Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The 10,311 km2 island accounts for 18.7% of Nova Scotia's total area. Although the island is physically separated from the Nova Scotia peninsula by the Strait of Canso, the 1,385 m long rock-fill Canso Causeway connects it to mainland Nova Scotia; the island is east-northeast of the mainland with its northern and western coasts fronting on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The eastern and southern coasts front the Atlantic Ocean, its landmass slopes upward from south to north. One of the world's larger salt water lakes, Bras d'Or, dominates the island's centre; the island is divided into four of Nova Scotia's eighteen counties: Cape Breton, Inverness and Victoria. Their total population at the 2016 census numbered 132,010 "Cape Bretoners". Cape Breton Island has experienced a decline in population of 2.9% since the 2011 census. 75% of the island's population is in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality which includes all of Cape Breton County and is referred to as Industrial Cape Breton, given the history of coal mining and steel manufacturing in this area, Nova Scotia's industrial heartland throughout the 20th century.
The island has five reserves of the Mi'kmaq Nation: Eskasoni, Wagmatcook and Potlotek/Chapel Island. Eskasoni is the largest in both land area, its name may derive from Capbreton near Bayonne, or more from Cape and the word Breton, the French demonym for Bretagne, the French historical region. Cape Breton Island's first residents were Archaic maritime natives, ancestors of the Mi'kmaq; these peoples and their progeny inhabited the island for several thousand years and continue to live there to this day. Their traditional lifestyle centred around hunting and fishing because of the unfavourable agricultural conditions of their maritime home; this ocean-centric lifestyle did, make them among the first indigenous peoples to discover European explorers and sailors fishing in the St Lawrence Estuary. John Cabot visited the island in 1497. However, European histories and maps of the period are of too poor quality to be sure whether Cabot first visited Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island; this discovery is commemorated by Cape Breton's Cabot Trail, by the Cabot's Landing Historic Site & Provincial Park, near the village of Dingwall.
The local Mi'kmaq peoples began trading with European fishermen when the fishermen began landing in their territories as early as the 1520s. In about 1521–22, the Portuguese under João Álvares Fagundes established a fishing colony on the island; as many as two hundred settlers lived in a village, the name of, not known, located according to some historians at what is now Ingonish on the island's northeastern peninsula. These fishermen did not maintain a permanent settlement; this Portuguese colony's fate is unknown, but it is mentioned as late as 1570. During the Anglo-French War of 1627 to 1629, under Charles I, the Kirkes took Quebec City; these claims, larger European ideals of native conquest were the first time the island was incorporated as European territory, though it would be several decades that treaties would be signed. These Scottish triumphs, which left Cape Sable as the only major French holding in North America, did not last. Charles I's haste to make peace with France on the terms most beneficial to him meant the new North American gains would be bargained away in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which established which European power had claim over the territories, but did not in fact establish that Europeans had any claim to begin with.
The French defeated the Scots at Baleine, established the first European settlements on Île Royale: present day Englishtown and St. Peter's; these settlements lasted only one generation, until Nicolas Denys left in 1659. The island did not have any European settlers for another fifty years before those communities along with Louisbourg were re-established in 1713, after which point European settlement was permanently established on the island. Known as "Île Royale" to the French, the island saw active settlement by France. After the French ceded their claims to Newfoundland and the Acadian mainland to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the French relocated the population of Plaisance, Newfoundland, to Île Royale and the French garrison was established in the central eastern part at Sainte Anne; as the harbour at Sainte Anne experienced icing problems, it was decided to build a much larger fortification at Louisbourg to improve defences at the entrance to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and to defend France's fishing fleet on the Grand Banks.
The French built the Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1734, the first lighthouse in Canada and one of the first in North America. In addition to Cape Breton Island, the French colony of Île Royale included Île Saint-Jean, today called Prince Edward Island, Les Î
Richmond County, Nova Scotia
Richmond County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. For a list of communities in Richmond County, see the eponymous page. Named in honour of Sir Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, Governor General of British North America 1818-1819, Richmond County was created in 1835. Richmond County comprises that territory known as the Southern District, established in 1824 at the time of the dividing of Cape Breton Island into three districts; the boundaries of the Southern District were defined at the time of its establishment. Those same boundaries were determined to be the boundaries of Richmond County by statute in 1847; the shire town of Richmond Country is Arichat, located on Isle Madame. The community was threatened with closure of its local Court system in June 2015. VillagesSt. Peter'sReservesChapel Island 5County municipality and county subdivisionsMunicipality of the County of Richmond Richmond, Subd. A Richmond, Subd. B Richmond, Subd. C Highways and numbered routes that run through the county, including external routes that start or finish at the county limits: As a census division in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Richmond County recorded a population of 8,964 living in 3,983 of its 5,122 total private dwellings, a change of −3.5% from its 2011 population of 9,293.
With a land area of 1,249.33 km2, it had a population density of 7.2/km2 in 2016. Forming the majority of the Richmond County census division, the Municipality of the County of Richmond recorded a population of 8,458 living in 3,822 of its 4,955 total private dwellings in the 2016 Census of Population, a change of −4% from its 2011 population of 8,812. With a land area of 1,243.72 km2, it had a population density of 6.8/km2 in 2016. List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Central Nova Tourist Association – Tourism Association Representing Colchester County. Municipality of Richmond County Website
An aerodrome or airdrome is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither. Aerodromes include small general aviation airfields, large commercial airports, military airbases; the term airport may imply a certain stature. This means that all airports are aerodromes. Usage of the term "aerodrome" remains more common in the Ireland and Commonwealth nations. A water aerodrome is an area of open water used by seaplanes or amphibious aircraft for landing and taking off. According to the International Civil Aviation Organization an aerodrome is "A defined area on land or water intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival and surface movement of aircraft." The word aerodrome derives from Ancient Greek ἀήρ, δρόμος, road or course meaning air course. An ancient linguistic parallel is hippodrome, derived from ἵππος, δρόμος, course. A modern linguistic parallel is an arena for velocipedes. Αεροδρόμιο is the word for airport in Modern Greek.
In British military usage, the Royal Flying Corps in the First World War and the Royal Air Force in the First and Second World Wars used the term—it had the advantage that their French allies, on whose soil they were based and with whom they co-operated, used the cognate term aérodrome. In Canada and Australia, aerodrome is a legal term of art for any area of land or water used for aircraft operation, regardless of facilities. International Civil Aviation Organization documents use the term aerodrome, for example, in the Annex to the ICAO Convention about aerodromes, their physical characteristics, their operation. However, the terms airfield or airport superseded use of aerodrome after World War II, in colloquial language. In the early days of aviation, when there were no paved runways and all landing fields were grass, a typical airfield might permit takeoffs and landings in only a couple of directions, much like today's airports, whereas an aerodrome was distinguished, by virtue of its much greater size, by its ability to handle landings and take offs in any direction.
The ability to always take off and land directly into the wind, regardless of the wind's direction, was an important advantage in the earliest days of aviation when an airplane's performance in a crosswind takeoff or landing might be poor or dangerous. The development of differential braking in aircraft, improved aircraft performance, utilization of paved runways, the fact that a circular aerodrome required much more space than did the "L" or triangle shaped airfield made the early aerodromes obsolete; the city of the first aerodrome in the world is a French commune named Viry-Chatillon. The unimproved airfield remains a phenomenon in military aspects; the DHC-4 Caribou served in the U. S. military in Vietnam, landing on rough, unimproved airfields where the C-130 workhorse could not operate. Earlier, the Ju 52 and Fieseler Storch could do the same, one example of the latter taking off from the Führerbunker whilst surrounded by Russian troops. An airport is an aerodrome certificated for commercial flights.
An air base is an aerodrome with significant facilities to support crew. The term is reserved for military bases, but applies to civil seaplane bases. An airstrip is a small aerodrome that consists only of a runway with fueling equipment, they are in remote locations. Many airstrips were built on the hundreds of islands in the Pacific Ocean during World War II. A few airstrips grew to become full-fledged airbases as strategic or economic importance of a region increased over time. An Advanced Landing Ground was a temporary airstrip used by the Allies in the run-up to and during the invasion of Normandy, these were built both in Britain, on the continent. A water aerodrome is an area of open water used by seaplanes or amphibious aircraft for landing and taking off, it may have a terminal building on land and/or a place where the plane can come to shore and dock like a boat to load and unload. The Canadian Aeronautical Information Manual says "...for the most part, all of Canada can be an aerodrome", however there are "registered aerodromes" and "certified airports".
To become a registered aerodrome the operator must maintain certain standards and keep the Minister of Transport informed of any changes. To be certified as an airport the aerodrome, which supports commercial operations, must meet safety standards. Nav Canada, the private company responsible for air traffic control services in Canada, publishes the Canada Flight Supplement, a directory of all registered Canadian land aerodromes, as well as the Canada Water Aerodrome Supplement. Casement Aerodrome is the main military airport used by the Irish Air Corps; the term "aerodrome" is used for airports and airfields of lesser importance in Ireland, such as those at Abbeyshrule. Spaceport
Allan Joseph MacEachen, was a Canadian politician, a many-time Cabinet minister, a Senator, one of Canada's elder statesmen. He was the first deputy prime minister of Canada, serving from 1977 to 1979 and 1980 to 1984. Born in Inverness on Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Island, MacEachen graduated from St. Francis Xavier University, lectured in economics for several years at the school, his parents were Scottish Gaelic speakers who both spoke the language at home and MacEachen, was a fluent Gaelic speaker. He was elected for the first time to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1953 election, as a Liberal under the leadership of Prime Minister Louis St-Laurent, he was re-elected in the 1957 election, but was defeated in the Progressive Conservative Diefenbaker sweep in the 1958 election—the largest federal electoral victory in the history of Canada. MacEachen was re-elected to parliament in the 1962 general election and was re-elected again in the 1963, 1965, 1968, 1972, 1974, 1979 and 1980 elections.
When Lester B. Pearson formed a Liberal government in 1963, he appointed MacEachen to cabinet as Minister of Labour; this was the beginning of a lengthy career in cabinet in which MacEachen served in several portfolios under prime ministers Pearson, Pierre Trudeau and John Turner. In addition to Labour, MacEachen held the following portfolios: National Health and Welfare and Immigration, Privy Council, External Affairs and Finance. In addition to his ministerial responsibilities, MacEachen served as Government House Leader on three occasions, became the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada in 1977 under Trudeau, a post he held whenever Trudeau was in office from that time until his retirement. In his memoirs, published in 1993, Trudeau wrote that MacEachen "had a good strategic sense, both in and out of Parliament, he lived and breathed politics." For Trudeau, he "was always a source of shrewd advice", "was the kind of man I respected, because he had no ulterior motives. In 1968 MacEachen contested the leadership of the Liberal Party, but did not do well because there was a second Nova Scotian on the ballot.
He was courted to run for leader again in 1984 but opted to support John Turner, the eventual winner. In 1979, when the Liberals lost the election to Joe Clark's Conservatives, MacEachen served as interim Leader of the Opposition when Trudeau announced he would retire from politics. Trudeau's short-lived retirement ended with the defeat of Clark's government and the Liberals' return to power with a majority government on February 18, 1980. MacEachen resumed his job as Finance Minister, in 1982 angered public sector unions by imposing a wage restraint package dubbed "six and five"—limiting wage increases to six and five per cent in the following two years. Turner, the new party leader and prime minister, recommended him for appointment to the Senate where he became Leader of the Government in the Senate. Although he was only in this position as Turner lost the 1984 election, he started the practice of allowing opposition senators to chair a number of committees, a practice that continues today.
From 1984 to 1991 he served as leader of the opposition in the Senate, where he was regarded as the primary opposition to the Conservative Brian Mulroney's first term due to Mulroney's substantial majority in the Commons, with an opposition, spread nearly between Turner's Liberals and Ed Broadbent's New Democratic Party. In 1988, after a request by Turner, MacEachen blocked the Canada-U. S. Free Trade Agreement in the Senate to force an election before the issue was settled; the agreement was the main issue of the 1988 election. After Mulroney's victory, MacEachen and the Senate passed the agreement. After the election, MacEachen again used the Senate to block the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax. Brian Mulroney recommended for appointment several new senators, used an emergency power in the Constitution Act, 1867 that allowed him to recommend for appointment eight new Senators. MacEachen led a filibuster against the bill, with Liberal members defying speaker Guy Charbonneau. Charbonneau voted for Conservative motions.
The Liberal senators used other tactics to delay Senate business. Soon, the motion was passed, the Progressive Conservative majority passed new rules for the Senate forbidding such actions. MacEachen retired from the Senate in 1996 upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 75, became a one-dollar-per-year adviser to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Further controversy ensued in 1998. After leaving the Senate, MacEachen retired to Nova Scotia spending the rest of his life at his house on Lake Ainslie in Inverness County, Cape Breton and in Antigonish. In 2006, MacEachen endorsed Bob Rae's candidacy to lead the Liberal Party, was appointed honorary campaign chair of Rae's campaign. MacEachen died at the age of 96 on September 12, 2017 at St. Martha's Hospital in Antigonish, Nova Scotia. In 2008, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. St. Francis Xavier University holds the annual Allan J. MacEachen lecture in his honour. In 2000, the Allan J. MacEachen International Academic and Cultural Centre was opened in Mabou, Nova Scotia.
The complex consists of a secondary school, Dalbrae Academy, Strathspey Place, a performing arts centre. Dalhousie University's MacEachen Institute for Public Policy and Governance is named after him. Allan MacEachen – Parliament of Canada biography
Port Hawkesbury is a town located on the southwestern end of Cape Breton Island, on the north shore of the Strait of Canso, in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The town was named Ship Harbour and is a service centre for western Cape Breton Island with many of its residents working in large industries in an industrial park located in the adjacent community of Point Tupper, Richmond County; the town's schools are Tamarac Education Centre, SAERC and the Strait Area Campus of the Nova Scotia Community College. The community is named after Admiral Sir Edward Hawke. Know by its first name as Ship Harbour, Port Hawkesbury built ships for the timber export trade in the early and mid 19th century, such as the brig James, the subject of one of the earliest ship portraits in Canada. Schooners and fishing boats were built for the inshore and banks fishery by firms such as the noted boatbuilder H. W. Embree and Sons; the port further developed in the 19th century. The construction of the Canso Causeway increased the shelter capacity of the deepwater port leading to further growth in shipping of bulk commodities and the establishment of several heavy industries such as the pulp mill.
Port Hawkesbury experiences a Humid continental climate. Due to the proximity to surrounding bodies of water, seasons tend to be delayed when compared to areas further inland. Precipitation is high, with the fall and winter being the wettest time of year and summer being the driest. Winters are cold and stormy with frequent snowstorms. Summer is the most pleasant time of year, with less precipitation and warm temperatures; the highest temperature recorded in the strait area was 35.0 °C on 7 July 1912 and 19 July 1975. The coldest temperature recorded was −28.5 °C on 7 February 1993. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Port Hawkesbury recorded a population of 3,214 living in 1,345 of its 1,554 total private dwellings, a change of −4.5% from its 2011 population of 3,366. With a land area of 8.1 km2, it had a population density of 396.8/km2 in 2016. In 2006 the Port of Port Hawkesbury was the second largest by annual tonnage in Canada, second only to Vancouver, British Columbia, due to large volumes of crushed rock and gravel shipments and oil trans-shipments.
It handled 31.6 million metric tonnes in 2006. By 2011, the volume of annual tonnage had dropped to 23.7 million tonnes, making it the 7th largest port in Canada. The port is served by tugs of Svitzer Towing such as the tug Point Chebucto, it was a stop for American coastal steam ships. 101.5 - The Hawk SAERC FM - 93.9 SAERC TVThe Reporter, community newspaper Lynn Coady is an author. Her best selling novels include Strange Heaven, Play the Monster Blind, Saints of Big Harbour, the Giller Prize nominated Antagonist and the Giller Prize Winning Hellgoing. Mark Day, a film and television actor now living in Toronto and Los Angeles. Henry Embree, noted 19th-century boatbuilder Aaron Johnson, an NHL draft pick now playing with the AHL's Stockton Heat. Billy Joe MacLean, former mayor, provincial cabinet minister Henry Nicholas Paint, member of Parliament for Richmond County and land owner, his family received land grants at Belle Vue on the Strait of Canso in 1817 and at Point Tupper in 1863, did much to develop the local communities in the area.
List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Town of Port Hawkesbury
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act, is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, soil and fauna, its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Quebec. Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required; the department is responsible for international environmental issues. CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill entered into effect in June 2012.
Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges; the federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country. Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of Global Ecolabelling Network. Environment Canada continues to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, to standardize policy implementation. Minister Deputy Minister Associate Deputy Minister Assistant Deputy Minister Associate Assistant Deputy Minister Director General Director Managers Supervisors Staff Environment Canada is divided into several geographic regions: National Capital Atlantic and Quebec Region Ontario West and North The department has several organizations which carry out specific tasks: Enforcement Branch Environmental Enforcement Wildlife Enforcement Environmental Protection Branch Canadian Wildlife Service Chemical Sectors Energy and Transportation Environmental Protection Operations Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Strategic Priorities Meteorological Service of Canada Weather and environmental monitoring Weather and Environmental Operations Weather and Environmental Prediction and Services Canadian Hurricane Centre Science and Technology Branch Atmospheric and Climate Science Water Science and Technology Directorate National Pollutant Release Inventory Wildlife and Landscape Science Air Quality Mobile Source Emissions Measurement and ResearchThe Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency is an arms-length agency that reports to the Minister of EnvironmentParks Canada, which manages the Canadian National Parks system, was removed from Environment Canada and became an agency reporting to the Minister of Heritage in 1998.
In 2003, responsibility for Parks Canada was returned to the Minister of the Environment. Environment Canada Enforcement Branch is responsible for ensuring compliance with several federal statues; the Governor-in-Council appoints enforcement officers and pursuant to section 217 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, enforcement officers have all the powers of peace officers. There are two designations of enforcement officers: Environmental Enforcement and Wildlife Enforcement; the former administers the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and pollution provisions of the Fisheries Act and corresponding regulations. The latter enforces Migratory Birds Convention Act, Canada Wildlife Act, Species at Risk Act and The Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act. All officers wear dark green uniform with a badge. Environmental Enforcement Officers only carry baton and OC spray whereas Wildlife Enforcement Officers are equipped with firearm.
The Minister may appoint members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, fishery officers, parks officers, customs officers and conservation officers of provincial and territorial governments as enforcement officers and to allow them to exercise the powers and privilege of Environment Canada officers. On March 4, 2009, a bill to increase the enforcement capabilities of Environment Canada was introduced into the House of Commons; the Environmental Enforcement Bill would increase the fines for individuals and corporations for ser
The Margaree River is a river on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. The northeast branch of the river derives from the watershed of the Cape Breton Highlands, while the Southwest Margaree flows northeast from Lake Ainslie; the two branches join at Margaree Forks. The river flows north to empty into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Margaree Harbour, Nova Scotia; the river is 120 km in length and drains an area of 1,375 km². The Margaree has been well known for a century for its trout and Atlantic salmon sport fishery, that draws anglers from near and far. Fishing is regulated now and is restricted to fly fishing only, with barbless hooks, in the main stem of the river. Famed American angler and Atlantic salmon conservationist Lee Wulff caught his first salmon on a fly on the Margaree in 1933; the gravel bars of the upper Northeast Margaree provide spawning grounds for Atlantic salmon. The Margaree Valley includes a mix of woodlands. During the 18th century, Acadians settled along the coast near the mouth of the river.
Scottish Highlanders began to settle in the Margaree Valley at the beginning of the 19th century. Moses Coady, a noted son of the Margaree Valley, attended school in Margaree Forks and taught there before completing his education in Antigonish and Rome; the Margaree was designated a Canadian Heritage River in 1998. HMCS Margaree, a World War II Canadian naval destroyer, was named after this river. List of rivers of Nova Scotia