Charles Quinton Murphy was an American actor and writer. Murphy was best known as a writer and cast member of the Comedy Central sketch-comedy series Chappelle's Show, as the costar of the sitcom Black Jesus, he was the older brother of comedian Eddie Murphy and the older half-brother of Vernon Lynch Jr. Murphy was born on July 12, 1959, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, his mother, was a telephone operator, his father, Charles Edward Murphy, was a transit police officer and an amateur actor and comedian. As an adolescent, Murphy spent 10 months in jail. In 1978, on the day he was released from jail, he enlisted in the United States Navy and served for six years as a Boiler Technician. In 1983, shortly before being discharged from the Navy, Murphy witnessed a mushroom cloud over Beirut, he learned that it was the aftermath of the Beirut barracks bombing in which 307 people were killed. Murphy had minor roles in several films in the late 1980s and early 1990s, worked behind the scenes with the hip hop group K-9 Posse, a duo composed of his half-brother Vernon Lynch Jr. and Wardell Mahone.
On their 1988 self-titled debut, Murphy was credited as the album's executive producer as well as songwriter on the songs "Somebody's Brother" and "Say Who Say What". He made an appearance in the video for the duo's first single "This Beat Is Military". Murphy's first major role in a motion picture was in the 1993 film CB4, where he portrayed the antagonist, Gusto. Murphy achieved fame as a recurring performer on Chappelle's Show in the Charlie Murphy's True Hollywood Stories sketches. In these, Murphy recounts his misadventures as part of his brother Eddie's entourage, including encounters with various celebrities such as Rick James and Prince. After Chappelle's Show host Dave Chappelle left the show and Donnell Rawlings hosted the "lost episodes" compiled from sketches produced before Chappelle's departure. In 2005, he appeared in King's Ransom. In the film, Murphy portrayed "Herb", a gay ex-con, hired by King to kidnap him in a fake kidnapping. Murphy has done voiceovers for Budweiser radio commercials, provided the voice for Iraq War veteran/criminal Ed Wuncler III on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim series The Boondocks, the voice for a pimp named Jizzy-B in Rockstar Games' Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas video game.
Murphy provided the voice for Spock on the G4TV's Star Trek 2.0 shorts, the dog in his younger brother Eddie's 2007 film, Norbit. On March 20, 2009, his own sketch comedy series Charlie Murphy's Crash Comedy began on Crackle. A stand-up special, Charlie Murphy: I Will Not Apologize premiered on Comedy Central in late February 2010. Murphy made special appearances in 1000 Ways to Die and the TBS sitcom Are We There Yet? as Frank Kingston. In 2014 -- 15, Murphy played. Murphy died from leukemia on April 12, 2017, at the age of 57. Murphy was a resident of New Jersey, he was married to Tisha Taylor Murphy from 1997 until her death from cervical cancer in December 2009. The couple had two children together, Murphy had another child from a previous relationship, he was a karate practitioner. Charlie Murphy on IMDb Charlie Murphy at AllMovie Charlie Murphy on the end of Chappelle's Show
A Different World
A Different World is an American sitcom that aired for six seasons on NBC from September 24, 1987 to July 9, 1993. The series centered on Denise Huxtable and the life of students at Hillman College, a fictional black college in Virginia, it was inspired by student life at black colleges and universities. After Bonet's departure in the first season, the remainder of the series focused more on Southern belle Whitley Gilbert and math whiz Dwayne Wayne. While it was a spin-off from The Cosby Show, A Different World addressed issues that were avoided by The Cosby Show writers. One episode that aired in 1990 was one of the first American network television episodes to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic; the original premise was to have a white student there and have Lena Horne as an acting teacher, but in production, the premise changed from being a story about a white girl in a black college to a black girl in a black college with a white friend. It was decided that Denise, of college age, would be spun off and have a white roommate in order to show the dynamic of a white girl in predominantly black surroundings.
Meg Ryan was cast for this role, but she decided to pursue a film career, so Marisa Tomei was cast. The first season of Hillman's student body consisted of both black and white students, but this was changed at the beginning of the second season and a predominantly black student body maintained until the series ended. After the first season, it came to Cosby's and the producers' attention that the series was not portraying a black college and life on campus, so Debbie Allen, an alumna of Howard University, was hired as the chief creative force to revamp the show. During the summer of 1988, Lisa Bonet announced that she and husband Lenny Kravitz were having a baby. Allen was in favor of having a young pregnant student in the show, but Cosby said that Lisa Bonet may be pregnant but not Denise Huxtable, it was felt that viewers would not accept Denise as an unwed mother, having grown to know her as a "good girl" after four seasons of The Cosby Show. Thus it was decided that Denise would drop out of Hillman, return home to her family, travel to Africa throughout the fifth season of The Cosby Show, ensuring that viewers would not see a pregnant Denise.
Allen was in favor of keeping Tomei, as she herself recalls a white student at Howard and wanted to relate that in the show and had possible premises for her character, such as meeting Dwayne's parents and seeing the other side of racism. However, Tomei left the show, she and Marie-Alise Recasner were replaced by Cree Summer and Charnele Brown, respectively. Darryl M. Bell and Sinbad were promoted to the principal cast, Glynn Turman and Lou Myers were added as supporting cast members; these changes led to the placement of Whitley and Dwayne at the center of a wider ensemble, dealing with more relevant issues of the day. Cory Tyler as Terrence Taylor Patrick Malone as Terrell Walker Bumper Robinson as Dorian Heywood Michael Ralph as Spencer Boyer, various characters Gary Dourdan as Shazza Zulu Marie-Alise Recasner as Millie Andrew Lowery as Matthew Kim Wayans as Allison Alisa Gyse Dickens as Kinu Owens Jenifer Lewis as Dean Dorothy Dandridge Davenport Diahann Carroll as Marion Gilbert Patti LaBelle as Adele Wayne Roger Guenveur Smith as Prof. Howard Randolph Rosalind Cash as Dean Hughes Ron O'Neal as Mercer Gilbert Phylicia Rashad as Clair Huxtable Jonell Green as Dashawn Curtis Bill Cosby as Cliff Huxtable Keshia Knight Pulliam as Rudy Huxtable Robert Guillaume as Dean Winston and Professor Murphy Harold Sylvester as Woodson Wayne Malcolm-Jamal Warner as Theo Huxtable Vanessa Bell Calloway as Lily Connors & Jaleesa's sister Tisha Campbell-Martin as Josie Webb Nestor Carbonell as Malik Velasquez Art Evans as Mr. Johnson IMx as Whitley's students Richard Roundtree as Clinton Reese Halle Berry as Jaclyn The Boys as Mice 2 Men Dean Cain as Brian Wayne Federman as A&M Wolf Ernie Sabella as Campus Security En Vogue as Faith, Hope and Henrietta Whoopi Goldberg as Dr. Jordan David Alan Grier as Professor Byron Walcott James Avery as bowler Alfonso Ribeiro as Zach Duncan Heavy D as himself Lena Horne as herself Jesse Jackson as himself Trina McGee as Gennifer Khandi Alexander as Theressa Stone Gladys Knight as herself Kris Kross as Dwayne's juvenile mentees Tupac Shakur as Piccolo Obba Babatundé as Frank Blair Underwood as Zelme
Demetria Dyan McKinney is an American actress and singer. From 2006 to 2012 she starred in the TBS sitcom Tyler Perry's House of Payne, her other series regular roles include Tv One sitcom The Rickey Smiley Show, Bounce TV prime time soap opera Saints & Sinners and Syfy horror drama Superstition. Her stage credits include playing Coretta Scott King in the Rhythm and Blues Opera I Dream, well as role of Deena Jones in Dreamgirls. In 2017, McKinney played Whitney Houston in the TV One film Bobbi Kristina, she released her debut album Officially Yours in 2017. McKinney starred as Janine Shelton–Payne on the TBS comedy series Tyler Perry's House of Payne from 2006 to 2012, she was nominated for a 2009 National Association for Multi-ethnicity in Communications Vision Award for Best Performance in a Comedy, in recognition of her work on House of Payne. She set to return for her in the House of Payne spin-off The Paynes in 2018. McKinney guest starred on Necessary Roughness, Drop Dead Diva,Devious Maids, Chicago Med, Being Mary Jane.
She has been a guest star on The Real Housewives of Atlanta airing on the Bravo Television Network since its 7th season premiere on November 9, 2014. From 2012 to 2014, McKinney had series regular role on the TV One comedy series, The Rickey Smiley Show. In 2016, she was cast as Tamara Austin in the Bounce TV prime time television soap opera Saints & Sinners. In 2017, she was cast opposite Mario Van Peebles and Robinne Lee in the Syfy horror drama Superstition. In 2017, McKinney starred in the TV One movie Bobbi Kristina as Whitney Houston, the late icon and mother to Bobbi Kristina. In 2017, McKinney released, she received nomination for NAACP Image Award for Outstanding New Artist. In 2018, OWN's she is back to make a appear as a recurring characters in the episode "A Surprise for the Paynes", "Revelations of Payne" and "A Confrontation of Payne". Along with Lance Gross, Allen Payne, Larramie "Doc" Shaw and China Anne McClain. McKinney faced homelessness at the age of 17, has one child. Official website Demetria McKinney on IMDb
Wesley Trent Snipes is an American actor, film producer, martial artist, author. His prominent film roles include New Jack City, White Men Can't Jump, Passenger 57, Demolition Man, the Marvel Comics character Blade in the Blade film trilogy, he formed a production company, Amen-Ra Films, in 1991, a subsidiary, Black Dot Media, to develop projects for film and television. He has been training in martial arts since the age of 12, earning a 5th dan black belt in Shotokan Karate and 2nd dan black belt in Hapkido. In 2010, Snipes began serving a three-year prison sentence in McKean County, Pennsylvania for misdemeanor failure to file U. S. federal income tax returns. He was released from prison in 2013. Snipes was born in Orlando, the son of Marian, a teacher's assistant, Wesley Rudolph Snipes, an aircraft engineer, he grew up in the New York. He attended the High School of Performing Arts of Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts but moved back to Florida before he could graduate.
After graduating from Jones High School in Orlando, Snipes returned to New York and attended the State University of New York at Purchase. He attended Southwest College in Los Angeles, California. At the age of 23, Snipes was discovered by an agent while performing in a competition, he made his film debut in the 1986 Goldie Hawn vehicle Wildcats. That year, he appeared on the TV show Miami Vice as a drug-dealing pimp in the episode "Streetwise". In 1987, he appeared as Michael Jackson's nemesis in the Martin Scorsese–directed music video "Bad" and the feature film Streets of Gold; that same year, Snipes was considered for the role of Geordi La Forge in the TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation, but the role went to LeVar Burton. Snipes's performance in the music video "Bad" caught the eye of director Spike Lee. Snipes turned down a small role in Lee's Do the Right Thing for the larger part of Willie Mays Hayes in Major League, beginning a succession of box-office hits for Snipes. Lee would cast Snipes as the jazz saxophonist Shadow Henderson in Mo' Better Blues and as the lead in the interracial romance drama Jungle Fever.
He played Thomas Flanagan in King of New York opposite Christopher Walken. He played the drug lord Nino Brown in New Jack City, written for him by Barry Michael Cooper, he played a drug dealer in the 1994 film Sugar Hill. Snipes has played a number of roles in action films like Passenger 57, Demolition Man, Money Train, The Fan, U. S. Marshals and Rising Sun, as well as comedies like White Men Can't Jump, To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar where he played a drag queen. Snipes has appeared in dramas like The Disappearing Acts. In 1997, he won the Best Actor Volpi Cup at the 54th Venice Film Festival for his performance in New Line Cinema's One Night Stand. In 1998, Snipes had his largest commercial success with Blade, which has grossed over $150 million worldwide; the film turned into a series. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and an honorary doctorate in humanities and fine arts from his alma mater, SUNY/Purchase. In 2004, Snipes reprised his role in the third film, Blade: Trinity, which he produced.
In 2005, he sued the film's studio and director, respectively. He claimed that the studio did not pay his full salary, that he was intentionally cut out of casting decisions, that his character's screen time was reduced in favor of co-stars Ryan Reynolds and Jessica Biel; the suit was settled, but no details were released. He has discussed reprising the role of Blade as part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Trinity was his last theatrical release in the U. S. until 2010. He appeared in The Contractor, filmed in Bulgaria and the UK, released in 2012, Game of Death. Snipes was slated to play one of the four leads in Spike Lee's 2008 war film Miracle at St. Anna but had to leave the film due to tax problems. Snipes made a comeback performance in Brooklyn's Finest as Casanova "Caz" Phillips, a supporting character, it was his first theatrical release film since 2004, he had to turn down the part of Hale Caesar in The Expendables because he was not allowed to leave the United States without the court's approval.
In 2014, he appeared in the sequel The Expendables 3. In the late 1990s, Snipes and his brother started a security firm called the Royal Guard of Amen-Ra, dedicated to providing VIPs with bodyguards trained in law enforcement and martial arts. Amen-Ra is the name of his film company. In 1996, the first film produced by Amen-Ra was A Mighty Walk -- Dr. John Henrik Clarke. In 2000, the business was investigated for alleged ties to the United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors, it emerged that Snipes had spotted 200 acres of land near their Tama-Re compound in Putnam County, intending to buy and use it for his business academy. Both Snipes's business and the groups used Egyptian motifs as their symbols. Snipes and his brother did not buy the land, instead establishing their company in Florida and Africa. In 2005, Snipes was in negotiations to fight Fear Factor host Joe Rogan. Snipes began training in martial arts, he has a 2nd degree black belt in Hapkido. He has trained in Capoeira under Mestre Jelon Vieira and in a number of other disciplines including kung fu at the USA Shaolin Temple and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu and Kickboxing.
During his time in New York, Snipes was trained in fighting by mentor Brooke Ellis. Snipes has been
China Anne McClain
China Anne McClain is an American actress and singer. She is a member of the sister girl group McClain. McClain's career began in 2005, she played China James in Tyler Perry's Daddy's Little Girls, along with Idris Elba and her two sisters. However, she became nationally known after 2007, when she joined the cast of the series Tyler Perry's House of Payne as Jazmine Payne. In 2010, she co-starred in Grown Ups as Charlotte McKenzie. McClain became internationally known after starring in the Disney Channel original television series A. N. T. Farm, landing the role as Chyna Parks, from 2011 to 2014. Disney released the soundtrack of the television series A. N. T. Farm on October 11, 2011. McClain sings six songs and two solos with her sisters on the soundtrack, which debuted in the Billboard 200 at number 29 with 14,000 copies sold in its first week. On the soundtrack, McClain sang her version of Taio Cruz's "Dynamite." The release containing the song "Calling All the Monsters" reached the eighty-sixth spot on the Billboard Hot 100.
McClain was a co-star in the 2013 sequel Grown Ups 2. In 2014, she appeared on the reality singing competition series, ABC's Sing Your Face Off and was the youngest contestant on the show, winning the show's first season. McClain starred as Gabby Harrison in the Disney Channel original movie How to Build a Better Boy with Kelli Berglund, she appears as the main villain Uma in the Disney Channel Descendants 2, playing Ursula's daughter. In 2018, McClain began portraying Jennifer Pierce in The CW superhero series Black Lightning, she returned to her character, as a recurring cast member in OWN’s "Tyler Perry’s The Paynes". McClain was raised in Atlanta, Georgia, her father, Michael McClain, is a music producer. Her mother, Shontell, is a songwriter, she resides in Los Angeles, California with her family. McClain has said that she and her family are devout Christians, although they cannot always attend church due to her and her sisters' musical and acting careers. McClain was discovered in 2005 by a music executive who heard her sing and encouraged director Rob Hardy to audition her for his 2005 feature film The Gospel.
Her role caught the attention of Tyler Perry, who cast her as Jazmine Payne in the television series Tyler Perry's House of Payne. She appears in the movie Daddy's Little Girls with her sisters and Lauryn, who are actresses and play her older sisters in the film. McClain appeared in and guest starred in various other shows and movies such as Hannah Montana with Sierra McCormick, NCIS and the 2009 film Hurricane Season. Jonas, was a Disney Channel shows she was on, she appeared in the movie Grown Ups, as Charlotte McKenzie. McClain appeared on the Disney Channel series Wizards of Waverly Place in 2011 as Tina in one episode entitled "Wizards vs. Angels". In 2011, McClain was cast as the lead role in the Disney Channel series A. N. T. Farm. For the show, McClain recorded a cover of Taio Cruz's "Dynamite", she sings the series theme song, "Exceptional". China Anne's first music video, for "Dynamite", premiered on July 2011 on Disney Channel. After less than a week, more than 1 million views on YouTube were reported.
She has appeared in an episode of PrankStars. She appeared in the Chiddy Bang Opposite of Adults music video. For the Disney Channel Halloween special in 2011, she performed the song, "Calling All The Monsters". On June 14, 2011, China and her sisters – known as the McClain Sisters – signed with Hollywood Records; the A. N. T. Farm soundtrack was released on October 11, 2011, featuring China Anne's version of "Dynamite" by Taio Cruz. On September 28, 2011, China Anne released "Calling All The Monsters" to iTunes. "Calling All The Monsters" charted number 100 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. On November 24, 2011, China performed her song "Unstoppable" in the 85th Macy's Thanksgiving Parade, she co-starred in the 2013 sequel Grown Ups 2. On December 27, 2013, it was announced on her Twitter page that A. N. T. Farm would be ending after its 3rd season. On the same day, it was revealed. In the March/April 2014 issue of BYOU Magazine, China said it was "bittersweet" that A. N. T Farm was ending, announced plans to focus on doing music with her sisters.
McClain appeared on ABC's Sing Your Face Off television show, broadcast from May 31 – June 14, 2014, winning the show's first season. In 2015, McClain was featured in the FOX series Bones in the episode "The Lost in the Found", playing Kathryn Walling, she appeared in the Netflix computer-animated series VeggieTales in the House, voiced the role Jenna Chive, a parody of herself. As a part of the various artist who contributed to the Descendants album McClain performed the song "Night is Young", the song was featured in the film and was on the Descendants album. McClain starred in the computer-animated series Descendants: Wicked World, based on the Disney Channel Original Movie Descendants, she voiced the daughter of Dr. Facilier, she played the villain Uma, the daughter of Ursula, in Descendants 2. She is scheduled to appear in the third movie of the Descendants trilogie: Descendants 3. In 2016, she recorded the action thriller film Blood Brother, co-starring with Trey Songz and Ron Killings; the film will be released in the summer.
She was part of the cast of 3D computer-animated action-drama film Bilal. In 2017, it was announced that she had been cast as Jennifer Pierce in the Black Lightning pilot for the CW. China Anne McClain cites her parents and Shontell, as her biggest influences, as well as Michael Jackson, Hattie McDaniel and Beyoncé. Official website China Anne McClain on IMDb
The Tuskegee Airmen
The Tuskegee Airmen is a 1995 HBO television movie based on the exploits of an actual groundbreaking unit, the first African-American combat pilots in the United States Army Air Corps, that fought in World War II. The film was directed by Robert Markowitz and stars Laurence Fishburne, Cuba Gooding Jr. John Lithgow, Malcolm-Jamal Warner. During World War II, Hannibal Lee, traveling by train to Tuskegee, Alabama, is joined by fellow flight cadet candidates Billy "Train" Roberts, Walter Peoples III, Lewis Johns. At the start of their training, they are met by the commander of the base; the cadets are briefed by Rogers and Joy, both with their own views that set the tone for what the cadets would face in training: Rogers has an optimistic view of the cadets, wanting the cadets to prove the naysayers wrong and letting them know how much of an honor it would be for the cadets to pass the training and earn their wings as aviators. Major Joy, reflects the views of most of white America's thoughts at the time, belittling the cadets and questioning whether or not they are up to the task.
Afterward, Lt. Glenn tells the cadets that he hoped they took note of the differing views of the two different officers; that evening, the cadets are chatting amongst themselves, begin to introduce themselves and what their college majors were. It is during this time where Walter Peoples "guarantees" that no one's name would be called above his on graduation day. While the cadets begin their classes, Major Joy begins his ploy to discredit the cadets. During a classroom session, Joy has them to retake the same flight exam they had to take to get into the program to begin with, he takes Peoples on a flight after it is revealed that Peoples has a commercial pilot license. Joy takes the training aircraft, a PT-17, through tricky and dangerous moves in order to try and break People's will, but the tactic doesn't work-which seems to frustrate Joy more. Afterwards, Major Joy explains to Colonel Rogers on why he decided to give the retest and Joy's beliefs that some of the cadets may have cheated to get in the program.
Rogers informs Joy that no one scored less than a 95 on the retest, scorns Joy about his tactics. After a briefing with the cadets, Major Joy sends each cadet up on flights in their PT-17 training aircraft with an instructor pilot, it ends tragically for cadet Johns. The instructor tries to regain control but it is too late, as the plane crashes into a building, exploding on impact and killing both Johns and his instructor. Afterwards, cadet Leroy Cappy begins to let self-doubt creep in after seeing John's deadly crash and watching others leave the program. Cadets Lee and Peoples give Cappy a stern pep talk, telling him not to quit; the cadets continue on with their training, flying with their instructor pilots and controlling the planes on their own. Major Joy lets cadet Lee make several solo flights around the base. While watching a film on air combat, Lt. Glen begins to teach the cadets. Peoples questions Lt. Glen on. At this point, Lt. Glen reveals to the cadets that he had joined the Royal Canadian Air Force, where he was credited with three kills, making him the only Army Air Corps officer on the base with "actual" air combat experience.
Peoples and Lee, flying solo each in the AT-6 Texan training plane, take part in a mock dogfight where Peoples gets an edge on Lee and "shoots him down". Afterwards, Peoples performs some unauthorized aerobatic maneuvers in order to impress Hannibal, but this catches the attention of Colonel Rogers and Major Joy, results in him being removed from the training program. Peoples admits to Colonel Rogers and Major Joy that he made a mistake and pleads with them not to put him out of the program, but to no avail. To avoid going home in disgrace, an distraught Peoples commandeers an AT-6, takes off with it and commits suicide by deliberately crashing it. Back at the cadets' barracks and emotions following Peoples' death begin to reach the boiling point. Cadet Roberts has a heated exchange with cadet Lee on Major Joy's tactics, saying that Joy set out to break Peoples and killed him "like putting a carbine to his head". Cadet Cappy - again letting his own self doubts creep back in - sides with Roberts against Lee, saying that he doesn't see any reason to continue on if Major Joy is going to stick with his attempts to break them as well.
Cadet Lee fires back, saying that Major Joy's gameplan was to make them quit, that he wasn't falling for it. He emphatically says that he isn't going to let Major Joy, anyone else at the base, or "the God damned Commander-In-Chief himself" stop him from his dreams of flying. Lt. Glen and cadets Lee and Cappy are on a routine training mission when Cappy's plane begins to experience trouble. Cappy and Lee land on a country road; as the planes are coming in to land, the prison guards over the gang force the prisoners out of the way to make room for the planes to land. The guards stand with a mixed look of curiosity when the cadets exit the aircraft; the cadets go on to "earn their wings" and are commissioned as 2nd Lieutenants in the Arm
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai