American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
Daan Frenkel is a Dutch computational physicist in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge. Frenkel completed his PhD at the University of Amsterdam in 1977 in experimental physical chemistry. Frenkel worked as postdoctoral research fellow in the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department at the University of California, Los Angeles, subsequently at Shell and at the University of Utrecht. Between 1987 and 2007, Frenkel carried out his research at the FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics AMOLF in Amsterdam where he has been employed since 1987. In the same period, he was appointed professor at the Universities of Amsterdam. From 2011 to 2015 he was Head of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge. Since 2007 he is 1968 Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge. Frenkel has co-authored together with Berend Smit Understanding Molecular Simulation, which has grown into a handbook used worldwide by aspiring computational physicists. In 2000 he was one of three winners of the Dutch Spinoza Prize.
In 2008 he was appointed a Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge. He is a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, The World Academy of Sciences in 2012, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2006. In 2016 he was elected as a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2007 he received the Aneesur Rahman Prize from the American Physical Society and the Berni J Alder CECAM prize. In 2010 he received the Soft Matter and Biophysical Chemistry Award from the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK, he received the 2016 Boltzmann Medal. Asteroid 12651 Frenkel, discovered by astronomers during the third Palomar–Leiden trojan survey in 1977, was named in his honor in 2018
Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS, FPAS, is a Pakistani scientist specialising in organic chemistry who served as the chairman of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan between October 2002 until September 2008 and the Minister for Science and Technology between March 2000 and September 2002. He serves as the Co-Chair of the UN Committee on Science and Innovation for UNESCAP. After studying chemistry at the University of Karachi, Atta-ur-Rahman travelled to Cambridge where he received Ph. D and Sc. D. in organic chemistry. He has received honorary doctorates from University of Bradford and Asian Institute of Technology, with research focused on Bio-organic chemistry, Synthetic chemistry and Natural product chemistry, he started teaching as an associate professor in 1974 at the University of Karachi and worked as postdoctoral researcher at the University of Tübingen as part of the German Academic Exchange. He serves as the patron of Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry and professor emeritus of Chemistry at the Karachi University.
Atta-ur-Rahman is an expert in the field of natural product chemistry in South Asia, with over 1142 publications in several fields of organic chemistry including 775 research publications, 43 international patents, 70 chapters in books and 254 books published by major U. S. and European presses. He serves as the Editor In Chief of several peer reviewed journals including the Current Medicinal Chemistry and Current Organic Chemistry, he has been a Fellow of the Royal Society since July 2006 and has served as the President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences. In recognition of his contributions in the field of organic chemistry, he has been conferred with four Government of Pakistan civil awards including Nishan-e-Imtiaz, Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Sitara-i-Imtiaz and Tamgha-e-Imtiaz, he has been conferred the high Civil Award of the Government of Austria “Grosse Goldene Ehrenzeichen am Bande" in recognition of his eminent contributions to uplift higher education in Pakistan and the close linkages developed with Austria He was the first recipient of the Khwarizmi International Award and the first Muslim to receive the UNESCO Science Prize.
He was conferred the highest national award for foreigners, the Friendship Award, by the Government of China As of March 28, 2016, he co-chairs the United Nations Committee on Science and Innovation for the UNESCAP. In a recent national ranking, the Pakistan Council for Science and Technology ranked him as the top among chemistry professional of Pakistan Atta-ur-Rahman was born on 22 September 1942 in Delhi, British India into an Urdu-speaking academic family, his grandfather, Sir Abdur Rahman, was a vice-chancellor of the University of Delhi who served as a judge at the Madras High Court. In 1946, Sir Abdur Rahman was appointed as vice-chancellor of the Punjab University in Lahore relocating his family there, a year before the Partition of India took place. Sir Abdur Rahman ascended as a Senior Justice at the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1949, his father, Jamil-ur-Rahman, was a lawyer who established a textile industry in Sindh. Atta-ur-Rahman was a bright student at school. After settling in Karachi in 1952, he excelled in passing the competitive O-Level and A-Level from the Karachi Grammar School and joined Karachi University.
Attending Karachi University in 1960, Rahman graduated with a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1964, with degree concentration in natural products. He obtained a Master of Science in organic chemistry in 1965, earned a Commonwealth Scholarship for doctoral studies in the United Kingdom, he joined King's College of the Cambridge University and resumed research in natural products under J. Harlon-Mason. In 1968, Rahman received his Doctor of Philosophy in Organic chemistry. In 1987, Cambridge University conferred him with the Doctor of Science for his contribution for the advancement of the chemical sciences. In 2007, the Coventry University bestowed him with the Doctor of Education in recognition of his services to help improve science education in Pakistan. In addition, Rahman has been conferred with the honoris causa by various institutions including the Bradford University. In 1964, Rahman joined the Karachi University as a lecturer in undergraduate chemistry, he remained associated with the Cambridge University between 1969–73, is presently honorary Life Fellow at the King's College of the Cambridge University.
In 1977, he became the deputy director of the Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry at University of Karachi. In 1979, Rahman did the post-doctoral research at the University of Tübingen. Upon returning to Pakistan, he joined Karachi University where he taught chemistry, he was appointed Professor Emeritus at University of Karachi for life. In 2008, Rahman was appointed as Patron-in-Chief of the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences. In 2011, Rahman was made emeritus professor of chemistry at the University of Karachi. With more than 1,122 international publications, including 245 books, 764 research publications, 70 chapters in books and 45 international patents, he has the distinction of being the only scientist to be elected Fellow of Royal Society in 2006 in recognition of research contributions carried out within a country in the Islamic world, he is the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been awarded the UNESCO Science Pr
Carl Richard Woese was an American microbiologist and biophysicist. Woese is famous for defining the Archaea in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese which revolutionized the discipline of microbiology, he was the originator of the RNA world hypothesis in 1967, although not by that name. He held the Stanley O. Ikenberry Chair and was professor of microbiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Carl Woese was born in Syracuse, New York on July 15, 1928. Woese attended Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts, he received a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics from Amherst College in 1950. During his time at Amherst, Woese took only one biology course and had "no scientific interest in plants and animals" until advised by William M. Fairbank an assistant professor of physics at Amherst, to pursue biophysics at Yale. In 1953, he completed a Ph. D. in biophysics at Yale University, where his doctoral research focused on the inactivation of viruses by heat and ionizing radiation.
He studied medicine at the University of Rochester for two years, quitting two days into a pediatrics rotation. He became a postdoctoral researcher in biophysics at Yale University investigating bacterial spores. From 1960–63, he worked as a biophysicist at the General Electric Research Laboratory in Schenectady, New York. In 1964, Woese joined the microbiology faculty of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, where he focused on Archaea and molecular evolution as his areas of expertise, he became a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign's Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, renamed in his honor in 2015, after his death. Woese died on December 30, 2012, following complications from pancreatic cancer. Woese turned his attention to the genetic code while setting up his lab at General Electric's Knolls Laboratory in the fall of 1960. Interest among physicists and molecular biologists had begun to coalesce around deciphering the correspondence between the twenty amino acids and the four letter alphabet of nucleic acid bases in the decade following James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin's discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953.
Woese published a series of papers on the topic. In one, he deduced a correspondence table between what was known as "soluble RNA" and DNA based upon their respective base pair ratios, he re-evaluated experimental data associated with the hypothesis that viruses used one base, rather than a triplet, to encode each amino acid, suggested 18 codons predicting one for proline. Other work established the mechanistic basis of protein translation, but in Woese's view overlooked the genetic code's evolutionary origins as an afterthought. In 1962 Woese spent several months as a visiting researcher at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, a locus of intense activity on the molecular biology of gene expression and gene regulation. While in Paris, he met Sol Spiegelman, who invited Woese to visit the University of Illinois after hearing his research goals. With the freedom to patiently pursue more speculative threads of inquiry outside the mainstream of biological research, Woese began to consider the genetic code in evolutionary terms, asking how the codon assignments and their translation into an amino acid sequence might have evolved.
For much of the 20th century, prokaryotes were regarded as a single group of organisms and classified based on their biochemistry and metabolism. In a influential 1962 paper, Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel first established the division of cellular organization into prokaryotes and eukaryotes, defining prokaryotes as those organisms lacking a cell nucleus. Adapted from Édouard Chatton's generalization and Van Niel's concept was accepted as the most important distinction among organisms. However, it became assumed that all life shared a common prokaryotic ancestor. In 1977, Carl Woese and George E. Fox experimentally disproved this universally held hypothesis about the basic structure of the tree of life. Woese and Fox discovered a kind of microbial life which they called the “archaebacteria”, they reported that the archaebacteria comprised "a third kingdom" of life as distinct from bacteria as plants and animals. Having defined Archaea as a new "urkingdom" which were neither bacteria nor eukaryotes, Woese redrew the taxonomic tree.
His three-domain system, based on phylogenetic relationships rather than obvious morphological similarities, divided life into 23 main divisions, incorporated within three domains: Bacteria and Eucarya. Acceptance of the validity of Woese's phylogenetically valid classification was a slow process. Prominent biologists including Salvador Luria and Ernst Mayr objected to his division of the prokaryotes. Not all criticism of him was restricted to the scientific level. A decade of labor-intensive oligonucleotide cataloging left him with a reputation as "a crank," and Woese would go on to be dubbed as "Microbiology's Scarred Revolutionary" by a news article printed in the journal Science; the growing amount of supporting data led the scientific community to accept the Archaea by the mid-1980s. Today, few scientists cling to the idea of a unified Prokarya. Woese's work on Archaea is significant in its implications for the search for life on other planets. Before the discovery by Woese and Fox, scientists thoug
Roger William Alder, FRS is an Emeritus Professor of organic chemistry at the University of Bristol. His research involves the study of novel compounds with unusual properties, such as proton sponges and stable carbenes. Alder received the Royal Society of Chemistry Bader Award for organic chemistry in 1993, he has been a fellow of the Royal Society since 2007
Roger Y. Tsien
Roger Yonchien Tsien was a Chinese-American biochemist. He was a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego and was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, in collaboration with organic chemist Osamu Shimomura and neurobiologist Martin Chalfie. Tsien was a pioneer of calcium imaging. Tsien was born in New York, in 1952, he attended Livingston High School there. His Han Chinese family was from Hangzhou, China. Hsue-Chu Tsien, his father, was a mechanical engineer had excelled academically and graduated at the top of his university class. Tsien suffered from asthma as a child, as a result, he was indoors, he spent hours conducting chemistry experiments in his basement laboratory. When he was 16, he won first prize in the nationwide Westinghouse Talent Search with a project investigating how metals bind to thiocyanate. Tsien attended Harvard College on a National Merit Scholarship, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa as a junior.
He graduated summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science in chemistry and physics in 1972. According to his freshman-year roommate and Iowa politician Herman Quirmbach, "It's not an exaggeration to say he's the smartest person I met... nd I have met a lot of brilliant people."After completing his bachelor's degree, Tsien joined the Physiological Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England with the aid of a Marshall Scholarship, resided at Churchill College, Cambridge. He received his Ph. D. in physiology in 1977 for research on The Design and Use of Organic Chemical Tools in Cellular Physiology formally supervised by Richard Adrian in the Department of Physiology and assisted by Andy Holmes, Gerry Smith and Jeremy Sanders in the Department of Chemistry. Following his Ph. D. Tsien was a Research Fellow at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge from 1977 to 1981, he was appointed to the faculty at the University of California, from 1982 to 1989. Beginning in 1989, he worked at the University of California, San Diego, as Professor of Pharmacology and Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, as an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Tsien contributed to the fields of cell biology and neurobiology by discovering genetically programmable fluorescent tags, thereby allowing scientists to watch the behavior of molecules in living cells in real time. He developed fluorescent indicators of calcium ions and other ions important in biological processes. In 2004, Tsien was awarded the Wolf Prize in Medicine "for his seminal contribution to the design and biological application of novel fluorescent and photolabile molecules to analyze and perturb cell signal transduction."In 2008, Tsien shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie for "the green fluorescent protein: discovery and development." The multicolored fluorescent proteins developed in Tsien's lab are used by scientists to track where and when certain genes are expressed in cells or in whole organisms. The gene coding for a protein of interest is fused with the gene for a fluorescent protein, which causes the protein of interest to glow inside the cell when the cell is irradiated with ultraviolet light and allows microscopists to track its location in real time.
This is such a popular technique that it has added a new dimension to the fields of molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry. Since the discovery of the wild type GFP, numerous different mutants of GFP have been engineered and tested; the first significant leap forward was a single point mutation reported by Tsien in 1995 in Nature. This mutation improved the fluorescent and spectral characteristics of GFP. A shift of the major excitation peak to 488 nm with the emission peak staying at 509 nm thus can be observed, which matched well the spectral characteristics of available FITC facilities. All these largely amplified the practicality of using GFP by scientists in their research. Tsien contributed to much of our understanding of how GFP works and for developing new techniques and mutants of GFP. Former trainees of Roger Y. Tsien include Alice Y. Ting. Timelines of GFP-development involved by Tsien: 1994: Tsien showed the mechanism that GFP chromophore is formed in a chemical reaction which requires oxygen but without help from the other proteins.
1994–1998: Tsien and collaborators made various GFP mutants by genetic modification and structural tweaking. Newly created variants of GFP can shine more brightly and show different colours, such as yellow and blue. 2000–2002: Tsien produced monomeric variants of DsRED, which can glow in shades of red and orange. Remarkably, since complicated marcromolecular networks of living organisms can be labelled or marked by using "all the colours of the rainbow". Other detailed highlights involved by Tsien: 2002: The critical structural difference between GFP and DsRed was revealed. One extra double-bond in the chromophore of DsRed extends. 2002: Monomeric DsRed was first developed. 2004: New "fruit" FPs were generated. In 2009, a new kind of Infrared Fluorescent Protein was developed by Tsien's group, further reported and described by Science; the new IFPs are developed from bacterial phytochromes instead of from multicellular organism like jellyfish. Under normal conditions, bacterial phytochromes absorb light for signaling instead of fluorescence, but they can be turned fluorescent after deleting some of the signaling parts by
University of California, San Francisco
The University of California, San Francisco is a public research university in San Francisco, California. It is part of the University of California system and it is dedicated to health science, it is a major center of teaching. UCSF was founded as Toland Medical College in 1864, in 1873 it affiliated itself with the University of California, becoming its Medical Department. In the same it incorporated the California College of Pharmacy and in 1881 it established a dentistry school. In 1964 it gained full administrative independence as a campus of the UC system headed by a chancellor, in 1970 it gained its current name. Based at Parnassus Heights and several other locations throughout the city, in the early 2000s it developed a second major campus in the newly redeveloped Mission Bay; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates have been affiliated with UCSF as faculty members or researchers, the University has been the site of many scientific breakthroughs. The UCSF School of Medicine, the oldest medical school in the Western United States, is the top recipient of NIH funding as of 2017.
U. S. News & World Report ranks it #5 on their "Best Medical Schools: Research" and #2 on their " "Best Medical Schools: Primary Care." The UCSF Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy have the highest NIH funding in their respective fields. The UCSF Graduate Division offers 19 PhD programs, 11 MS programs, two certificates and a physical therapy program; the UCSF Medical Center is the nation's 6th-ranked hospital and California's highest-ranked hospital according to U. S. News & World Report. With 25,398 employees, UCSF is the second largest public agency employer in the San Francisco Bay Area. UCSF faculty have treated patients and trained residents since 1873 at the San Francisco General Hospital and for over 50 years at the San Francisco VA Medical Center; the University of California, San Francisco traces its history to Hugh Toland, a South Carolina surgeon who found great success and wealth after moving to San Francisco in 1852. A previous school, the Cooper Medical College of the University of Pacific, entered a period of uncertainty in 1862 when its founder, Elias Samuel Cooper, died.
In 1864, Toland founded a new medical school, Toland Medical College, the faculty of Cooper Medical College chose to suspend operations and join the new school. The University of California was founded in 1868, by 1870 Toland Medical School began negotiating an affiliation with the new public university. Meanwhile, some faculty of Toland Medical School elected to reopen the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, which would become Stanford University School of Medicine. Negotiations between Toland and UC were complicated by Toland's demand that the medical school continue to bear his name, an issue on which he conceded. In March 1873, the trustees of Toland Medical College transferred it to the Regents of the University of California, it became The Medical Department of the University of California." At the same time, the University of California negotiated the incorporation of the California College of Pharmacy, the first pharmacy school in the West, established in 1872 by the Californian Pharmaceutical Society.
The Pharmacy College was affiliated in June 1873, together the Medical College and the Pharmacy College came to be known as'Affiliated Colleges'. The third college, the College of Dentistry, was established in 1881; the three Affiliated Colleges were located at different sites around San Francisco, but near the end of the 19th Century interest in bringing them together grew. To make this possible, San Francisco Mayor Adolph Sutro donated 13 acres in Parnassus Heights at the base of Mount Parnassus; the new site, overlooking Golden Gate Park, opened in the fall of 1898, with the construction of the new Affiliated Colleges buildings. The school's first female student, Lucy Wanzer, graduated in 1876, after having to appeal to the UC Board of Regents to gain admission in 1873; until 1906, the school faculty had provided care at the City-County Hospital, but did not have a hospital of its own. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, more than 40,000 people were relocated to a makeshift tent city in Golden Gate Park and were treated by the faculty of the Affiliated Colleges.
This brought the school, which until was located on the western outskirts of the city, in contact with significant population and fueled the commitment of the school towards civic responsibility and health care, increasing the momentum towards the construction of its own health facilities. In April 1907, one of the buildings was renovated for outpatient care with 75 beds; this created the need to train nursing students, and, in 1907, the UC Training School for Nurses was established, adding a fourth professional school to the Affiliated Colleges. The schools continued to grow in numbers and reputation in the following year. One notable event was the incorporation of the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research in 1914, a medical research institute second only to the Rockefeller Institute; this addition bolstered the prestige of the Parnassus site during a dispute over whether the schools should consolidate at Parnassus or in Berkeley, where some of the departments had transferred. The final decision came in 1949 when the Regents of the University of California designated the Parnassus campus as the UC Medical Center in San Francisco.
The medical facilities were updated, the departments returned to San Francisco from Berkeley. During this period a number of research institutes were established, many new facilities were