A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. Since the eighteenth century, gold medals have been awarded in the arts, for example, by the Royal Danish Academy as a symbol of an award to give an outstanding student some financial freedom. Others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO and various academic societies. While some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold. Before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. Before the establishment of standard military awards, e.g. the Medal of Honor, it was common practice to have a medal specially created to provide national recognition for a significant military or naval victory or accomplishment.
In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible. The commanding officer would receive his officers silver medals. Medals have been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities athletics. Traditionally, medals are made of the following metals: Gold Silver BronzeOccasionally, Platinum medals can be awarded; these metals designate the first three Ages of Man in Greek mythology: the Golden Age, when men lived among the gods, the Silver Age, where youth lasted a hundred years, the Bronze Age, the era of heroes. The custom of awarding the sequence of gold and bronze medals for the first three highest achievers dates from at least the 18th century, with the National Association of Amateur Athletes in the United States awarding such medals as early as 1884; this standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given, not medals.
At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a gold medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, an olive wreath made of wild olive leaves from a sacred tree near the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. Herodotus describes a story that explains why there were only a few Greek men at the Battle of Thermopylae since "all other men were participating in the Olympic Games" and that the prize for the winner was "an olive-wreath"; when Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader: "Good heavens! What kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour". Hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal and the second-place finisher received a bronze medal.
In 1900, most winners received trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller; the use of gold declined with the onset of the First World War and with the onset of the Second World War. The last series of Olympic medals to be made of solid gold were awarded at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92.5% silver, must contain a minimum of 6 grams of gold. All Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host. From 1928 through 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli of Greek goddess Nike with Rome's Colloseum in the background and text naming the host city. From the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheater for what were Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
For the 2008 Beijing Olympics medals had a diameter of 70mm and were 6mm thick, with the front displaying a winged figure of victory and the back showed a Beijing Olympics symbol surrounded by an inset jade circle. Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design; the silver and bronze medals have always borne the same designs. The award of a gold medal coupled with the award of silver and bronze medals to the next place finishers, has been adopted in other sports competitions and in other competitive fields, such as music and writing, as well as some competitive games. Bronze medals are awarded only to third place, but in some contests there is some variety, such as International barbershop music contests where bronze medals are awarded for third and fifth place. List of gold medal awards Medals: Going For Gold! - Minerals Council of Australia Royal Canadian Mint Interactive 3D Tour of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Medals
IAAF Golden Events
The IAAF Golden Events were a sporadic series of twelve athletics events organised by the International Amateur Athletics Federation from 1978 to 1982. Aside from the inaugural event in Tokyo, the contests were held in Europe and were attached to independent track and field meetings; the purpose of the events was to raise the profile of the sport outside of Olympic competition. Marking the growing professionalism in athletics, a significant prize pot was given to the winner of the event – a move designed to attract the sport's top athletes to compete against each other at the same meeting; the inaugural prize was an 18-carat gold trophy worth 9,500 US dollars. All twelve events were for men, reflecting their position as the most prominent sex during that period; the central element of the series was the Golden Mile – a men's mile run contest that launched the series in 1978 and was held annually until 1981. The rivalry of British runners Steve Ovett and Sebastian Coe in this event saw each take two wins and Coe set two mile world records in the process.
British athletes were successful in the series and won eight of the twelve events. A sprint format, aggregating an athlete's times in separate 100 metres and 200 metres, was launched in 1979 and repeated in 1981. Long-distance running was a major element of the series as it featured one 5000 metres race, two 10,000 metres races, a marathon race over the series history. Field events were in a minority, with one javelin throw and one pole vault being their only appearance; the marathon, in 1982, was the last Golden Event to be held. The establishment of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics in 1983 saw the IAAF focus on its sport-specific championships as a way of using prizes to generate top level competition; the launch of the IAAF Grand Prix in 1985 formalised the major track and field circuit as a professional series of point-scoring events. The "Golden" was idea revived in the form of the Golden Four in 1992 – a high-prize money and field series comprising Oslo, Zurich and Berlin; this was expanded and co-opted by the IAAF in 1998 as the IAAF Golden League, itself expanded to the current major track and field series: the IAAF Diamond League.
Some of the events featured title sponsors: the first event was known as the "Dubai Golden Mile", given its sponsorship by the emirate, the final event was known as the "Citizen Golden Marathon", under the patronage of Japanese watchmakers Citizen Holdings. Podium finishersGolden Events. GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2015-02-26
The 100 metres, or 100 metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics, it has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 since 1928 for women. The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is named "the fastest man in the world"; the World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Justin Gatlin and Tori Bowie are the reigning world champions. On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters reach top speed after somewhere between 50 and 60 m, their speed slows towards the finish line. The 10-second barrier has been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race; the current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.
The 100 m emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards, a now defunct distance contested in English-speaking countries. The event is held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight. US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times. At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks. At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, the time they take to react to it. For many years a sprinter was disqualified. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus.
The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified. This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification; this proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work." The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.
Runners reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m. Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique; the winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso over the nearer edge of the finish line. There is therefore no requirement for the entire body to cross the finish line; when the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line. Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".
Furthermore, sprint athletes perform a better run at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would make breathing more difficult, but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A". Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background. In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier, in 2017, Azerbaijani-born naturalized Turkish Ramil Guliyev followed. In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian of China ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first East Asian athlete to break the 10-second barrier.
On 22 June 2018, Su improved his time in Madrid
1982 Commonwealth Games
The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Australia from 30 September to 9 October 1982. The Opening Ceremony was held in the Brisbane suburb of Nathan; the QEII Stadium was the venue, used for the athletics and archery competitions during the Games. Other events were held at the purpose-built Sleeman Sports Complex in Chandler; the Chairman of the 1982 Commonwealth Games was Sir Edward Williams. The 1982 Commonwealth Games Logo was designed by Paulo Ferreira, the winner of a nationwide competition held in 1978; the symbol is derived from the form of a bounding kangaroo. The three bands, forming stylized A's, are in colours which are common to flags of many Commonwealth countries. Matilda the kangaroo mascot for the 1982 Commonwealth Games was represented by a cartoon kangaroo, a gigantic 13-metre high mechanical "winking" kangaroo, who travelled around the stadium and winked at the crowd; the games were opened by The Duke of Edinburgh and closed by The Queen. Bidding for the XII Commonwealth Games was held in Montreal, Canada at the 1976 Summer Olympics.
Lagos, Kuala Lumpur and Birmingham were the bidding cities. On 14 July 1976 it was announced that Brisbane had won the rights to stage the Games after the other candidate cities withdrew bids earlier that year. Brisbane was awarded by default of being the only Candidate City left at the bid election after Birmingham reversed its decision to submit an application. Nigeria's boycott of the Montreal Summer Olympics made Lagos' bid lobbying impractical; the Montreal Summer Olympics were plagued with cost overruns and bidding on a sports festival anywhere in the world was not good politically. 46 Commonwealth nations and territories took part in the 1982 Commonwealth Games. A total of 1,583 athletes and 571 officials participated in the event; the Griffith University campus was used as an athletes village. Sports contested during the 1982 Commonwealth Games included athletics, badminton, lawn bowls, cycling, swimming, diving and wrestling. Table tennis and Australian football were demonstration sports.
Queen Elizabeth II Jubilee Sports Centre Chandler Sports Complex: Chandler Aquatic Centre - swimming and diving. The ceremony at the QEII Stadium was held on a fine but windy day; the wind was so strong. Instead they made an entrance at the closing ceremony; the first event of the Games was 100 kilometres Road Trial in cycling. England won the Gold Medal in the event, Australia won the Silver Medal—coming second to England by only six seconds. Other sports which were contested on the first day of competition included swimming and diving, weightlifting and bowls. Sports contested included swimming, weightlifting, cycling and archery; the day was marred by both Australia and Canada being disqualified in the 4 × 100 metres relay in swimming, both problems occurring during change-overs. The medals awarded for this race went to England and New Zealand. Sports contested included swimming, cycling, archery, hammer throwing and shooting; the day was marred when Canada was again disqualified, this time in the 4 × 200 metres freestyle relay.
Canada protested against Australia, as well as against their own disqualification. Elizabeth II closed the Games during a colourful ceremony, which included parachute jumpers jumping and landing in a special target area within the stadium and red and blue balloons. Matilda the Kangaroo winked at the Queen. Following the closing of the Games, the Queen and Duke left the stand to be driven from the stadium. However, nobody wanted the Games to end and the Australian team formed a'guard of honour' and ran beside and behind the car in which Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip were travelling, as it circled the stadium several times before leaving. Team members from other countries joined in running after the royal car; this is the full table of the medal count of the 1982 Commonwealth Games. These rankings sort by the number of gold medals earned by a country; the number of silvers is taken into consideration next and the number of bronze. If, after the above, countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically.
This follows the system used by the IOC, IAAF and BBC. * Host nation The Brisbane Commonwealth Games were noted by large-scale protests by the Aboriginal rights movement in Australia, which brought to the centre of international media attention the lack of land rights, poor living condition and suppression of personal and political rights in Queensland in particular, in Australia as a whole. The protests, which were followed by large-scale arrests, are a significant event in the history of the Australian Aboriginal movement; the Matilda mascot from the opening ceremony was relocated to Wet'n'Wild Water World, a water park in the Gold Coast hinterland. In 2007, Matilda lay out the back of Wet'n'Wild in pieces, until 2011, when the winking icon found a
1980 Summer Olympics
The 1980 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia. The 1980 Games were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Eastern Europe, remain the only Summer Olympics held there, as well as the first Olympic Games to be held in a Slavic language-speaking country, they were the first Olympic Games to be held in a socialist country, the only Summer Games to be held in such a country until 2008 in Beijing, China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of 3rd Baron Killanin. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Led by the United States, 66 countries boycotted the games because of the Soviet–Afghan War; some athletes from some of the boycotting countries participated in the games under the Olympic Flag. The Soviet Union would boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics; the only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics were Los Angeles. The choice between them was made on 23 October 1974 in the 75th IOC Session in Austria.
Los Angeles would host the 1984 Summer Olympics. Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Of the eighty participating nations, eight nations made their first appearance at this Games – Angola, Cyprus, Mozambique and Seychelles. None of these nations won a medal. Although half of the 24 countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics participated in the Moscow Games, the 1980 Summer Olympics were disrupted by another larger, boycott led by the United States in protest at the 1979 Soviet–Afghan War; the Soviet invasion spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on 20 January 1980, that the US would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month. 65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States' boycott initiative, while others cited economic reasons for not coming. Iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion.
Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic known as the "Olympic Boycott Games", in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, 71 percent of the gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal; this was in part because of state-run doping programs, developed in the Eastern Bloc countries. As a form of protest against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, fifteen countries marched in the Opening Ceremony with the Olympic Flag instead of their national flags, the Olympic Flag and Olympic Hymn were used at medal ceremonies when athletes from these countries won medals. Competitors from three countries – New Zealand and Spain – competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees; some of these teams that marched under flags other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes, while some athletes did not participate in the march. The impact of the boycott was mixed.
Some events, such as swimming and field, basketball, field hockey and equestrian sports, were hard hit. Whilst competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists, the great majority of the medals were taken by the host country and East Germany in what was the most skewed medal tally since 1904. There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics. 36 World records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were set at the games. In total, this was more records. New Olympic records were set 241 times over the course of the competitions and world records were beaten 97 times. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine.
Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols; the first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m. Major broadcasters of the Games were USSR State TV and Radio and Intervision. TV Asahi with 68 cards provided coverage for Japan, while OTI representing Latin America received 59 cards and the Seven Network provided coverage for Australia. NBC, which had intended to be another major broadcaster, canceled its coverage in response to the U. S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, became a minor broadcaster with 56 accreditation cards, although the network did air highlights and recaps of the games on a regular basis. (ABC aired scenes of the opening ceremony during its Nightline program, promised highlights each night, but the next night, the show announced that they could not air any
100 metres at the Olympics
The 100 metres at the Summer Olympics has been contested since the first edition of the multi-sport event. The men's 100 m has been present on the Olympic athletics programme since 1896; the 100 metres is considered one of the blue ribbon events of the Olympics and is among the highest profile competitions at the games. It is the most prestigious 100 m race at elite level and is the shortest sprinting competition at the Olympics – a position it has held at every edition except for a brief period between 1900 and 1904, when a men's 60 metres was contested; the athlete who wins the 100m at the olympic games is crowned as the fastest man in the world. The first Olympic champions were both Americans: Thomas Burke in the men's category and, 32 years Betty Robinson in the women's category; the Olympic records for the event are 9.63 seconds, set by Bolt in 2012, 10.62 seconds, set by Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988. The world records for the event have been equalled or broken during the Olympics on seven occasions in the men's category and on twelve occasions in the women's.
Among the competing nations, the United States has had the most success in this event, having won sixteen golds in the men's race and nine in the women's race. Usain Bolt of Jamaica has won three consecutive titles. Four other athletes have won back-to-back titles: Wyomia Tyus, Carl Lewis, Gail Devers, Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce. Merlene Ottey is the only athlete to win three medals without winning gold, with one silver and two bronze medals. Many athletes that compete in this event compete individually in the Olympic 200 metres and with their national teams in the Olympic 4×100 metres relay. Nine men have achieved the 100 metres and 200 metres'Double' at the same Olympic Games - Archie Hahn, Ralph Craig, Percy Williams, Eddie Tolan, Jesse Owens, Bobby Morrow, Valeriy Borzov, Carl Lewis, Usain Bolt. Four of these men were members of the winning team in the x100 meters relay at the same games - Jesse Owens, Bobby Morrow, Carl Lewis, Usain Bolt. Two of these men have won a fourth gold medal at the same games - Archie Hahn in the now defunct 60 metres, both Jesse Owens and Carl Lewis in the long jump.
Seven women have achieved the 100 metres and 200 metres'Double' at the same Olympic Games - Fanny Blankers-Koen, Marjorie Jackson, Betty Cuthbert, Wilma Rudolph, Renate Stecher, Florence Griffith-Joyner, Elaine Thompson. Four of these women were members of the winning team in the 4x100 meters relay at the same games - Fanny Blankers-Koen, Betty Cuthbert, Wilma Rudolph, Florence Griffith-Joyner. Fanny Blankers-Koen is the only one of these women to win four gold medals at the same games by winning the 80 metres hurdles in 1948. Two of the highest profile doping scandals have involved the Olympic 100 m competition: Ben Johnson won the 1988 Olympic 100 m title in a world record time of 9.79 seconds but was stripped of the titles after failing a drug test. Marion Jones was the 2000 women's Olympic 100 m gold medallist but had her results annulled after admitting to using performance-enhancing drugs during her Olympic victory. There were revelations of state-sponsored doping systems in communist countries of the Soviet Bloc and in present-day Russia.
These controversies have affected public perceptions of drug usage among sprint athletes, as well as track and field and the Olympics in general. The Olympic 100 metres competitions are carried out under standard international rules, as set by the International Association of Athletics Federations; the races are segregated with one for men and one for women. The 100 m is held at the beginning of the Olympic athletics programme as this allows athletes to compete in other events held at the games – many 100 m athletes compete in the 200 metres and the 4×100 metres relay events. Traditionally there are four rounds of competition: heats, quarter-finals, semi-finals, finals. Prior to 1964, finals featured six athletes. For all Olympic competitions from 1964 onwards—allowing for a sufficient number of athletes being present—each race features eight runners. Athletes are seeded by past performance to ensure an balance of quality across the heats and allow the best runners to progress to the stages. In the first two rounds the top three runners progress to the next stage.
A small number of other athletes progress as the fastest non-qualifiers through a repechage system. Prior to 2012, the semi-finals stage comprised two races of eight athletes and the top four finishers in each race were entered into the final. Several amendments were made to the competition format in 2012. Any participant not in possession of an Olympic qualifying standard time is entered into the preliminary round. Qualifiers in this round progress to the first round proper; the semi-finals stage is divided into three races: the top two progress to the final by right and the two fastest non-qualifiers complete the eight finalists. Changes to the international false start rules were introduced – any validly recorded reaction time to the starter's pistol of below 0.1 seconds will result in instant disqualification. At the 2004 and 2008 Olympics one false start was allowed per race, with any subsequent false start resulting in disqualification for the offending athletes. At Olympics prior to 2004 each athlete was allowed one false start, with a second false start leading to removal from the field.
The top three finishers in the final are awarded a gold and bronze medal, respectively. If runners cannot be separated by t
The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps"; this event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948. At the elite level, competitors run down a runway and jump as far as they can from a wooden board 20 cm or 8 inches wide, built flush with the runway into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared a foul and no distance is recorded. A layer of plasticine is placed after the board to detect this occurrence. An official will watch the jump and make the determination; the competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible.
Competitors are allowed to place two marks along the side of the runway in order to assist them to jump accurately. At a lesser meet and facilities, the plasticine will not exist, the runway might be a different surface or jumpers may initiate their jump from a painted or taped mark on the runway. At a smaller meet, the number of attempts might be limited to four or three; each competitor has a set number of attempts. That would be three trials, with three additional jumps being awarded to the best 8 or 9 competitors. All legal marks will be recorded but only the longest legal jump counts towards the results; the competitor with the longest legal jump at the end of competition is declared the winner. In the event of an exact tie comparing the next best jumps of the tied competitors will be used to determine place. In a large, multi-day elite competition, a set number of competitors will advance to the final round, determined in advance by the meet management. A set of 3 trial round jumps will be held in order to select those finalists.
It is standard practice to allow at a minimum, one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round, though 12 plus ties and automatic qualifying distances are potential factors.. For record purposes, the maximum accepted; the long jump is the only known jumping event of Ancient Greece's original Olympics' pentathlon events. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were supposed to act as a form of training for warfare; the long jump emerged because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines. After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern event, athletes were only allowed a short running start; the athletes carried a weight in each hand. These weights were swung forward, it was believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in midair to increase his forward momentum. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance.
The jump itself was made from the bater. It was most a simple board placed on the stadium track, removed after the event; the jumpers would land in. The idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong. Sand in the jumping pit is a modern invention; the skamma was a temporary area dug up for that occasion and not something that remained over time. The long jump was considered one of the most difficult of the events held at the Games since a great deal of skill was required. Music was played during the jump and Philostratus says that pipes at times would accompany the jump so as to provide a rhythm for the complex movements of the halteres by the athlete. Philostratus is quoted as saying, "The rules regard jumping as the most difficult of the competitions, they allow the jumper to be given advantages in rhythm by the use of the flute, in weight by the use of the halter." Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656 BC Olympics staged a jump of 7.05 metres. There has been some argument by modern scholars over the long jump.
Some have attempted to recreate it as a triple jump. The images provide the only evidence for the action so it is more well received that it was much like today's long jump; the main reason some want to call it a triple jump is the presence of a source that claims there once was a fifty-five ancient foot jump done by a man named Phayllos. The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the "running broad jump" as a standardized track and field event for women. However, it was not until 1948 that the women's long jump was