U.S. Route 75
U. S. Route 75 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that extends 1,239 miles in the central United States; the highway's northern terminus is in Noyes, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it once continued as Manitoba Highway 75 on the other side of the now-closed border crossing. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 30 and Interstate 45 in Dallas, where it is known as North Central Expressway. U. S. 75 was a cross-country route, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico at Texas. However, the entire segment south of Dallas has been decommissioned in favor of Interstate 45, a cutoff section of town-to-town surface road having become Texas State Highway 75; the first freeway in Texas was a several-mile stretch of US 75 --The Gulf Freeway, opened to Houston traffic on October 1, 1948. The stretch of US 75 between Interstate 30 and the Oklahoma state line has exits numbered consecutively from 1 to 75, excluding 9-19. All other Texas freeways that have exit numbers are coordinated with mile markers. From Denison north to the Oklahoma border, US 75 is concurrent to U.
S. Route 69. US-75 remains concurrent to US-69 from the Texas border north to Atoka. While US-69 continues to the northeast as a multilane highway, US-75 turns north to serve several small communities between Atoka and Henryetta. Through travellers bypass this segment of US-75 via US-69 and the Indian Nation Turnpike, where the speed limit is 75 miles per hour. From Henryetta through Tulsa and on through Bartlesville to the Kansas State Line, US-75 is once again a multilane highway. In the early 1990s, some portions of US-75 in Oklahoma were slated to become part of the Interstate Highway System; the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act states that "upon the request of the Oklahoma State highway agency, the Secretary shall designate the portion of United States Route 69 from the Oklahoma-Texas State line to Checotah in the State of Oklahoma as a part of the Interstate System." This would have created an Interstate route from Interstate 40 south to the Texas line, including the portion of US-75 co-signed with US-69 south of Atoka.
The legislation was unclear whether the route would enter Texas to connect with or become an extension of Interstate 45. A current plan is to construct a new segment of the Oklahoma Turnpike along the US-69 corridor to bring it to corridor standards. A major north–south artery in Kansas, US-75 enters the state at Caney, it crosses Interstate 35 south of Olivet at the BETO Junction. From I-35 to Melvern Lake, US-75 is a Super-2 highway, with controlled access interchanges at Township Road, K-278, K-31 southbound. From Melvern Lake to just north of Lyndon, US-75 and K-31 share a long concurrency. At U. S. Route 56 near Scranton US-75 becomes a freeway. There is no direct access to the Kansas Turnpike from US-75, but the highway joins with Interstate 470 less than 1 mile from 470's interchange with the turnpike. US-75 and Interstate 470 run together along the west side of Topeka to Interstate 70. US-75 turns east along Interstate 70 for about 3 miles before exiting northbound as a freeway; this freeway segment runs to Elmont becomes an expressway to Holton.
The remainder of US-75 in Kansas is two lanes. The highway exits the state north of Sabetha. There was a US-75 Alternate in Kansas, it was on Topeka Boulevard and was the route US-75 took through Topeka. U. S. 75 enters Nebraska south of Dawson. From Nebraska City northward, it parallels the Missouri River. A brief section which serves as a bypass for Nebraska City is an expressway called the J. Sterling Morton Beltway. Nebraska City itself is served with Business Route U. S. 75. U. S. 75 and U. S. Route 34 overlap from Union to Plattsmouth. North of Plattsmouth, U. S. 75 becomes the Kennedy Freeway, serving as an arterial highway through Bellevue and the South Omaha neighborhood of Omaha. It follows Interstate 480 through central Omaha before branching off as the North Omaha Freeway. From Interstate 680 northward to Nashville U. S. 75 is an expressway. North of Nashville it becomes a two-lane road again, it is concurrent with U. S. Route 30 in Blair, it joins with U. S. Route 77 at Winnebago; the two highways run together until their junction with Interstate 129 and U.
S. Route 20 at South Sioux City. U. S. 75 follows I-129 and U. S. 20 towards the Missouri River and Iowa. U. S. 75 is a major north–south artery in the northwestern corner of Iowa. It enters the state by a Missouri River crossing at Sioux City concurrent with Interstate 129 and U. S. Route 20. U. S. 75 and U. S. 20 run together on a freeway bypass around the southeast side of Sioux City before U. S. 20 turns east at Gordon Drive. U. S. 75 continues as a freeway to the Woodbury County/Plymouth County line, where it becomes an expressway. This expressway becomes a freeway bypass of Le Mars. North of Le Mars, U. S. 75 exits off the freeway bypass, which continues on as Iowa Highway 60, turns north. U. S. 75 continues as a two-lane, undivided highway passing through Sioux Center and Rock Rapids before leaving the state north of Iowa Highway 9. The segment from the Missouri River to LeMars is part of a larger expressway project which will provide a direct connection between Sioux City and the Twin Cities region in Minnesota.
In Minnesota, U. S. 75 stays close to the state's western border. It passes through few large towns. U. S. 75 enters Minnesota south of Luverne near Ash Creek and Steen, passes though Pipestone and Breckenridge. It is the main north–south route through Moorhead. North of Moorhead, the route turns northeast to pass through Crookston turns northwest towards the Red River of t
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, municipality, or local government area. Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the exact definition of a City Council varies. However, it is only those local government areas which have been granted city status that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities; the official title is "Corporation of the City of ______" or similar. Some of the urban areas of Australia are governed by a single entity, while others may be controlled by a multitude of much smaller city councils; some significant urban areas can be under the jurisdiction of otherwise rural local governments. Periodic re-alignments of boundaries attempt to rationalize these situations and adjust the deployment of assets and resources; the 2001 Local Government Act restyled the five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway and Limerick as city councils, with the same status in law as county councils. The 2014 Local Government Act Merged Limerick City and Limerick County Council together and Waterford City and Waterford County Council together abolishing Waterford and Limerick City council, While Limerick and Waterford maintain City Status.
The city councils and city halls in Malaysia are as follows. Alor Setar City Council Ipoh City Council Iskandar Puteri City Council Johor Bahru City Council Kota Kinabalu City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Terengganu City Council Kuching North City Hall Kuching South City Council Melaka City Council Miri City Council Penang Island City Council Petaling Jaya City Council Shah Alam City Council Local councils in New Zealand do vary in structure, but are overseen by the government department Local Government New Zealand. For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city; the boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. New Zealand's local government structural arrangements were reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities.
As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings. The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries; this informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000. In the Republic of China, a city council represents a provincial city. Members of the councils are elected through local elections for provincial cities which are held every 4–5 years. Councils for the provincial cities in Taiwan are Chiayi City Council, Hsinchu City Council, Keelung City Council. In the UK, not all cities have city councils, the status and functions of city councils vary. A city council may be: The council of a metropolitan district, granted city status; the council of a non-metropolitan district, granted city status.
Some of these councils are some share functions with county councils. A parish council, granted city status; these councils have limited functions. The council of a London borough, granted city status, or the City of London Corporation. A city council may be: One of the three councils of principal areas that have been granted city status. One of the three community councils, with limited functions, that have been granted city status. A city council is the council of one of four council areas designated a City by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the three cities which are not council areas have no city council. Belfast City Council is now the only city council. Since the local government reforms of 2015 the other four cities form parts of wider districts and do not have their own councils. City councils and town boards consist of several elected aldermen or councillors. In the United States, members of city councils are called council member, council man, council woman, councilman, or councilwoman, while in Canada they are called councillor.
In some cities, the mayor is a voting member of the council. In larger cities the council may elect other executive positions as well, such as a council president and speaker; the council functions as a parliamentary or congressional style legislative body, proposing bills, holding votes, passing laws to help govern the city. The role of the mayor in the council varies depending on whether or not the city uses council–manager government or mayor–council government, by the nature of the statutory authority given to it by state law, city charter, or municipal ordinance. There is a mayor pro tem councilmember. In cities where the council elects the mayor for one year at a time, the mayor pro tem is in line to become the mayor in the next year. In cities where the mayor is elected by the city's voters, the mayor pro tem serves as acting mayor in the absence of the mayor; this position is known as vice mayor. In some cities a different name for the municipal legislature is used. In San
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Allen Water Station
The Allen Water Station is a district of structures representing different items built in the 1870s by the Houston and Texas Central Railroad at the city of Allen stop. The site includes six contributing structures: the Water Station site, the 1874 Dam, a section of railroad tracks and bed, a 1910 railroad bridge, the ruins of the water tank and pumping facility. National Register of Historic Places listings in Collin County, Texas Allen Convention and Visitors Bureau
The interurban is a type of electric railway, with streetcar-like light electric self-propelled railcars which run within and between cities or towns. They were prevalent in North America between 1900 and 1925 and were used for passenger travel between cities and their surrounding suburban and rural communities. Limited examples existed in Asia. Interurban as a term encompassed the companies, their infrastructure, the cars that ran on the rails; the interurban in the United States, was a valuable cultural institution. Most roads and town streets were unpaved, transportation was by horse-drawn carriages and carts; the interurban provided vital transportation links between the countryside. In 1915, 15,500 miles of interurban railways were operating in the United States. For a time, interurban railways were the fifth-largest industry in the United States. By 1930, most interurbans were gone, with few surviving into the 1950s. Oliver Jensen, author of American Heritage History of Railroads in America, commented that "...the automobile doomed the interurban whose private tax paying tracks could never compete with the highways that a generous government provided for the motorist."
The term "interurban" was coined by a state senator in Indiana. The Latin, inter urbes, means "between cities"; the interurban fit on a continuum between full-fledged railroads. George W. Hilton and John F. Due identified four characteristics of an interurban: Electric power for propulsion. Passenger service as the primary business. Equipment heavier and faster than urban streetcars. Operation on tracks in city streets, in rural areas on roadside tracks or private right-of-way; the definition of "interurban" is blurry. Some town streetcar lines evolved into interurban systems by extending streetcar track from town into the countryside to link adjacent towns together, sometimes by the acquisition of a nearby interurban system. There was a large amount of consolidation of lines following initial construction. Other interurban lines became light rail systems with no street running whatsoever, or they became freight-hauling railroads due to a progressive loss of their initial passenger service over the years.
In 1905 the United States Census Bureau defined an interurban as "a street railway having more than half its trackage outside municipal limits." It drew a distinction between "interurban" and "suburban" railroads. A suburban system was oriented toward a city center in a single urban area and served commuter traffic. A regular railroad moved riders from one city center to another city center and moved a substantial amount of freight; the typical interurban served more than one city, but it served a smaller region and made more frequent stops, it was oriented to passenger rather than freight service. The development of interurbans in the late nineteenth century resulted from the convergence of two trends: improvements in electric traction, an untapped demand for transportation in rural areas in the Midwestern United States; the 1880s saw the first successful deployments of electric traction in streetcar systems. Most of these built on the pioneering work of Frank J. Sprague, who developed an improved method for mounting an electric traction motor and using a trolley pole for pickup.
Sprague's work led to widespread acceptance of electric traction for streetcar operations and end of horse-drawn trams. The late nineteenth century United States witnessed a boom in agriculture which lasted through the First World War, but transportation in rural areas was inadequate. Conventional steam railroads made limited stops in towns; these were supplemented by horse and buggies and steamboats, both of which were slow and the latter of, restricted to navigable rivers. The increased capacity and profitability of the city street railroads offered the possibility of extending them into the countryside to reach new markets linking to other towns; the first interurban to emerge in the United States was the Newark and Granville Street Railway in Ohio, which opened in 1889. It was not a major success; the development of the automobile was in its infancy, to many investors interurbans appeared to be future of local transportation. From 1900 to 1916, a large network of interurban lines was constructed in the United States in the states of Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa and California.
In 1900, 2,107 miles of interurban track existed, but by 1916, this had increased to 15,580 miles, a seven-fold expansion. During this expansion, in the regions where they operated in Ohio and Indiana, "...they destroyed the local passenger service of the steam railroad." To show how exceptionally busy the interurbans radiating from Indianapolis were in 1926, the immense Indianapolis Traction Terminal scheduled 500 trains in and out daily and moved 7 million passengers that year. At their peak the interurbans were the fifth-largest industry in the United States; the fortunes of the industry declined during World War I and into the early 1920s. Many interurbans had been hastily constructed without realistic projections of income and expenses, they were financed by issuing stock and selling bonds. The sale of these financial instruments was local with salesmen going door to door aggressively pushing this new and exciting "it can't fail" form of transportation, but many of those interurbans did fail, quickly.
They struggled to raise essential further capital. Interurbans were vulnerable to acts of nature
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste
Fairview is a town in Collin County, United States. It is part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area; as of the 2010 census, the town population was 7,248. The estimated population in 2014 was 8,361; the town is adjacent to the 289-acre Heard Wildlife Sanctuary. A petition to request an incorporation election for Fairview was submitted to the county judge and commissioners' court on April 21, 1958, following an election on May 7, 1958, count of all 50 ballots, the town was incorporated, ordered by Collin County Judge W. E. Button. Fairview is located just southwest of the geographic center of Collin County at 33°08′54″N 96°37′11″W, it is bordered by McKinney, the county seat, to the north, by Allen to the west and south, by Lucas to the southeast. Wilson Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Trinity River, forms part of the northeastern boundary. According to the United States Census Bureau, Fairview has a total area of 8.7 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.20%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 7,248 people, 2,841 households, 2,266 families residing in the town.
The population density was 823.6 people per square mile. There were 3,140 housing units at an average density of 356.8/sq. Mi; the racial makeup of the town was 88.25% White, 3.56% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 4.26% Asian, 1.63% from other races, 1.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.21% of the population. There were 2,841 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.9% were married couples living together, 3.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.2% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.89. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 5.3% from 25 to 34, 19.3% from 35 to 49, 24.5% from 50 to 64, 24.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males.
The city has a mayor/council form of government. The town council consists of six council members. Fairview is served by two school schools districts, the Lovejoy Independent School District and the McKinney Independent School District. Town of Fairview official website Lovejoy Independent School District McKinney Independent School District ePodunk: Profile for Fairview, Texas City-Data.com Fairview, TX at Handbook of Texas Online