Srinatha was a well-known 15th-century Telugu poet who popularised the Prabandha style of composition. Srinatha was born on kalapatam village on gudur Mandalay Krishna district. To Bhimamba and Marayya in 1365/1370 Srinatha was respected as Kavi Sarvabhouma in Telugu, patronised by many kings including the Warangal Kammas belonging to Musunuri dynasty, Kondavidu Reddys, Velamas of Rachakonda and Deva Raya II of Vijayanagara Empire. Srinatha worked as a minister in the court of Pedakomati Vemareddy of Kondaveedu, he managed to get his king's prestigious Knife Nandikanta Potaraju Katari, taken away by Lingamanedu ruler of Devarakanda in return for his literary prowess. Srinatha enjoyed a luxurious life. However, he seemed to have suffered from poverty at the end of his life, he was not the brother-in-law of another famous Telugu poet Potana. Srinatha wrote, Panditaaradhyacharita, Shivaratri Mahatyam, Bhimakanda, Shringara Naishadham, Palanati Veeracharitra, Dhananjaya Vijjayam, marrutaratcharithra and Kridabhiramam over the subjects of history and mythology.
He translated Shalivahana Gatha Saptashati in to Telugu from Prakrit. Prabandha can be described as a story in verse form with a tight metrical structure. Srinatha's Srungara Naishadhamu is a well-known example of the form, he is credited with hundreds of extempore poems called Chatuvulu in Telugu. He was regarded as the Kavi Sarvabhowma, he had broken the drum of Gouda Dimdimabhattu by his conversation A biographical film on Srinatha named Srinatha Kavi Sarvabhowmudu was released in 1993 by Bapu starring N. T. Rama Rao and Jayasudha in the lead roles. Srinatha plays an important role in the Telugu film Bhakta Potana Produced, by the Vahini Studios, Madras in 1942. In this picture the great Telugu actor Late Sri Chittoor V. Nagaiah plays the role of Bammera Potana, another great actor sri Gowri natha sastry played the role of Srinatha as the brother in law of Potana. After the death of his wife Srinatha leaves his daughter under the care of Potana. Srinatha was upset with the poverty of Potana in whose house his sister was suffering along with his daughter.
Srinatha was materialistic in his attitude, used to visit the courts of different kings, wrote poetry in their praise and enjoyed a luxurious life. Whenever he visited the house of Potana he used to ridicule them of their poverty and advised Potana to imitate him and enjoy a good life, but Potana remained firm in his devotion to Lord Sri Rama. In the end Srinatha realised his mistake and gladly gave away his daughter in marriage to the son of Potana, an ordinary farmer; the tragedy is that Srinatha who enjoyed a lavish life style, died a miserable death with a big stone attached to his neck as a punishment by the local king. Peddana, another famous composer of Prabandhas
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Penukonda is a town in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is 70 km away from Anantapur town; this town is different from similar-sounding Penugonda. This town contains 365 temples built during Vijayanagara rule, it served as a summer capital. Today, the place is famous for its Sri Kaleswar Swamy Ashram; the ashram houses a training centre for Sri Kaleshwar Soul University. It is located with in the ancient fort complex, beneath the backdrop of Penukonda Mountain with its dozen temples and hidden meditation caves. Penukonda-Hindupur stretch can become a counter magnet for automobile, pharmaceutical industries,I T, tourism perspectives as it is geographically centre to south India and proximity to Bengaluru Penukonda has an average elevation of 769 metres. According to The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Penukonda was a subdivision and taluk of Anantapur district in Madras province, it contains 96 villages covering an area of 677 square miles. The population in 1901 was 92,482 compared with 81,104 in 1891.
Penukonda was the headquarters with a population of 6,806. The name of the town is translated into English as Grand Hills as penu means large, it is a place of historical importance. It became the capital of fallen Vijayanagar monarch, after he was overthrown in 1565 at the Battle of Talikota; the Penner River flows along its western and Chitravati river along its eastern boundary. A famous medieval fort is located in the town; this region was controlled at different points in history by the Hoysalas, Vijayanagar, Maratha chieftain Murari Rao, Tipu Sultan and came under British rule after it was ceded to the British by the Nizam of Hyderabad. It was a melting pot of different religions but the town and fort were established by early Hoysala kings, who were practitioners of Jainism. After Krishna Deva Raya, Venkatapathi Rayalu, the Emperor of Vijayanagar, took over, he made Raya Dalavayi Koneti Naidu, as the governor of Penukonda and conferred him the title with Maha-Raja-Raja-Sri and celebrated Koneti Naidu's marriage with Swarna.
Koneti Naidu ruled Penukonda and Kundurpi Forts for about 17 years. After the ruling of Koneti Nayudu his descendants Raya Dalavayi Sri Venkatapathi Nayudu, Peda Timmappa Nayudu, Venkatapathi Nayudu, Koneti Nayudu, Rajagopala Nayudu and Timmappa Nayudu ruled this Penukonda; because of its ancient Jain history and presence of many temples it is one of the most revered places for Jains. In the Tamil jain tradition, this is counted as one of the four Jain centers of learning i.e. a Bhattaraka matha which are Delhi, Jina Kanchi and Penukonda. The famous Pache Parsvanath Swamy Temple, with idol of Parsvanath containing a single green coloured stone is located here. According to the inscription on the image, it was consecreted in A. D. 1359, by a disciple of Mula Sangh Nandisangha’s Balatkara Gana, Saraswathi Gachha, Kondakundanvaya‘s Priyarajaguru Mandalacharya Maghanandi Siddantha Deva. It was once the seat of a Jain Bhattaraka, established in A. D. 1359. The seat became extinct and the local Jain population declined.
However the temple is well preserved. Located her is the historic Ajitnath temple from the same period. After renovation by the Gowdanakunte family of Amarapura, it was preserved by Muni 108 Sri Ajithakeerthi Maharaj. After his samdhi in 1966, the temple was in poor condition byt has been renovated by the Dharmasthala institution; the famous Babaiah Dargah makes this place venerable to Muslims as well. Hazrath Baba Fakruddin was a great Sufi Saint of 12th century. Purportedly before coming to Penukonda, he was a king of Shahpur in Iran. Legend says that he was searching for a place to settle and his Guru gave him a dry twig and said to him:..wherever this twig will bloom to a big plant stay there... He planted the twig and slept under a tree only to awake and saw it become a beautiful plant and he stayed there, he is called Babaiah by the local people and due to the love and respect he garnered, many men of various faiths have taken his name over centuries. Kumbakarna garden here spreading over 5 acres has a Gigantic statue of the sleeping Kumbhakarna, measuring 142 feet in length and 32 feet in height into whose cavernos belly one can walk.
Several asuras are seen trying to wake up the sleeping Gaint, depicting the famous story of this in invincible brother of Ravana in Ramayana. Penukonda is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh. Notable names in history – The Penukonda family name was responsible for developing the popular Kadapa stone, used for granite countertops. 1952 – L. N. Reddy 1955 – Chidambara Reddy 1962 – Narasireddy 1967 – Narayana Reddy 1972 – S. D. Narayana Reddy 1978 – G. Narayana Reddy 1983 – S. Ramachandra Reddy 1985 – S. Ramachandra Reddy 1989 – S. Chennareddy 1991 – S. V. Ramana Reddy 1994 – Paritala Ravindra 1999 – Paritala Ravindra 2004 – Paritala Ravindra 2005 – Paritala Sunitha 2009 – Parthasarathi 2014 – Parthasarathi
Manu is a term found with various meanings in Hinduism. In early texts, it refers to the first man; the Sanskrit term for'human', मानव means'of Manu' or'children of Manu'. In texts, Manu is the title or name of fourteen mystical Kshatriya rulers of earth, or alternatively as the head of mythical dynasties that begin with each cyclic kalpa when the universe is born anew; the title of the text Manusmriti uses this term as a prefix, but refers to the first Manu – Svayambhuva, the spiritual son of Brahma. In some Puranic mythology, each kalpa consists of fourteen Manvantaras, each Manvantara is headed by a different Manu; the current universe, in this mythology, is asserted to be ruled by the 7th Manu named Vaivasvata. In Vishnu Purana, Vaivasvata known as Sraddhadeva or Satyavrata, was the king of Dravida before the great flood, he was warned of the flood by the Matsya avatar of Vishnu, built a boat that carried the Vedas, Manu's family and the seven sages to safety, helped by Matsya. The myth is repeated with variations in other texts, including the Mahabharata and a few other Puranas.
It is similar to other flood myths such as that of Noah. The 14 Manus of the current aeon are: In this Manvantara, the Saptarshis were Marichi, Angiras, Kratu and Vashishtha. In Svayambhuva-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Yajna; the first Manu was Svayambhuva Manu. He had three daughters, namely Akuti and Prasuti. Devahuti was given in marriage to sage Kardama and she gave birth to nine daughters, a single son named Kapila. Prasuti gave birth to Akuti gave birth to one son and one daughter. Both Kapila and Yajna, who were sons of Devahuti and Prasuti were incarnations of Vishnu. Svayambhuva Manu, along with his wife, went into the forest to practice austerities on the bank of the River Sunanda. At some point in time, Rakshasas attacked them, but Yajna, accompanied by his sons, the demigods, swiftly killed them. Yajna took the post of Indra, the King of the heavenly planets; the Saptarshis were Urjastambha, Prana, Rishabha and Charvarivan. In Svarocisha-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Vibhu.
The second Manu, whose name was Svarocisha, was the son of Agni, His sons were headed by Dyumat and Rochishmat. In the age of this Manu, Rochana became Indra, the ruler of the heavenly planets, there were many demigods, headed by Tushita. There were many saintly persons, such as Urjastambha. Among them was Vedasira, whose wife, gave birth to Vibhu. Vibhu was the incarnation of Vishnu for this Manvantara, he never married. He instructed eighty-eight thousand dridha-vratas, or saintly persons, on sense-control and austerity; the Saptarshis for this Manvantara were Kaukundihi, Dalaya, Pravahita and Sammita. In Uttama-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Satyasena. Uttama, the son of Priyavrata, was the third Manu. Among his sons were Pavana and Yajnahotra. During the reign of this Manu, the sons of Vashista, headed by Pramada, became the seven saintly persons; the Satyas and Bhadras became the demigods, Satyajit became Indra. From the womb of Sunrita, the wife of Dharma, the Supreme Lord Narayana appeared as Satyasena, killed all the evil Rakshasas who created havoc in all the worlds, along with Satyajit, Indra at that time.
Saptarshis list: Jyotirdhama, Kavya, Agni and Pivara. In Tapasa-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Hari. Tapasa/Tamasa, the brother of the third Manu, was the fourth Manu, he had ten sons, including Prithu, Khyati and Ketu. During his reign, the Satyakas, Haris and others were demigods, the seven great saints were headed by Jyotirdhama, Trisikha became Indra. Harimedha begot a son named Hari, the incarnation of Vishnu for this Manvantara, by his wife Harini. Hari was born to liberate the devotee Gajendra. Saptarshis list: Hirannyaroma, Vedasrí, Vedabahu, Sudhaman and Mahámuni. In Raivata-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Vaikuntha, not to be confused with Vishnu’s divine realm, of the same name. Vaikuntha came as the twin brother of Tamasa, his sons were headed by Arjuna and Vindhya. Among the demigods were the Bhutarayas, among the seven brahmanas who occupied the seven planets were Hiranyaroma and Urdhvabahu. Saptarshis list: Sumedhas, Havishmat, Madhu, Abhináman, Sahishnnu. In Chakshusha-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar was called Ajita.
Ajita came as the son of the demigod Chakshu. He had many sons, headed by Puru and Sudyumna. During the reign of Chakshusa Manu, the King of heaven was known as Mantradruma. Among the demigods were the Apyas, among the great sages were Havisman and Viraka. Saptarshis list: Kashyapa, Vashista, Gautama, Bharadvaja. During Vaivasvata-manvantara, Lord Vishnu's avatar is called Vamana The seventh Manu, the son of Vivasvan, is known as Sraddhadeva or Vaivasvat, he has ten sons, named Ikshvaku, Dhrsta, Narisyanta, Tarusa and Vasuman. In this manvantara, or reign of Manu, among the demigods are the Adityas, Rudras, Maruts, Asvini-kumaras and Rbhus; the king of heaven, Indra, is known as Purandara, the seven sages are known as Kashyapa, Vashista, Gautama and Bharadwaja. During this period of Manu, Lord Vishnu took birth from the womb of Aditi, the wife of Kashyapa. Saptarshis list: Diptimat, Parasurama, Drauni or Ashwatthama and Ris
Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising as priests and protectors of sacred learning across generations. The traditional occupation of Brahmins was that of priesthood at the Hindu temples or at socio-religious ceremonies and rite of passage rituals such as solemnising a wedding with hymns and prayers. Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent; the earliest inferred reference to "Brahmin" as a possible social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once, the hymn is called Purusha Sukta. According to this hymn in Mandala 10, Brahmins are described as having emerged from the mouth of Purusha, being that part of the body from which words emerge; this Purusha Sukta varna verse is now considered to have been inserted at a date into the Vedic text as a charter myth. Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both and a social ideal rather than a social reality".
Ancient texts describing community-oriented Vedic yajna rituals mention four to five priests: the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar, the Brahmin and sometimes the ritvij. The functions associated with the priests were: The Hotri recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda; the Adhvaryu is the priest's assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground, building the altar explained in the Yajurveda. The adhvaryu offers oblations; the Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda. The udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory and benediction hymns; the Brahmin recites from the Atharvaveda. The Ritvij is the chief operating priest. According to Kulkarni, the Grhya-sutras state that Yajna, dana pratigraha are the "peculiar duties and privileges of brahmins"; the term Brahmin in Indian texts has signified someone, good and virtuous, not just someone of priestly class. Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle define "Brahmin" not in terms of family of birth, but in terms of personal qualities.
These virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the social class; the Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations and role of Brahmins. The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are directed at Brahmins; the Gautama's Dharmasutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharmasutras, for example, states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Be always truthful Teach his art only to virtuous men Follow rules of ritual purification Study Vedas with delight Never hurt any living creature Be gentle but steadfast Have self-control Be kind, liberal towards everyoneChapter 8 of the Dharmasutra, states Olivelle, asserts the functions of a Brahmin to be to learn the Vedas, the secular sciences, the Vedic supplements, the dialogues, the epics and the Puranas.
The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, lack of envy, tranquility, auspicious disposition and lack of greed, asserts in verse 9.24–9.25, that it is more important to lead a virtuous life than perform rites and rituals, because virtue leads to achieving liberation. The Dharma texts of Hinduism such as Baudhayana Dharmasutra add charity, refraining from anger and never being arrogant as duties of a Brahmin; the Vasistha Dharmasutra in verse 6.23 lists discipline, self-control, truthfulness, Vedic learning, erudition and religious faith as characteristics of a Brahmin. In 13.55, the Vasistha text states that a Brahmin must not accept weapons, poison or liquor as gifts. The Dharmasastras such as Manusmriti, like Dharmsutras, are codes focussed on how a Brahmin must live his life, their relationship with a king and warrior class. Manusmriti dedicates 1,034 verses, the largest portion, on laws for and expected virtues of Brahmins, it asserts, for example, A well disciplined Brahmin, although he knows just the Savitri verse, is far better than an undisciplined one who eats all types of food and deals in all types of merchandise though he may know all three Vedas.
John Bussanich states that the ethical precepts set for Brahmins, in ancient Indian texts, are similar to Greek virtue-ethics, that "Manu's dharmic Brahmin can be compared to Aristotle's man of practical wisdom", that "the virtuous Brahmin is not unlike the Platonic-Aristotelian philosopher" with the difference that the latter was not sacerdotal. According to Abraham Eraly, "Brahmin as a varna hardly had any presence in historical records before the Gupta Empire era", when Buddhism dominated the land. "No Brahmin, no sacrifice, no ritualistic act of any kind even once, is referred to" in any Indian texts between third century BCE and
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529. He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda, he became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India. Indeed, when the Mughal Emperor Babur was taking stock of the potentates of north India, Krishnadevaraya was rated the most powerful and had the most extensive empire in the subcontinent. Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Vijayanagara.
The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built; the king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, prone to fits of anger. He maintained himself to a high level of physical fitness through daily exercises. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able the administrator but an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and attending to the wounded; the south Indian poet Muku Timmana praised him as the destroyer of the Turkics. The rule of the king Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory; the first decade of his rule was one of the long sieges, bloody conquests, victories. His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans, the Gajapatis of Odisha, involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade.
The feudal chiefs of Ummattur and Kammas of Dharanikota who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued. The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler; the Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu, the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya. He defeated many local rulers like Dharanikota Kammas who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha and seized lands up to the Krishna river. Ganga Raja, the Ummatur chief, was defeated; the chief drowned in the Kaveri in 1512.
The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river; the Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Odisha. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into Coastal Andhra region, in control of Gajapati Prataparudra Deva; the Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. The campaign lasted for a year. Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi; the Gajapati army was met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal, Gajapati Prataprudra Deva.
Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army accosted the Adapa Kamma dynasty army allies to Gajapatis at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Krishnadevaraya planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya; the confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarusu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya; as per treaty, the Krishna river became boundary of Odisha Kingdom. Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510; the Emperor obtained Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants.
He utilized Portuguese expertise in