The Fall of Troy
The Fall of Troy is an American post-hardcore band from Mukilteo, Washington. The band is a trio consisting of Thomas Erak, Andrew Forsman and Tim Ward, replaced by Frank Ene following his departure from the band in late 2007. Ene would remain in the band until their initial break-up in 2010, but Ward rejoined the band in Ene's place for their reunion in 2013. Drew Pelisek of CHON, has been touring with the band on bass and backing vocals since 2017 and both he and Ward are considered to be official members The trio is known for their technical and dynamic style, unorthodox song structures and energetic stage presence; the group has released five full-length albums, two EPs, one single. Prior to The Fall of Troy's formation, when each member was about 17 years old, all three founding members were in another group named The 30 Years War, who released two EPs. In his late freshman year at Kamiak High School, Erak provided vocals and guitar for the band The Tribune; the band recorded one EP but disbanded by mid-2002.
Munro and Erak started a four-piece hardcore band under the name The 30 Years War. The band was rounded out with drummer Andrew Forsman; the group had intended a much mellower sound than employed. Erak stayed on guitar and vocals, Munro moved to second guitar, bass and drums were filled by Tim Ward and Forsman respectively. During the life of The 30 Years War, two EPs were independently released, entitled Martyrs Among the Casualties and Live at the Paradox. Just as The 30 Years War were about to go into the studio to record again, Munro quit, stating that school commitments rendered him unable to continue playing with the band. After Munro left, the band changed its name to "The Fall of Troy" using the same method with which they had chosen their previous name: "opening a history textbook and pointing at a random location until found a selection they liked". In May 2003 the trio entered The Hall of Justice in Seattle, Washington with producer Joel M. Brown to record their first full length, they were all about 17 and a half years of age, the album was recorded in one take over their spring break in one week.
The album was released on November 4, 2003 on Lujo Records, reissued on August 22, 2006 by Equal Vision Records. The trio recorded their independently released Ghostship EP shortly after the release of the self-titled, in 2004. Early versions of the demos had no vocals; the demos on the Ghostship EP. The band was invited to submit a new demo for Equal Vision, which saw the band hooking up with Ghostship producers Gordon Edward Greenwood III and Dustin Kochel once again; the resulting two tracks were "Tom Waits" and "Laces Out, Dan". Equal Vision used these tracks as promos for the yet to be recorded album. In March 2005, the band entered the studio to record their second album, titled Doppelgänger, it was released on August 16, 2005 in Compact Disc and vinyl format, which had alternate artwork. The trio started touring extensively from the release of Doppelgänger through the first quarter of 2006. "F. C. P. R. E. M. I. X." was released as the only single from the album, has led to some recent mainstream success.
The music video was released June 6, 2006 and received massive airplay on MTV and FUSE. The song was featured in Saints Row for Xbox 360 and in MLB 2K6 for Xbox, PlayStation 2, GameCube, PSP and Xbox 360; the song is featured in Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock. In mid-December 2006, the band entered the studio with producer Matt Bayles to begin work on their third full-length album Manipulator; the album achieved 4 out of 5 K's in Kerrang! magazine and 7 out of 10 from Metal Hammer magazine. The album features Nouela Johnston of the Seattle band People Eating People contributing vocal and keyboard parts to many songs; the album includes the written, "Seattlantis," and all new material, including songs such as, "Problem!?," "Cut Down All the Trees and Name the Streets After Them," and a song with the palindromic title, "A Man. A Plan. A Canal. Panama." Before its release date the band stated that the first single from Manipulator would be "Cut Down All the Trees and Name the Streets After Them,", the first song released to the public on the band's MySpace.
The music video for this song was released August 8, 2007 on the band's MySpace. To support Manipulator, the band went on tour with and opened for Deftones in the summer of 2007. Footage of this tour was used for the single, "Ex-Creations,", released on January 16, 2008 on MySpace as well. In late November 2007, during their tour with Coheed and Cambria, Timothy took a break from the band, it was confirmed by the band that he had left the band due to stress. He was replaced by Frank Ene of the band "... Of Stalwart Fads"; the trio went on tour spring 2008 with The Dear Hunter and Tera Melos. On November 28, 2008, Phantom on the Horizon was released; the EP features all five Ghostship parts, with interludes. Erak has described the album as "one song separated by tracks." The album was played in its entirety on their West Coast and East Coast tours, followed by some "deep cuts" from the group's catalogue each night of the tour. Only 3,000 copies have been were sold online and at shows. After the 1500 physical copies held aside for online ordering sold out on December 1, an MP3 version of the album became a
James Hogg was a Scottish poet and essayist who wrote in both Scots and English. As a young man he worked as a shepherd and farmhand, was self-educated through reading, he was a friend of many of the great writers of his day, including Sir Walter Scott, of whom he wrote an unauthorized biography. He became known as the "Ettrick Shepherd", a nickname under which some of his works were published, the character name he was given in the read series Noctes Ambrosianae, published in Blackwood's Magazine, he is best known today for Confessions of a Justified Sinner. His other works include the long poem The Queen's Wake, his collection of songs Jacobite Reliques, his two novels The Three Perils of Man, The Three Perils of Woman. James Hogg was born on a small farm near Ettrick, Scotland in 1770 and was baptized there on 9 December, his actual date of birth having never been recorded, his father, Robert Hogg, was a tenant farmer while his mother, Margaret Hogg, was noted for collecting native Scottish ballads.
Margaret Laidlaw's father, known as Will o' Phawhope, was said to have been the last man in the Border country to speak with the fairies. James was the second eldest of four brothers, his siblings being William and Robert. Robert and David emigrated to the United States, while James and William remained in Scotland for their entire lives. James attended a parish school for a few months before his education was stopped due to his father's bankruptcy as a stock-farmer and sheep-dealer. Robert Hogg was given the position of shepherd at Ettrickhouse farm by one of his neighbours. James worked as a farm servant throughout his childhood, tending cows, doing general farm work, acting as a shepherd's assistant, his early experiences of literature and story telling came from the Bible and his mother's and uncle's stories. In 1784 he purchased a fiddle with money that he had saved, taught himself how to play it. In 1785 he served a year working for a tenant farmer at Singlee. In 1786 he went staying with him for eighteen months.
In 1788 he was given his first job as a farmer at Willenslee. He stayed here for two years, learning to read while tending sheep, being given newspapers and theological works by his employer's wife. In 1790 he began ten years of service to James Laidlaw of Blackhouse in the Yarrow valley. Hogg said that Laidlaw was more like a father to him than an employer. Seeing how hard he was working to improve himself, Laidlaw offered to help by making books available for Hogg from his own library, through a local lending library. Hogg began composing songs to be sung by local girls, he became a lifelong friend of his master's son, William Laidlaw, himself a minor writer and the amanuensis of Walter Scott. It was at this time that Hogg, his eldest brother, several cousins, formed a literary society of shepherds. Hogg first became familiar with the work of the deceased Robert Burns in 1797, after having the poem Tam o' Shanter read to him. During this period Hogg wrote plays and pastorals, continued producing songs.
His work as a sheep drover stimulated an interest in the Scottish Highlands. In 1800 he left Blackhouse to help take care of his parents at Ettrickhouse, his collection Scottish Pastorals was published early in 1801 to favourable reviews. His patriotic song "Donald Macdonald" achieved popularity. In 1801 Hogg was recruited to collect ballads for Walter Scott's collection Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, he began working for the Edinburgh Magazine. In the summer of 1802 he embarked on the first of three tours of the Highlands with a view to securing a farm of his own, he found a farm on Harris but due to trouble with his finances and a legal issue he was unable to secure a lease by 1804. His experiences on his Highland tours were described in letters to Scott which were published in the Scots Magazine. On his way back to Ettrickhouse in 1803 he dined with the novelist John Galt in Greenock. In 1805–06 he worked as a shepherd, meeting the poet Allan Cunningham and becoming friends with him and his family.
In October 1806 he became the lover of a young woman named Catherine Henderson. His first collection, The Mountain Bard, was published in February 1807 by Constable. At the end of summer 1807 his daughter by Catherine Henderson was born, baptized on 13 December as Catherine Hogg. In 1837 she married David Lauder and they named their son James Hogg Lauder. Catherine Henderson herself went on to marry David Laidlaw in 1812. Hogg continued working as a sheep-grazer for other farmers, but his debts began to grow throughout 1808–1809. At the end of 1809 he began an affair with Elizabeth Beattie, soon after absconded from his creditors, returning in disgrace to Ettrick. In 1810 he moved to Edinburgh to start a literary career. In March 1810 his daughter by Elizabeth Beattie was christened Elizabeth Hogg in June. At the end of 1810 he met his future wife Margaret Phillips, his magazine The Spy, begun in 1810, failed after a year. At this time he became a member of a debate society called The Forum serving as its secretary.
In 1812 he started planning a long poetical work. The Queen's Wake, was a success, it was, in the guise of a competition, a collection of verse tales, of which Kilmeny became and remained the best known. At the end of 1813 he began writing what would become his well-known poem Mador of the Moor. In Summer of 1813
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, parts of Alaska, Greenland, Northern Canada, Norway and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places; the Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, land animals and human societies. Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic; the word Arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός, "near the Bear, northern" and that from the word ἄρκτος, meaning bear. The name refers either to the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern portion of the celestial sphere, or to the constellation Ursa Minor, the "Little Bear", which contains Polaris, the Pole star known as the North Star.
There are a number of definitions of. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle, the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Another definition of the Arctic is the region where the average temperature for the warmest month is below 10 °C; the Arctic's climate is characterized by cool summers. Its precipitation comes in the form of snow and is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm. High winds stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can go as low as −40 °C, the coldest recorded temperature is −68 °C. Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas; the Arctic is affected by current global warming, leading to Arctic sea ice shrinkage, diminished ice in the Greenland ice sheet, Arctic methane release as the permafrost thaws. Due to the poleward migration of the planet's isotherms, the Arctic region is shrinking.
The most alarming result of this is Arctic sea ice shrinkage. There is a large variance in predictions of Arctic sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100. About half of the analyzed models show near-complete to complete sea ice loss in September by the year 2100. Arctic life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, to cold, snow-covered winter conditions. Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, herbs and mosses, which all grow close to the ground, forming tundra. An example of a dwarf shrub is the Bearberry; as one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance and variety of plants to decrease.
Trees cannot grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m in height. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare. Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming and caribou, they are preyed on by the snowy owl, Arctic fox, Grizzly bear, Arctic wolf. The polar bear is a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Other terrestrial animals include wolverines, Dall sheep and Arctic ground squirrels. Marine mammals include seals and several species of cetacean—baleen whales and narwhals, killer whales, belugas. An excellent and famous example of a ring species exists and has been described around the Arctic Circle in the form of the Larus gulls; the Arctic includes sizable natural resources to which modern technology and the economic opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities. The interest of the tourism industry is on the increase.
The Arctic contains some of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats; the Arctic is susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare breeding grounds of the animals that are characteristic to the region. The Arctic holds 1/5 of the Earth's water supply. During the Cretaceous time period, the Arctic still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth. Animals such as the Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus and Edmontosaurus may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, migrated south to warmer climes when the winter ca
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and some accompanying study. Apprenticeship enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession, in exchange for their continued labor for an agreed period after they have achieved measurable competencies. Apprenticeships last 3 to 7 years. People who complete an apprenticeship reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence. Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor. In early modern usage, the clipped form prentice was common; the system of apprenticeship first developed in the Middle Ages and came to be supervised by craft guilds and town governments.
A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as an inexpensive form of labour in exchange for providing food and formal training in the craft. Most apprentices were males, but female apprentices were found in crafts such as seamstress, cordwainer and stationer. Apprentices began at ten to fifteen years of age, would live in the master craftsman's household. Most apprentices aspired to becoming master craftsmen themselves on completion of their contract, but some would spend time as a journeyman and a significant proportion would never acquire their own workshop. In Coventry those completing seven-year apprenticeships with stuff merchants were entitled to become freemen of the city. Subsequently, governmental regulation and the licensing of technical colleges and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship. Australian Apprenticeships encompass all traineeships, they cover all industry sectors in Australia and are used to achieve both'entry-level' and career'upskilling' objectives.
There were 475,000 Australian Apprentices in-training as at 31 March 2012, an increase of 2.4% from the previous year. Australian Government employer and employee incentives may be applicable, while State and Territory Governments may provide public funding support for the training element of the initiative. Australian Apprenticeships combine time at work with formal training and can be full-time, part-time or school-based. Australian Apprentice and Traineeship services are dedicated to promoting retention, therefore much effort is made to match applicants with the right apprenticeship or traineeship; this is done with the aid of aptitude tests and information on'how to retain an apprentice or apprenticeship'. Information and resources on potential apprenticeship and traineeship occupations are available in over sixty industries; the distinction between the terms apprentices and trainees lies around traditional trades and the time it takes to gain a qualification. The Australian government uses Australian Apprenticeships Centres to administer and facilitate Australian Apprenticeships so that funding can be disseminated to eligible businesses and apprentices and trainees and to support the whole process as it underpins the future skills of Australian industry.
Australia has a unusual safety net in place for businesses and Australian Apprentices with its Group Training scheme. This is where businesses that are not able to employ the Australian Apprentice for the full period until they qualify, are able to lease or hire the Australian Apprentice from a Group Training Organisation, it is a safety net, because the Group Training Organisation is the employer and provides continuity of employment and training for the Australian Apprentice. In addition to a safety net, Group Training Organisations have other benefits such as additional support for both the Host employer and the trainee/apprentice through an industry consultant who visits to make sure that the trainee/apprentice are fulfilling their work and training obligations with their Host employer. There is the additional benefit of the trainee/apprentice being employed by the GTO reducing the Payroll/Superannuation and other legislative requirements on the Host employer who pays as invoiced per agreement.
Apprenticeship training in Austria is organized in a dual education system: company-based training of apprentices is complemented by compulsory attendance of a part-time vocational school for apprentices. It lasts two to four years – the duration varies among the 250 recognized apprenticeship trades. About 40 percent of all Austrian teenagers enter apprenticeship training upon completion of compulsory education; this number has been stable since the 1950s. The five most popular trades are: Retail Salesperson, Car Mechanic, Cook. There are many smaller trades with small numbers of apprentices, like "EDV-Systemtechniker", completed by fewer than 100 people a year; the Apprenticeship Leave Certificate provides the apprentice with access to two different vocational careers. On the one hand, it is a prerequisite for the admission to the Master Craftsman Exam and for qualification tests, on the other hand it gives access to higher education via the TVE-Exam or the Higher Education Entrance Exam which are prerequisites for taking up studies at colleges, universities, "Fachhochschulen", post-secondary courses and post-secondary colleges.
The person responsible for overseeing the training in
An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating in open water. Another name for iceberg is "ice mountain". Small bits of disintegrating icebergs are called "growlers" or "bergy bits". Icebergs are possible on Earth because the oceans are filled with liquid water, a substance less dense when solid than liquid. Planets with oceans consisting of different substances like methane cannot have icebergs, as their chunks of frozen liquid would sink; because 90 percent of an iceberg is below the surface and not visible, icebergs have been considered a serious maritime hazard since the 1912 loss of the "unsinkable" RMS Titanic, leading to the formation of the International Ice Patrol in 1914. The expression "tip of the iceberg", illustrates a difficulty, only a small, visible part of a larger, complex problem; the largest iceberg reliably recorded was Iceberg B-15A which split off the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica in 2000. The word iceberg is a partial loan translation from the Dutch word ijsberg meaning ice mountain, cognate to Danish isbjerg, German Eisberg, Low Saxon Iesbarg and Swedish isberg.
Because the density of pure ice is about 920 kg/m3, that of seawater about 1025 kg/m3 about one-tenth of the volume of an iceberg is above water. The shape of the underwater portion can be difficult to judge by looking at the portion above the surface; the visible "tips" of icebergs range from 1 to 75 metres above sea level and weigh 100,000 to 200,000 metric tons. The largest known iceberg in the North Atlantic was 168 metres above sea level, reported by the USCG icebreaker East Wind in 1958, making it the height of a 55-story building; these icebergs originate from the glaciers of western Greenland and may have interior temperatures of −15 to −20 °C. Winds and currents tend to move icebergs close to coastlines, where they can become frozen into pack ice, or drift into shallow waters, where they can come into contact with the seabed, a phenomenon called seabed gouging; the largest icebergs recorded have been calved, or broken off, from the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Iceberg B-15, photographed by satellite in 2000, measured 295 by 37 kilometres, with a surface area of 11,000 square kilometres.
The largest iceberg on record was an Antarctic tabular iceberg of over 31,000 square kilometres sighted 150 miles west of Scott Island, in the South Pacific Ocean, by the USS Glacier on November 12, 1956. This iceberg was larger than Belgium. A small iceberg less than 2 meters across that floats with less than 1 meter showing above water is called a growler, is smaller than a bergy bit, less than 5 meters in size. Both are spawned from disintegrating icebergs; as a piece of iceberg ice melts, it produces a fizzing sound called the "Bergie Seltzer". This sound results; as this happens, each bubble bursts. The bubbles contain air trapped in snow layers early in the history of the ice, that got buried to a given depth and pressurized as it transformed into firn to glacial ice. In addition to size classification, icebergs can be classified on the basis of their shape; the two basic types of iceberg forms are non-tabular. Tabular icebergs have steep sides and a flat top, much like a plateau, with a length-to-height ratio of more than 5:1.
This type of iceberg known as an ice island, can be quite large, as in the case of Pobeda Ice Island. Antarctic icebergs formed by breaking off from an ice shelf, such as the Ross Ice Shelf or Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, are tabular; the largest icebergs in the world are formed this way. Non-tabular icebergs include: Dome: An iceberg with a rounded top. Pinnacle: An iceberg with one or more spires. Wedge: An iceberg with a steep edge on one side and a slope on the opposite side. Dry-Dock: An iceberg that has eroded to form a slot or channel. Blocky: An iceberg with steep, vertical sides and a flat top, it differs from tabular icebergs in that its aspect ratio, the ratio between its width and height, is small, more like that of a block than a flat sheet. Before the early 1910s, although there had been many fatal sinkings of ships by icebergs, there was no system in place to track icebergs to guard ships against collisions. In 1907, SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, a German liner, had rammed an iceberg and suffered a crushed bow, but was still able to complete her voyage.
The advent of steel ship construction led designers to declare their ships "unsinkable". The April 1912 sinking of the Titanic, which killed 1,518 of its 2,223 passengers and crew, changed all that. For the remainder of the ice season of that year, the United States Navy patrolled the waters and monitored ice flow. In November 1913, the International Conference on the Safety of Life at Sea met in London to devise a more permanent system of observing icebergs. Within three months the participating maritime nations had formed the International Ice Patrol; the goal of the IIP was to collect data on meteorology and oceanography to measure currents, ice-flow, ocean temperature, salinity levels. They monitored iceberg dangers near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provided the "limits of all known ice" in that vicinity to the maritime community; the IIP published their first records in 1921, which allowed for a year-by-year comparison of iceberg movement. Aerial surveillance of the seas in the early
USS Advance (1847)
The first USS Advance was a brigantine in the United States Navy which participated in an arctic rescue expedition. Advance was built in 1847 as Augusta in New Kent County and loaned to the Navy on 7 May 1850 by Mr. Henry Grinnell to participate in the search for Sir John Franklin's arctic expedition, stranded in the frozen north since 1846. After last-minute preparations, the ship, under the command of Lieutenant Edwin J. De Haven and in company with Rescue, put to sea from New York on 23 May 1850. Storms separated them. However, both safely reached Disko Island, located off the west coast of Greenland where Davis Strait gives way to Baffin Bay. Advance arrived on 24 June, Rescue pulled into port three days later. On the 29th, the two ships headed into Baffin Bay, bound for Lancaster Sound located north of Baffin Island and south of Devon Island. Off Haroe Island on 1 July, Advance encountered pack ice. A week she and her consort were caught in the pack just north of Upernavik. For the next three weeks, the two ships fought their way through the ice.
On the 29th, they cleared the pack and continued their voyage across Melville Bay to Lancaster Sound. The two ships entered the sound on 19 August and, that same day, encountered two British vessels engaged in the same mission as the Americans; that evening, a storm separated Advance and Rescue. The next day dawned "thick and foggy," but the wind had abated. Advance began searching for her companion. By 25 August, she was off Cape Riley on Devon Island where she put ashore a landing party to search for clues to the whereabouts of the Franklin expedition. While the searchers ashore were discovering the former campsite of some unidentified party, Advance was run aground by a strong current; the British ship Prince Albert offered assistance. Moreover, Advance succeeded in hauling off by her own efforts. On 26 August, the two ships attempted the passage of Wellington Channel to search the area north of Cape Spencer. Soon, they found the way north blocked by a solid mass of pack ice and prudently returned south to the vicinity of Point Innes.
There, the Americans again encountered the British, along with positive evidence of the Franklin party having camped nearby. Heartened by that find and by a favorable change in weather conditions, they headed back toward Wellington Channel. At Beechy Island, all the search vessels gathered in a cove to plan a coordinated search. While the leading officers were so engaged, a party sent ashore discovered three graves and "other unmistakable evidences of the missing expedition having passed its first winter here." At that point and Rescue entered Wellington Channel to pursue the search, but the pack ice closed in upon the two ships. Though they tried to escape the clutches of the pack, abysmal weather foiled their attempts. By mid-September, they were caught fast in the floating ice. For the duration of the winter and Rescue were at the mercy of the drifting floe. For what remained of September and most of October, they drifted in Wellington Channel, discovering the northern peninsula of Devon Island which they named Grinnell in honor of the expedition's benefactor.
During November, changing winds carried them forth past Beechy Island. In December, the floe made the transit of Lancaster Sound and, on 14 January 1851, they reentered Baffin Bay, their imprisonment, did not end until early June. They had passed Davis Strait in May, the floe began to break up near the end of the first week in June. Rescue – repaired – cleared the pack on 7 June 1851. Advance followed the next day; the expedition sought to renew the search. However, the ice proved heavier than in the previous year. Therefore, the two ships headed back to the United States. Advance arrived in New York on 30 September 1851, Rescue reached that port on 7 October. Both ships were returned to Mr. Grinnell, he began outfitting Advance for another Arctic expedition. Preparations for the second Franklin rescue expedition took about 20 months. Advance departed New York on 30 May 1853, Passed Assistant Surgeon Elisha Kent Kane in command; the expedition stopped at Upernavik, Greenland, to purchase supplies and, most sled dogs for searches ashore and on the solidly frozen floes.
Continuing north, Advance passed the length of Baffin Bay reaching Smith Sound — the northern terminus of Baffin Bay — by 7 August. Near the end of August, she reached her northernmost point — about 78°43' north latitude — in Kane Basin, named for the ship's commanding officer, Passed Assistant Surgeon Kane. At that point, Kane decided to pass the winter among a group of islets near the Greenland coast rather than to return south to some safer harbor. By 10 September, Advance was imprisoned in the ice; the interior of the ship underwent extensive preparations for wintering farther north than any previous expedition. When, complete, the crew began expeditions across the frozen wastes both on the Greenland shore and the frozen pack. Kane and his officers established a scientific station to observe climatic conditions and to make astronomical calculations, their expeditions on foot, were hampered by the loss of all their sled dogs to disease. In the absence of animal transport, the men themselves carried out the searches and explorations on foot, serving as beasts of burden to manhandle caches of supplies to points which would allow for more distant searches in the future.
On one such expedition in late March 1854, four