Ellen Burstyn is an American actress. Her career began in theatre during the late 1950s, and over the decade included several films. Burstyn is one of the few performers to have won the Triple Crown of Acting, in 2013, she was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame. Burstyn was born Edna Rae Gillooly in Detroit, the daughter of Correine Marie and she has described her ancestry as Irish, Pennsylvania Dutch, a little Canadian Indian. Burstyn has a brother, and a younger brother. Her parents divorced when she was young, and her brothers and she attended Cass Technical High School, a university-preparatory school which allowed students to choose a specific field of study. In high school, she was a cheerleader, a member of the student council and she dropped out of high school during her senior year after failing her classes. After dropping out of school, Burstyn got a job as a model in a Detroit department store and she relocated to Dallas, where she continued modeling before traveling to New York City.
From 1955 to 1956, Burstyn appeared as an away we go dancing girl on The Jackie Gleason Show under the name Erica Dean. Burstyn decided to become an actress and chose the name Ellen McRae as her professional name, Burstyn debuted on Broadway in 1957 and joined Lee Strasbergs The Actors Studio in New York City in 1967. In 1975, she won a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play for her performance in the comedy Same Time, during 1964-1965, she had a recurring role as Dr. Kate Bartok on the NBC daytime television soap opera The Doctors. In 1967-1968, she co-starred as Julie Parsons opposite Dale Robertson in the ABC Western The Iron Horse and she was credited as Ellen McRae until 1967, when she and her then-husband Neil Nephew both changed their surname to Burstyn and she began to be credited as Ellen Burstyn. In 1971, Burstyn received Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role in the drama film The Last Picture Show, during the filming of The Exorcist, she injured her coccyx, which led to permanent injury to her spine.
She won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1974 for her performance in the drama Alice Doesnt Live Here Anymore, directed by Martin Scorsese. She received Best Actress nominations in 1978 for Same Time, Next Year, in 1980 for the drama Resurrection, and for the drama Requiem for a Dream in 2000. In 1977, she was a member of the jury at the 27th Berlin International Film Festival, Burstyn hosted NBCs Saturday Night Live, a late-night sketch comedy and variety show, in December 1980. In 1990, she won the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theatre, from 2000 to 2002, Burstyn appeared in the CBS television drama Thats Life. In January 2006, she starred as an Episcopal bishop in the NBC comedy-drama series The Book of Daniel, conservative groups including American Family Association and Focus on the Family urged supporters to complain to NBC affiliates that carried the show
University of Iowa
The University of Iowa is a flagship public research university in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 1847, Iowa is the oldest university in the state, the University of Iowa is organized into eleven colleges offering more than 200 areas of study and seven professional degrees. The university was the developer of the Master of Fine Arts degree. The Iowa alumni network exceeds 250,000, and the university budgeted revenues and expenses of $3.513 billion for 2015, the University of Iowas athletic teams, the Hawkeyes, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are members of the Big Ten Conference. The Hawkeyes field 24 varsity teams and have won 27 national championships, the University of Iowa was founded on February 25,1847, just 59 days after Iowa was admitted to the Union. The Constitution of the State of Iowa refers to a State University to be established in Iowa City without branches at any other place. The legal name of the university is the State University of Iowa, the first faculty offered instruction at the university beginning in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, located where Seashore Hall is now.
In September 1855, there were 124 students, of whom forty-one were women, the first president of the university was Amos Dean. The original campus consisted of the Iowa Old Capitol Building and the 10 acres of land on which it stood, until that date, it had been the third capitol of the Territory of Iowa. When the capitol of Iowa was moved to Des Moines in 1857, in 1855, Iowa became the first public university in the United States to admit men and women on an equal basis. The university offered its first doctorate in 1898, the university was the first state university to recognize the Gay, Bisexual and Allied Union. Also, the University of Iowa was the first Big Ten institution to promote an African American to the position of vice president. A shooting took place on campus on November 1,1991, in the summer of 2008, flood waters breached the Coralville Reservoir spillway, damaging more than 20 major campus buildings. Several weeks after the waters receded university officials placed a preliminary estimate on flood damage at $231.75 million.
Later, the university estimated that repairs would cost about $743 million, in 2008, UNESCO designated Iowa City the worlds third City of Literature, making it part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. Iowa legislators ultimately did not support the plan, in 2015, the Iowa Board of Regents selected Bruce Harreld, a business consultant with limited experience in academic administration, to succeed Sally Mason as president. In July 2016, the university took over the former AIB College of Business in Des Moines, Four bachelors programs are offered in Des Moines, an additional four masters-level programs are offered in Des Moines at the universitys site in the citys Western Gateway Park. The University of Iowas main campus, located in Iowa City, was designed by architect D. Elwood Cook
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, and frequently this shapes the content of their works. Similarly, some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, while many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators often ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality truthfully. Novelist is a derivative from the term novel describing the writer of novels. However, the OED attributes the primary meaning of a writer of novels as first appearing in the 1633 book East-India Colation by C. The difference between professional and amateur novelists often is the ability to publish.
Many people take up writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they often try to get it published. The publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers, self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. The rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive, Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity. Some communities actively encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, for example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50, 000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works.
In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words, Novelists dont usually publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age, for example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, and at sixteen completed his first novel, The Hungarian Lift-Jet, about international arms dealers, in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book. However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. Occasionally, novelists publish as early as their teens, for example, Patrick OBrian published his first novel, The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Occasionally, these works will achieve popular success as well, for example, though Christopher Paolinis Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Childrens Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks.
First-time novelists of any age often find themselves unable to get published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the authors own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet, and a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal, Essays are commonly used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays, while brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Lockes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthuss An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries, essays have become a part of formal education. The concept of an essay has been extended to other mediums beyond writing, a film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles, and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways, one definition is a prose composition with a focused subject of discussion or a long, systematic discourse. It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall, aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. He notes that the essay is a device for saying almost everything about almost anything, and adds that by tradition, almost by definition. Furthermore, Huxley argues that essays belong to a species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, the abstract-universal, In this pole we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience. Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays. make the best not of one, the word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, to try or to attempt. In English essay first meant a trial or an attempt, for the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones.
Francis Bacons essays, published in form in 1597,1612. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, English essayists included Robert Burton and Sir Thomas Browne. In France, Michel de Montaignes three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay, in Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Libro del oregano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art, whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays
Rocky Mount, North Carolina
Rocky Mount is a city in Edgecombe and Nash counties in the Atlantic coastal plain region of the U. S. state of North Carolina. Although it was not formally incorporated until February 28,1907, the first post office in the area opened in 1816. The citys population was 57,685 at the 2010 census, Rocky Mount has received the All-America City Award from the National Civic League two times, in 1969 and 1999. Rocky Mount is the city of the Rocky Mount metropolitan area. Rocky Mount is a part of a Combined Statistical Area which encompasses the Rocky Mount, the Rocky Mount–Wilson CSA population is currently over 200,000 residents. It is a part of the Raleigh-Durham-Cary CSA with a population of 2,132,523. Rocky Mount had its beginning in the part of the 19th century around the first post office which was established at the falls of the Tar River on March 22,1816. At that point, the name Rocky Mount appeared in documented history. The name undoubtedly derived from the mound at the falls of the Tar River.
The Wilmington and Weldon Railroad was built two miles east of the mill in 1845 and became the main connection for Rocky Mount to the outside world. An important change the railroad brought was the establishment of Rocky Mount as a point of departure for travelers from the north and south, the Raleigh-Tarboro stage route passed just below Rocky Mount, which became the logical debarking point for railroad travelers wishing to proceed east or west. The Civil War and Reconstruction Era brought hard times to Rocky Mount, on February 19,1867, Rocky Mount was incorporated as a town. The establishment of the Rocky Mount tobacco market in the late 1800s is one of the towns most noteworthy developments. The demand for bright leaf tobacco rose rapidly as the industry took shape. Also during this period, the railroad exerted an influence on the town. The tracks first reached Rocky Mount on Christmas Eve in 1839, in 1840, a train of cars en route to Wilmington stopped in Rocky Mount to import some Old Nash for special toasts at opening festivities.
The fame of Nash County apple brandy had spread fast, as Rocky Mount encouraged the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad to locate shops and yard facilities in the town, an influx of railroad employees into Rocky Mount occurred. In 1871, the county moved from the Tar River to its present location in the center of the tracks
Stanley Lawrence Elkin was an American novelist, short story writer, and essayist. His extravagant, satirical fiction revolves around American consumerism, popular culture, Elkin was born to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York, and grew up in Chicago from age three onwards. In 1953 Elkin married Joan Marion Jacobson and he was a member of the English faculty at Washington University in St. Louis from 1960 until his death, and battled multiple sclerosis for most of his adult life. In 1968, he signed the Writers and Editors War Tax Protest pledge, during his career, Elkin published ten novels, two volumes of novellas, two books of short stories, a collection of essays, and one screenplay. Elkins work revolves about American pop culture, which it portrays in innumerable darkly comic variations and especially prose style take full precedence over plot. His language is extravagant and exuberant and flowery, taking flight from his characters endless patter. He was like a jazz artist who would go off on riffs, in a review of George Mills, Ralph B.
Sipper wrote, Elkins trademark is to tightrope his way from comedy to tragedy with hardly a slip, about the influence of ethnicity on his work Elkin said he admired most the writers who are stylists, Jewish or not. Bellow is a stylist, and he is Jewish, William Gass is a stylist, and he is not Jewish. What I go for in my work is language and this was a refuge for a close-knit group of several score families, mostly Jewish, from the summer heat of New York City and urban New Jersey. Elkin’s writings placed in New Jersey were informed by this experience, Elkin won the National Book Critics Circle Award on two occasions, for George Mills in 1982 and for Mrs. Ted Bliss, his last novel, in 1995. The MacGuffin was a finalist for the 1991 National Book Award for Fiction, although he enjoyed high critical praise, his books have never enjoyed popular success. The 1976 Jack Lemmon film Alex & the Gypsy was based on Elkins novella The Bailbondsman, Elkin died May 31,1995 of a heart attack. His manuscripts and correspondence are archived in Olin Library at Washington University in St.
Louis, Elkins literary legacy is represented by the literary agency headed by Georges Borchardt. He has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame, Stanley Elkin, The Art of Fiction No.61. Interview at the Dalkey Archive Full Bibliography via Loyola University Stanley Elkin interviewed by Stephen Banker, circa 1978
The New York Times Magazine
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times. It is host to feature articles longer than those typically in the newspaper and has attracted many notable contributors, the magazine is noted for its photography, especially relating to fashion and style. Its first issue was published on September 6,1896, in the early decades it was a section of the broadsheet paper and not an insert as it is today. In its early years, The New York Times Magazine began a tradition of publishing the writing of well-known contributors, du Bois and Albert Einstein to numerous sitting and future U. S. Presidents. Editor Lester Markel, an intense and autocratic journalist who oversaw the Sunday Times from the 1920s through the 1950s, during his tenure, writers such as Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Gertrude Stein, and Tennessee Williams contributed pieces to the magazine. When, in 1970, The New York Times introduced its first Op-Ed page, in 1979, the magazine began publishing Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist William Safires On Language, a column discussing issues of English grammar and etymology.
Safires column steadily gained popularity and by 1990 was generating more mail than anything else in the magazine, the year 1999 saw the debut of The Ethicist, an advice column written by humorist Randy Cohen that quickly became a highly contentious part of the magazine. In 2011, Ariel Kaminer replaced Cohen as the author of the column, Klosterman left in early 2015 to be replaced by a trio of authors -- Kenji Yoshino, Amy Bloom, and Jack Shafer—who use a conversational format. Consumed, Rob Walkers regular column on culture, debuted in 2004. com, The New Republic magazines website, Greg Veis. In December 2010, Lindgren hired Joel Lovell, formerly editor at GQ magazine. In January 2012, humorist John Hodgman, who hosts his comedy court show podcast Judge John Hodgman, began writing a regular column Judge John Hodgman Rules for the The One-Page Magazine, in 2004, The New York Times Magazine began publishing an entire supplement devoted to style. Titled T, the supplement is edited by Deborah Needleman and appears 14 times a year, in 2009, it launched a Qatari Edition as a standalone magazine.
In 2006, the magazine introduced two other supplements, PLAY, a magazine published every other month, and KEY. The Funny Pages was made up of three parts, the Strip, the Sunday Serial, and True-Life Tales, on July 8,2007, the magazine stopped printing True-Life Tales. 92% of 1824 voters answered No, the Funny Pages is no longer published in the magazine. Of the serial novels, At Risk, The Overlook, Gentlemen of the Road, and The Lemur have since been published in book form with added material
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962.
Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict.
As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decades
John William Cheever was an American novelist and short story writer. He is sometimes called the Chekhov of the suburbs and he is now recognized as one of the most important short fiction writers of the 20th century. On April 27,1982, six weeks before his death, Cheever was awarded the National Medal for Literature by the American Academy of Arts and his work has been included in the Library of America. John William Cheever was born in Quincy, the child of Frederick Lincoln Cheever. His father was a shoe salesman, and Cheever spent much of his childhood in a large Victorian house, at 123 Winthrop Avenue, in the then-genteel suburb of Wollaston. In the mid-1920s, however, as the New England shoe and textile industries began their decline, Frederick Cheever lost most of his money. To pay the bills, Mary Cheever opened a shop in downtown Quincy—an abysmal humiliation for the family. In 1926, Cheever began attending Thayer Academy, a day school, but he found the atmosphere stifling and performed poorly.
A year he won a short story contest sponsored by the Boston Herald and was invited back to Thayer as a student on academic probation. The 18-year-old Cheever wrote an account of this experience, titled Expelled. After the 1932 crash of Kreuger & Toll, in which Frederick Cheever had invested what was left of his money, the parents separated, while John and Fred took an apartment together on Beacon Hill, in Boston. In 1933, John wrote to Elizabeth Ames, the director of the Yaddo artists colony in Saratoga Springs, New York, The idea of leaving the city, he said, has never been so distant or desirable. Ames denied his first application but offered him a place the following year, Cheever spent the summer of 1934 at Yaddo, which would serve as a second home for much of his life. Cheever drove from one place to another in a dilapidated Model A roadster, in 1935, Katharine White of The New Yorker bought Cheevers story, for $45—the first of many that Cheever would publish in the magazine. Maxim Lieber became his agent, 1935-1941.
In 1938, he work for the Federal Writers Project in Washington. As an editor for the WPA Guide to New York City and he quit after less than a year and a few months he met his future wife, Mary Winternitz, seven years his junior. She was a daughter of Milton Winternitz, dean of Yale Medical School, and granddaughter of Thomas A. Watson, Cheever enlisted in the Army on May 7,1942
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is a museum and art school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1805 and is the first and oldest art museum, the academys museum is internationally known for its collections of 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and works on paper. Its archives house important materials for the study of American art history, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts was founded in 1805 by painter and scientist Charles Willson Peale, sculptor William Rush, and other artists and business leaders. The growth of the Academy of Fine Arts was slow and it opened as a museum in 1807 and held its first exhibition in 1811, where more than 500 paintings and statues were on display. The first school classes held in the building were with the Society of Artists in 1810, in 1876, former Academy student Thomas Eakins returned to teach as a volunteer. Fairman Rogers, chairman of the Committee on Instruction from 1878 to 1883, made him a faculty member in 1878, Eakins revamped the certificate curriculum to what it remains today.
From 1811 to 1969, the Academy organized important annual art exhibitions from which significant acquisitions were made, harrison S. Morris, Managing Director from 1892 to 1905, collected contemporary American art for the institution. Among the many masterpieces acquired during his tenure were works by Cecilia Beaux, William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, and Edmund Tarbell. Work by The Eight, which included former Academy students Robert Henri and John Sloan, is represented in the collection. From 1890 to 1906, Edward Hornor Coates served as the president of the Academy. In 1915, Coates was awarded the Academys gold medal, rich endowments were made to the schools, a gallery of national portraiture was formed, and some of the best examples of Gilbert Stuarts work acquired. The annual exhibitions attained a brilliancy and éclat hitherto unknown, mr. Coates wisely established the schools upon a conservative basis, building almost unconsciously the dykes high against the oncoming flow of insane novelties in art patterns.
In this last struggle against modernism the President was ably supported by Eakins, Grafly, Thouron and his unfailing courtesy, his disinterested thoughtfulness, his tactfulness, and his modesty endeared him to scholars and masters alike. No sacrifice of time or of means was too great, if he thought he could accomplish the end he always had in view—the honour, during World War I, Academy students were actively involved in war work. About sixty percent of the men enlisted or entered Government service. A war service club was formed by students and a monthly publication, George Harding, a former PAFA student, was commissioned Captain during the war and created official combat sketches for the American Expeditionary Forces. Prior to the founding of the Academy, there were limited opportunities for women to receive training in the United States. Realizing the rise in interest of women, this period between the mid-19th and early 20th century shows a remarkable growth of formally trained women artists