Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
Media of Hong Kong
Media in Hong Kong are available to the public in the forms of: television and radio, newspapers and the Internet. They serve the local community by providing necessary entertainment. Hong Kong is home to many of Asia's biggest media entities and remains one of the world's largest film industries; the loose regulation over the establishment of a newspaper makes Hong Kong home to many international media such as the Asian Wall Street Journal and Far Eastern Economic Review, publications with anti-Communist backgrounds such as The Epoch Times. It once had numerous newspapers funded by Kuomintang of Taiwan but all of them were terminated due to poor financial performance; the Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong publishes a weekly newspaper. Apple Daily and Oriental Daily News are the two best selling newspapers, according to AC Nielsen, accounting for more than 60% of readership. Both are known for their anti-Hong Kong government political positions, colourful presentations and sensational news reportage.
Whereas Apple Daily is regarded as pro-democracy, Oriental Daily is inclined to be pro-China government. Traditional PRC government-friendly journals, Ta Kung Pao and Wen Wei Po, are owned by the Central Government Liaison Office. In December 2015, the South China Morning Post – Hong Kong's newspaper of record – was acquired by the Alibaba Group, with the declared aim of promoting an alternative pro-China narrative to international media; the freedom of press is protected by the Bill of Rights, in contrast to the rest of China where control over media is pervasive. However, this freedom has been in decline since the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997. According to the Reporters Without Borders, Hong Kong enjoyed "real press freedom" and ranked second in Asia after Japan in the Press Freedom Index, although it has been declining. Different views over topics sensitive in mainland China, such as the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Chinese Communist Party rule, democracy are still dynamically discussed among the media.
Many books banned in China, such as the memoir of Zhao Ziyang, a former CCP party leader who stepped down in 1989, continue to be published in Hong Kong. In 2002, Hong Kong had: Daily newspapers: 52 Chinese-language dailies: 27 English-language dailies: 3 English-language newspapers publishing 5 or 6 days a week: 6 Bilingual dailies: 5 Newspapers in other languages: 7 Free-to-air commercial TV companies: 3 Subscription TV licensees: 4 Non-domestic television programme licensees: 12 Government radio-television station: 1 Commercial radio stations: 2 Statutory bodies: Hong Kong Broadcasting Authority regulates broadcasters in Hong Kong by licensing and penalties according to the Broadcasting Regulation. Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority is responsible for monitoring television and radio broadcasting to secure proper standards. Radio Television Hong Kong, operates as an independent government department. Non-Governmental bodies: Press Council was established in July 2000; the objective of the Council is to promote the professional and ethical standards of the newspaper industry, defend press freedom, deal with public complaints against local newspapers.
It is an independent organisation. Freedom of the press and publication are enshrined in Article 27 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong's mini-constitution, are protected by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights under Article 39 of the Basic Law. There is no law called "media law" in Hong Kong. Instead, the media are governed by statutory laws. In brief, there are 31 Ordinances. Six of which are highlighted below. Registration of Local Newspapers Ordinance, provides for the registration of local newspapers and news agencies and the licensing of newspaper distributors. Books Registration Ordinance, provides for the registration and preservation of copies of books first printed, produced or published in Hong Kong. Telecommunications Ordinance, makes better provision for the licensing and control of telecommunications, telecommunications services and telecommunications apparatus and equipment. Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance controls and classifies articles which consist of or contain material, obscene or indecent.
Obscene Articles Tribunals are established to determine whether an article is indecent. Broadcasting Authority Ordinance, provides for the establishment and functions of a Broadcasting Authority. Broadcasting Ordinance, licenses companies to provide broadcasting services and regulate the provision of broadcasting services by licensees; the rest of the Ordinances are of less importance since they do not aim at regulating mass media, but some of their provisions do affect the operation of media organisations and the freedom of press. The passing of Bill of Rights Ordinance in 1986 strengthened the protection of fundamental human rights like press freedom or freedom of speech; this has been reflected in the loosening of control over mass media. Laws that violate the principle of press freedom are amended. For example, section 27 of Public Order Ordinance, which criminalised the publishing of false news, was repealed in 1989. Nonetheless, there are still concerns among the media sector that some existing laws may still undermine the freedom of the press and publication, e.g.
Official Secrets Ordinance and Public Order Ordinance. Hong Kong has two broadcast television stations, ATV and TVB; the latter, launched in 1967, was the territory's first free-to-air commercial station, is the predominant TV station in the territory. Paid cable and satellite tel
Now Business News Channel
Now Business News Channel is a 24-hour finance news channel. It is now TV's first self-produced channel, launched at 9 am on 20 March 2006; the broadcast centre is located in Hong Kong. There is a broadcast centre in the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. In addition to live broadcast, there is a one-hour delay stock ticker. In addition to finance and business-related news, there are talk-show programmes. RTHK programmes are shown on the weekend. All programmes are stored on Blu-ray discs, it won a Peabody Award in 2009 for Sichuan Earthquake: One Year On because it "refused to forget, refused to ignore crucial questions". Now tv http://www.now-tv.com/
Asia Television Limited is a digital media and broadcasting company in Hong Kong. Established as the first television service in Hong Kong as Rediffusion Television on 29 May 1957, it shifted to terrestrial television on 30 November 1973, was renamed Asia Television on 24 September 1982. ATV operated two main over-the-air channels: the Cantonese-language ATV Home, ATV World. Despite its small market share, ATV received numerous awards for its programmes. One of its successes was the local version of the British game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? in 2001, which allowed ATV to enjoy a short-term upturn in its viewing figures. After 2000, ATV faced a gradual decline in production quality and viewership, as well as financial difficulties—a process hastened under the leadership of Wang Zheng. ATV's credibility was damaged in 2011 after its news department had falsely reported that Jiang Zemin had died. On 1 April 2015, Hong Kong's Executive Council announced that ATV's broadcast license would not be renewed.
ATV's channels ceased over-the-air transmission on 1 April 2016. ATV announced. Plans for the company's subscription-based internet content streaming operations were announced in December 2017. Rediffusion Television, the predecessor to ATV, began as a wired radio broadcasting service in 1949; the original office was located on Hennessy Road. It launched its subscription-based TV service on 29 May 1957. In 1959, Rediffusion was moved to the offices, occupied by Fortis Bank Tower. In 1962, Typhoon Wanda passed over Hong Kong. Following the passage of Wanda, Rediffusion broadcast the first-ever fund-raising special; the first televised artiste course broadcast was in 1966 under the title, "Ying Li's voice." In October 1968, new shows were broadcast on Rediffusion, including variety and other leisure of interest that attracted more viewers. The most notable show at that time was "Master Q", it led the trend in acquiring Japanese anime shows, including Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boy in 1966. Rediffusion was given a free-to-air television broadcasting licence in 1973 by the Hong Kong Government, which had switched to using the wireless television.
Rediffusion and TVB have since formed a duopoly in free-to-air terrestrial TV broadcasting in Hong Kong for more than 40 years. A third broadcaster, Commercial Television, entered the market in September 1975, but in the face of intense competition from the two rival broadcasters, ceased transmissions in August 1978. In 1976, the Hong Kong government introduced Mark Six, a new lottery system, broadcast twice a week on Rediffusion; the first host of that show was Xia Chunqiu. In 1981, Rediffusion in the UK sold 61% of its shares in RTV to an Australian consortium. In July 1982, a Chinese enterprise called Far East Group, owned by the Chiu family, took a stake in the company, such that Far East Group and the Australian consortium each held 50% of RTV's shares; the move marked the first time that a Chinese enterprise had played a role in RTV. RTV was renamed "Asia Television" in the same year; the company that operated ATV recorded losses, in January 1984, following the withdrawal of the Australian enterprise, the Chiu family bought all of the shares.
In August 1987, the shares of ATV were put up for sale. One year Asia Television Limited, the Lim family, the New World Group each owned one-third of the shares. At that time, the members of board of directors included Deacon Chiu, Lim Por-yen, Fang Li and Cheng Yu-tung. On 30 January 1989, the Chiu family sold its shares of ATV to New World Group and Lai Sun Group for HK$237.5 million. The New World Group held half of the shares, while the Lam family owned one-third and Lai Sun held one-sixth. At the same time, Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau joined as a minority shareholder; as announced by the board of directors, the new chairman was Cheng Yue-tung and the vice-chairman was Lim Por Yen. The Administrative Director was Selina Chow. In November 2002, Lai Sun Development, indebted following the HK$7 billion acquisition of the Furama Hotel at the height of the property bubble in 1997, announced that it would sell its 32.75% stake to the company's chief executive, Chan Wing-kee, for HK$360 million in cash.
In June 2007, along with Liu Changle, chairman of Phoenix Satellite Television Holdings Limited, established a company that bought most of ATV's shares. Afterwards, Chan Wing-kei took the post of Administrative Director General. With the change of shareholder, there was innovation in the direction of production, marketing strategy, human resources. One of the significant changes is the increasing purchase of foreign programmes, such as the South Korean Drama Autumn in My Heart. In December 2008, City Telecom chairman Ricky Wong Wai Kay was assigned as new the chief executive while former PCCW deputy chairman Linus Cheung Wing-lam became executive chairman. After just 2 weeks Ricky Wong resigned from his position due to many factors. In early 2009, Taiwanese billionaire Tsai Eng-Meng signed a preliminary agreement to become a key shareholder of Alnery, a company that controls 47.58% of ATV. Tsai has agreed to inject HK$1 billion in the form of convertible bonds. Tsai and Payson Cha have since debated over control of the station.
Hong Kong's other main television broadcaster, TVB, was regarded as the driving force behind ATV's decision to transform its pay TV operation to terrestrial TV broadcasting. For many years, TVB has been the predominant ratings leader
Radio Television Hong Kong is the public broadcasting service in Hong Kong. GOW, the predecessor to RTHK was established in 1928 as the first broadcasting service in Hong Kong; as a government department under the Commerce and Economic Development Bureau of the Hong Kong Government, RTHK's educational and public affairs programmes are broadcast on its seven radio channels and three television channels, as well as commercial television channels. Unlike other public broadcasters like the BBC and NHK, which are funded by licence fees, RTHK is directly supported by an annual government funding; the Hong Kong Government launched its first radio broadcasting station, known as "GOW", on 30th June 1928, with a starting staff of only six people. Several name changes occurred over the next few years, it became known as "Radio Hong Kong" in 1948. In 1949, broadcasting operations were taken over by the Government Information Services, but by 1954, RHK had managed to establish itself as an independent department.
Up until 1966, the radio station was only on-air for three periods during the day. This was due to many of the presenters being part-time freelancers who had to fit their radio appearances in with their normal daily working schedule. In 1969, the station's medium wave AM transmitting station was moved from a waterfront site in Hung Hom to the summit of Golden Hill in the New Territories. Although the new transmitters were much more powerful, the mountain-top site proved unsuitable for medium wave transmissions and reception in some areas has remained problematic since. In March 1969, RHK moved its headquarters to new purpose-built studios located at Broadcasting House in Kowloon Tong. A Public Affairs Television Unit was established in 1970 to produce TV programmes for required broadcast by independent channels. At that time, RTHK did not have its own television broadcast transmitters. In 1973, RTHK set up its own radio newsroom. Prior to this, all news had been prepared by Government Information Services staff.
Until 1969, headlines were sent to the studios every half-hour by teleprinter from the GIS headquarters in Central District, while the three daily full bulletins were hand-delivered by a messenger. This arrangement became impractical following the move to the new studios in 1969, so a GIS newsroom was set up in Broadcasting House; this arrangement proved unsatisfactory and RTHK's own journalists, who until had been confined to producing magazine programmes, took over the entire news operation. In 1976, the station's name was changed to "Radio Television Hong Kong" to reflect its new involvement in television programme production. In the same year, it began to produce educational television programmes for schools after absorbing the independent Educational Television Unit. In 1986, RTHK headquarters moved across the road to the former Commercial Television studios, which were renamed Television House; the station's first News and Financial News channel, Radio 7, was established in November 1989.
In December 1994, RTHK launched its website and made its television productions, as well as content from its seven radio channels, available online. The website provided live broadcasts as well as a twelve-month archive; the website, presented in English, Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese offered free news via email three times per day, as well as online content. In 2013, RTHK launched a new television channel. To support this new television operation, the government administration increased the station's funding by between HK$300 million and HK$400 million a year. In April 2016, RTHK took over the analog channel frequencies of Asia Television after the latter's free television license expired. In March 2017, as the Hong Kong government decided to terminate DAB services in Hong Kong, RTHK said that it would integrate the existing DAB programmes into existing AM and FM radio channels; as the government claimed that RTHK should stop DAB service within six months, that means DAB service will be terminated no than September 30, 2017.
With the termination of DAB+ in Hong Kong, RTHK has announced in August 2017 that the broadcaster's relay of BBC World Service on Radio 6 would reduce to 8 hours a day and move to an overnight slot on Radio 4. CNR's programme 14 was heard on RTHK DAB 2 until DAB services in Hong Kong were shut down. RTHK operates twelve radio channels: RTHK Top 10 Gold Songs Awards RTHK operates three television channels: RTHK produces public affairs programmes such as Hong Kong Connection, A Week in Politics, Media Watch, Pentaprism and Police Report; these are broadcast by Hong Kong's three commercial television channels, TVB, ATV and Cable TV, in addition to RTHK's own television network. It has produced TV dramas, including the classic Below the Lion Rock. RTHK and the Hong Kong Education Bureau jointly produce Educational Television, a series of educational programmes for primary and secondary students – airing during non-peak hours on RTHK stations. ETV was first broadcast in 1971 for Primary 3 students and was extended to Primary 6 students in 1974.
In 1978, it was extended to cover junior secondary students. RTHK broadcast these programmes on their stations during non-peak daytime hours, but now distributes them online instead. While school programmes covering the topics of English, Chinese and Mandarin Chinese
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Phoenix Television is a television network that offers channels with Mandarin and Cantonese-language content that serve the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong along with other markets with substantial Chinese viewers, operated by Phoenix Satellite Television Holdings Limited, a television broadcaster based in Hong Kong and registered in Cayman Islands. It has six different television channels, including Phoenix InfoNews Channel, Phoenix Chinese Channel, Phoenix Movies Channel, Phoenix Hong Kong Channel. Phoenix Television provides news and entertainment programmes; the Group's Chinese Channel, InfoNews Channel, European Channel, American Channel, Movie Channel and Hong Kong Channel,carried on AsiaSat 7, China Sat-6B, EUROBIRD, Telsat-12, Echostar, G3-C, SATMEX-6, Bell ExpressVU and other broadcasting platforms, have achieved global coverage, with 60 news bureaus and production teams located worldwide. Phoenix is one of the few private broadcasters permitted to broadcast in mainland China; the company's head office is located in Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong and it has correspondents offices in Beijing and Shenzhen.
The Shenzhen office is said to be responsible for one half of the TV programs' production. What became Phoenix Television started as a joint venture between Star TV, one private company in China, China Central Television. Phoenix Chinese Channel was launched on 31 March 1996, it replaced Star Chinese Channel in Mainland China. Phoenix Chinese Channel, Phoenix Movies Channel and Phoenix InfoNews Channel are broadcast via cable in Hong Kong and via satellite to Taiwan, mainland China and other regions globally; the Phoenix InfoNews Channel was established on 1 January 2001. It was the first Chinese-language channel that covered news from the regions of Greater China, including mainland China and Hong Kong. There is 24-hour broadcasting on financial news, stock market information as well as news headlines worldwide. In addition, it provides comments and analysis prepared by analysts on current topics. In January 2003, the Chinese State Administration of Radio and Television granted landing rights to Phoenix InfoNews Channel, making it one of the few non-government owned television broadcasters in mainland China.
The Phoenix CNE channel was founded to broadcast in Europe, the Phoenix North America Chinese Channel established to broadcast in the Americas. In 2005 California-based broadcast and engineering director Tai Wang Mak was arrested for conspiring with his brother, Chi Mak, to act as an intelligence agent for China. A 10-year prison sentence was announced in 2008. On 28 March 2011 Phoenix Television launched Phoenix Hong Kong Channel, broadcasting in Cantonese. In 2011, Phoenix New Media formed a partnership with the BBC to offer British broadcaster's programming on Phoenix's digital media platforms; this was followed by a similar partnership with the National Film Board of Canada in 2012, in which 130 NFB animated shorts and documentary films will be offered digitally in China. In October 2013, 12.15% of share in Phoenix Television held by 21st Century Fox was sold to TPG Capital for HK$1.66 billion. This and 2014 sale of Star China Media marked 21st Century Fox's exit from Mandarin entertainment television market in mainland China.
Phoenix TV operates the following channels: Phoenix Chinese Channel, launched on 31 March 1996, one of the long-term foreign broadcasters in China Phoenix Chinese Channel Australia Edition, launched on August 1999 Phoenix Chinese Channel Japan Edition, launched on September 2009 Phoenix Movies Channel, launched on 28 August 1998. It is now an encrypted pay-television service in worldwide. Phoenix InfoNews Channel, launched on 1 January 2001, a 24-hour news channel. Phoenix North America Chinese Channel, launched on 1 January 2001, which now broadcasts on both EchoStar and DirectTV satellite systems and shares the same programming with "Phoenix Chinese News and Entertainment Channel". Phoenix Chinese News and Entertainment Channel, launched on August 1, 1999, now a 24-hour channel based in London and broadcasting via satellite Eurobird 1 across Europe. Phoenix Hong Kong Channel, launched on 28 March 2011, a Cantonese channel. Phoenix features a mix of programmes, ranging from political and economic news and current affairs through talk shows and music reviews to movies, mini series in both Chinese and foreign origins.
Since 1 September 2001, Phoenix Television has been broadcasting a range of United Nations television programming including 57 episodes of "UN in Action", 39 episodes of "World Chronicle", some awarded-winning documentaries. Phoenix is co-operating with the United Nations to produce more programmes; the service of Phoenix is extended to WAP, which facilitates news messages transferred through the mobile technology. The service is charged. At launch, Star TV and a private sector company in China each owned 45% of the company, state broadcaster China Central Television owned the remaining 10%; the original News Corporation's shares in Phoenix Television held through Star were reduced over the years. 21st Century Fox sold its shares to TPG Capital in October 2013. As of 2018, the company is owned by the following entities: Liu Changle, the CEO and founder of Phoenix TV, was a journalist for the Communist-party controlled Central People's Broadcasting Station after the Cultural Revolution and had become one of China's richest men by the 1990s, being well-connected to the Beijing leadership.
Mr. Shuang Liu, assumed