes remembrance of the sorrow of Mary, the mother of Jesus, on the Friday of Sorrows; the word passion has taken on a more general application and now may apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio. The accounts of the Passion are found in the four canonical gospels, Mark and John. Three of these, Matthew and Luke, known as the Synoptic Gospels, give similar accounts; the Gospel of John account varies slightly. The events include: The conspiracy against Jesus by the Jewish Sanhedrin priests and the teachers of the law, now known as Council Friday.
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, his anger and outburst at the Cleansing of the Temple A meal a few days before Passover. A woman anoints Jesus, he says. In Jerusalem, the Last Supper shared by his disciples. Jesus gives final instructions, predicts his betrayal, tells them all to remember him. On the path to Gethsemane after the meal. Jesus tells them they will all fall away that night. Gethsemane that night, Jesus prays, the disciples rest. Judas Iscariot leads in either "a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees", or a "large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests and elders of the people," which arrests Jesus. During the arrest in Gethsemane, someone takes a sword and cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus; the high priest's palace that night. The arresting party brings Jesus to the Sanhedrin. According to Matthew's Gospel, the court "spat in his face and struck him with their fists." They send him to Pontius Pilate. According to the synoptic gospels, the high priest who examines Jesus is Caiaphas.
The courtyard outside the high priest's palace, the same time. Peter joined the mob awaiting Jesus' fate; the cock crows and Peter remembers what Jesus had said. The governor's palace, early morning. Pilate, the Roman governor, examines Jesus, decides. In response to the screaming mob Pilate sends Jesus out to be crucified. According to the Gospel of Matthew, the betrayer, is filled with remorse and tries to return the money he was paid for betraying Jesus; when the high priests say that, his affair, Judas throws the money into the temple, goes off, hangs himself. Golgotha, a hill outside Jerusalem morning through mid afternoon. Jesus dies; the Gospel of Luke states that Pilate sends Jesus to be judged by Herod Antipas because as a Galilean he is under his jurisdiction. Herod hopes Jesus will perform a miracle for him. Herod mocks him and sends him back to Pilate after giving him an "elegant" robe to wear. All the Gospels relate. Matthew and John have Pilate offer a choice between Jesus and Barabbas to the crowd.
In all the Gospels, Pilate asks Jesus if he is King of the Jews and Jesus replies "So you say". Once condemned by Pilate, he was flogged before execution; the Canonical Gospels, except Luke, record that Jesus is taken by the soldiers to the Praetorium where, according to Matthew and Mark, the whole contingent of soldiers has been called together. They place a purple robe on him, put a crown of thorns on his head, according to Matthew, put a rod in his hand, they mock him by hailing him as "King of the Jews", paying homage and hitting him on the head with the rod. According to the Gospel of John, Pilate has Jesus brought out a second time, wearing the purple robe and the crown of thorns, in order to appeal his innocence before the crowd, saying Ecce homo. But, John represents, the priests urge the crowd to demand Jesus' death. Pilate resigns himself to the decision, washing his hands before the people as a sign that Jesus' blood will not be upon him. According to the Gospel of Matthew they replied, "His blood be on us and on our children!"Mark and Matthew record that Jesus is returned his own clothes, prior to being led out for execution.
According to the Gospel accounts he is forced, like other victims of crucifixion, to drag his own cross to Golgotha, the location of the execution. The three Synoptic Gospels refer to a man cal
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a