A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon. When the object enters the atmosphere, various factors such as friction and chemical interactions with the atmospheric gases cause it to heat up and radiate that energy, it becomes a meteor and forms a fireball known as a shooting star or falling star. Meteorites vary in size. For geologists, a bolide is a meteorite large enough to create an impact crater. Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transit the atmosphere and impact the Earth are called meteorite falls. All others are known as meteorite finds; as of August 2018, there were about 1,412 witnessed falls that have specimens in the world's collections. As of 2018, there are more than 59,200 well-documented meteorite finds. Meteorites have traditionally been divided into three broad categories: stony meteorites that are rocks composed of silicate minerals.
Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure and isotopic composition and mineralogy. Meteorites smaller than 2 mm are classified as micrometeorites. Extraterrestrial meteorites are such objects that have impacted other celestial bodies, whether or not they have passed through an atmosphere, they have been found on the Mars. Meteorites are always named for the places they were found a nearby town or geographic feature. In cases where many meteorites were found in one place, the name may be followed by a number or letter; the name designated by the Meteoritical Society is used by scientists and most collectors. Most meteoroids disintegrate. Five to ten a year are observed to fall and are subsequently recovered and made known to scientists. Few meteorites are large enough to create large impact craters. Instead, they arrive at the surface at their terminal velocity and, at most, create a small pit. Large meteoroids may strike the earth with a significant fraction of their escape velocity, leaving behind a hypervelocity impact crater.
The kind of crater will depend on the size, degree of fragmentation, incoming angle of the impactor. The force of such collisions has the potential to cause widespread destruction; the most frequent hypervelocity cratering events on the Earth are caused by iron meteoroids, which are most able to transit the atmosphere intact. Examples of craters caused by iron meteoroids include Barringer Meteor Crater, Odessa Meteor Crater, Wabar craters, Wolfe Creek crater. In contrast relatively large stony or icy bodies like small comets or asteroids, up to millions of tons, are disrupted in the atmosphere, do not make impact craters. Although such disruption events are uncommon, they can cause a considerable concussion to occur. Large stony objects, hundreds of meters in diameter or more, weighing tens of millions of tons or more, can reach the surface and cause large craters, but are rare; such events are so energetic that the impactor is destroyed, leaving no meteorites. Several phenomena are well documented during witnessed meteorite falls too small to produce hypervelocity craters.
The fireball that occurs as the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere can appear to be bright, rivaling the sun in intensity, although most are far dimmer and may not be noticed during daytime. Various colors have been reported, including yellow and red. Flashes and bursts of light can occur. Explosions and rumblings are heard during meteorite falls, which can be caused by sonic booms as well as shock waves resulting from major fragmentation events; these sounds can be heard with a radius of a hundred or more kilometers. Whistling and hissing sounds are sometimes heard, but are poorly understood. Following passage of the fireball, it is not unusual for a dust trail to linger in the atmosphere for several minutes; as meteoroids are heated during atmospheric entry, their surfaces experience ablation. They can be sculpted into various shapes during this process, sometimes resulting in shallow thumbprint-like indentations on their surfaces called regmaglypts. If the meteoroid maintains a fixed orientation for some time, without tumbling, it may develop a conical "nose cone" or "heat shield" shape.
As it decelerates the molten surface layer solidifies into a thin fusion crust, which on most meteorites is black. On stony meteorites, the heat-affected zone is at most a few mm deep. Reports vary. Meteorites from multiple falls, such as Bjurbole, Tagish Lake, Buzzard Coulee, have been found having fallen on lake and sea ice suggesting that they were not hot when they
A Chondrule is a round grain found in a chondrite. Chondrules form as molten or molten droplets in space before being accreted to their parent asteroids; because chondrites represent one of the oldest solid materials within the Solar System and are believed to be the building blocks of the planetary system, it follows that an understanding of the formation of chondrules is important to understand the initial development of the planetary system. Different kinds of the stony, non-metallic meteorites called chondrites contain different fractions of chondrules. In general, carbonaceous chondrites contain the smallest percentage of chondrules, including the CI chondrites which, paradoxically, do not contain any chondrules despite their designation as chondrites, whereas ordinary and enstatite chondrites contain the most; because ordinary chondrites represent 80% of the meteorites that fall to earth, because ordinary chondrites contain 60-80% chondrules, it follows that most of the meteoritic material that falls on earth is made up of chondrules.
Chondrules can range in diameter from just a few micrometers to over 1 centimetre. Again, different kinds of chondrites contain different ranges of chondrule sizes: they are smallest in CH, CM, CO chondrites, moderately large in CR, CV, L, LL, R chondrites, largest in some CB chondrites. Other chondrite groups are intermediate between these. Most chondrules are composed of the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene, surrounded by feldspathic material that may either be glassy or crystalline. Small amounts of other minerals are present, including Fe sulfide, metallic Fe-Ni, oxides such as chromite, phosphates such as merrillite. Less common types of chondrules may be dominantly composed of feldspathic material, silica, or metallic Fe-Ni and sulfides. Chondrules display a wide variety of textures, which can be seen when the chondrule is sliced open and polished; some show textural evidence for rapid cooling from a molten or nearly molten state. Pyroxene-rich chondrules that contain fine-grained, swirling masses of fibrous crystals only a few micrometers in size or smaller are called cryptocrystalline chondrules.
When the pyroxene fibers are coarser, they may appear to radiate from a single nucleation site on the surface, forming a radial or excentroradial texture. Olivine-rich chondrules may contain parallel plates of that mineral, surrounded by a continuous shell of olivine and containing feldspathic glass between the plates. Other observed textural features that are the result of rapid cooling are dendritic and hopper-shaped olivine grains, chondrules that are composed of glass. More chondrules display what is known as a porphyritic texture. In these, grains of olivine and/or pyroxene are sometimes euhedral, they are named on the basis of the dominant mineral, i.e. porphyritic olivine, porphyritic pyroxene, porphyritic olivine-pyroxene. It seems that these chondrules cooled more than those with radial or barred textures, however they still may have solidified in a matter of hours; the composition of olivine and pyroxene in chondrules varies although the range is narrow within any single chondrule. Some chondrules contain little iron oxide, resulting in olivine and pyroxene that are close to forsterite and enstatite in composition.
These are called Type I chondrules by scientists, contain large amounts of metallic Fe. Other chondrules formed under more oxidizing conditions and contain olivine and pyroxene with large amounts of FeO; such chondrules are called Type II. Most chondrites contain both Type I and Type II chondrules mixed together, including those with both porphyritic and nonporphyritic textures, although there are exceptions to this. Chondrules are believed to have formed by a rapid heating and melting of solid dust aggregates of Solar composition under temperatures of about 1000 K; these temperatures are lower than those. However, the environmental setting, the energy source for the heating, the precursor material are not known; the solar nebula or a protoplanetary environment are possible places of formation. Proposed heating mechanisms are: Impacts between molten planeteismals Meteor ablation Hot inner nebula FU Orionis-type outburst of the early sun Energetic bipolar-shaped outflows Nebular lightning Magnetic flares Shock waves in the protoplanetary disk shocks Supernova radiation and shock waveIsotope studies indicate a nearby supernova explosion added fresh material to what became the Solar System.
The Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite contained sulfur-36 derived from chlorine-36. As chlorine-36 has a half-life of only 300,000 years, it could not have travelled far from its origin; the presence of iron-60 indicates a nearby supernova. Such proximity implies the radiation and shock wave would have been significant, although the degree of heating is not known. In contrast, the fine grained matrix, in which the chondrules are embedded after their accretion into the chondrites parent body, is assumed to have been condensed directly from the solar nebula. There are a couple of different ways to organize different chondrules into textural types according to their appearance. Glossary of meteoritics List of meteorite minerals Carbonaceous chondrites Chondrites Cosmochemistry Radiometric dating Wlotzka F. Heide F. (19
Chondrites are stony meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body. They are formed when various types of dust and small grains that were present in the early solar system accreted to form primitive asteroids, they are the most common type of meteorite that falls to Earth with estimates for the proportion of the total fall that they represent varying between 85.7% and 86.2%. Their study provides important clues for understanding the origin and age of the Solar System, the synthesis of organic compounds, the origin of life and the presence of water on Earth. One of their characteristics is the presence of chondrules, which are round grains formed by distinct minerals, that constitute between 20% and 80% of a chondrite by volume. Chondrites can be differentiated from iron meteorites due to their low nickel content. Other non-metallic meteorites, which lack chondrules, were formed more recently. There are over 27,000 chondrites in the world's collections.
The largest individual stone recovered, weighing 1770 kg, was part of the Jilin meteorite shower of 1976. Chondrite falls range from single stones to extraordinary showers consisting of thousands of individual stones, as occurred in the Holbrook fall of 1912, where an estimated 14,000 stones rained down on northern Arizona. Chondrites were formed by the accretion of particles of dust and grit present in the primitive Solar System which gave rise to asteroids over 4.55 billion years ago. These asteroid parent bodies of chondrites are small to medium-sized asteroids that were never part of any body large enough to undergo melting and planetary differentiation. Dating using 206Pb/204Pb gives an estimated age of 4,566.6 ± 1.0 Ma, matching ages for other chronometers. Another indication of their age is the fact that the abundance of non-volatile elements in chondrites is similar to that found in the atmosphere of the Sun and other stars in our galaxy. Although chondritic asteroids never became hot enough to melt based upon internal temperatures, many of them reached high enough temperatures that they experienced significant thermal metamorphism in their interiors.
The source of the heat was most energy coming from the decay of short-lived radioisotopes that were present in the newly formed solar system 26Al and 60Fe, although heating may have been caused by impacts onto the asteroids as well. Many chondritic asteroids contained significant amounts of water due to the accretion of ice along with rocky material; as a result, many chondrites contain hydrous minerals, such as clays, that formed when the water interacted with the rock on the asteroid in a process known as aqueous alteration. In addition, all chondritic asteroids were affected by impact and shock processes due to collisions with other asteroids; these events caused a variety of effects, ranging from simple compaction to brecciation, localized melting, formation of high-pressure minerals. The net result of these secondary thermal and shock processes is that only a few known chondrites preserve in pristine form the original dust and inclusions from which they formed. Prominent among the components present in chondrites are the enigmatic chondrules, millimetre-sized spherical objects that originated as floating, molten or molten droplets in space.
Chondrites contain refractory inclusions, which are among the oldest objects to form in the solar system, particles rich in metallic Fe-Ni and sulfides, isolated grains of silicate minerals. The remainder of chondrites consists of fine-grained dust, which may either be present as the matrix of the rock or may form rims or mantles around individual chondrules and refractory inclusions. Embedded in this dust are presolar grains, which predate the formation of our solar system and originated elsewhere in the galaxy; the chondrules have distinct texture and mineralogy, their origin continues to be the object of some debate. The scientific community accepts that these spheres were formed by the action of a shock wave that passed through the Solar System, although there is little agreement as to the cause of this shock wave. An article published in 2005 proposed that the gravitational instability of the gaseous disk that formed Jupiter generated a shock wave with a velocity of more than 10 km/s, which resulted in the formation of the chondrules.
Chondrites are divided into about 15 distinct groups on the basis of their mineralogy, bulk chemical composition, oxygen isotope compositions. The various chondrite groups originated on separate asteroids or groups of related asteroids; each chondrite group has a distinctive mixture of chondrules, refractory inclusions and other components and a characteristic grain size. Other ways of classifying chondrites include shock. Chondrites can be categorized according to their petrologic type, the degree to which they were thermally metamorphosed or aqueously altered; the chondrules in a chondrite, assigned a "3" have not been altered. Larger numbers indicate an increase in thermal metamorphosis up to a maximum of 7, where the chondrules have been destroyed. Numbers lower than 3 are given to chondrites whose chondrules have been changed by the presence of water, down to 1, where the chondrules have been obliterated by this alteration. A synthesis of the various classification schemes is provided in the table below.
Enstatite chondrites (also known as E-type chon
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. ASU is one of the largest public universities by enrollment in the U. S; as of fall 2018, the university had about 80,000 students attending classes across its metro campuses, including 66,000-plus undergraduates and more than 12,000 postgraduates. The university is organized into 17 colleges, featuring more than 170 cross-discipline centers and institutes. ASU offers 350 degree options for undergraduates students, as well as more than 400 graduate degree and certificate programs. ASU has nearly 600 ASU scholar-athletes across 26 varsity-level sports; the Arizona State Sun Devils compete in the Pac-12 Conference and have won 59 Pac-10/Pac-12 championships dating to 1979, have captured 24 NCAA championships dating to its first title in 1965. In addition to its athletic program, the university is home to over 1,100 registered student organizations.
ASU's charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the "New American University" model created by ASU President Michael M. Crow upon his appointment as the institution's 16th president in 2002, it defines ASU as "a comprehensive public research university, measured not by whom it excludes, but rather by whom it includes and how they succeed. Since 2005, ASU has been ranked among the top research universities in the U. S. public and private, based on research output, development, research expenditures, number of awarded patents and awarded research grant proposals. The 2019 university ratings by U. S. News & World Report rank ASU No. 1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the fourth year in a row. U. S. News & World Report shows 84% of the student applications get accepted. A diverse faculty of more than 4,400 scholars includes 4 Nobel laureates, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, 4 MacArthur Fellows Program "Genius Grant" members and 19 National Academy of Sciences members.
Additionally, among the faculty are 180 Fulbright Program American Scholars, 72 National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, 38 American Council of Learned Societies fellows, 36 members of the Guggenheim Fellowship, 21 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 9 National Academy of Engineering members and 3 National Academy of Medicine members. The National Academies has bestowed "highly prestigious" recognition on 227 ASU faculty members. Arizona State University was established as the Territorial Normal School at Tempe on March 12, 1885, when the 13th Arizona Territorial Legislature passed an act to create a normal school to train teachers for the Arizona Territory; the campus consisted of a single, four-room schoolhouse on a 20-acre plot donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson. Classes began with 33 students on February 8, 1886; the curriculum evolved over the years and the name was changed several times. In 1923, the school stopped offering high school courses and added a high school diploma to the admissions requirements.
In 1925, the school became the Tempe State Teachers College and offered four-year Bachelor of Education degrees as well as two-year teaching certificates. In 1929, the 9th Arizona State Legislature authorized Bachelor of Arts in Education degrees as well, the school was renamed the Arizona State Teachers College. Under the 30-year tenure of president Arthur John Matthews, the school was given all-college student status; the first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision in 1902. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use. Matthews envisioned an "evergreen campus," with many shrubs brought to the campus, implemented the planting of 110 Mexican Fan Palms on what is now known as Palm Walk, a century-old landmark of the Tempe campus. During the Great Depression, Ralph Waldo Swetman was hired to succeed President Matthews, coming to Arizona State Teachers College in 1930 from Humboldt State Teachers College where he had served as president.
He served a three-year term. During his tenure, enrollment at the college doubled. Matthews conceived of a self-supported summer session at the school at Arizona State Teachers College, a first for the school. In 1933, Grady Gammage president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, beginning a tenure that would last for nearly 28 years, second only to Swetman's 30 years at the college's helm. Like President Arthur John Matthews before him, Gammage oversaw the construction of several buildings on the Tempe campus, he guided the development of the university's graduate programs. During his presidency, the school's name was changed to Arizona State College in 1945, to Arizona State University in 1958. At the time, two other names were considered: Tempe University and State University at Tempe. Among Gammage's greatest achievements in Tempe was the Frank Lloyd Wright-desig
Orgueil is a scientifically important carbonaceous chondrite meteorite that fell in southwestern France in 1864. It fell on May 1864, a few minutes after 20:00 local time, near Orgueil in southern France. About 20 stones fell over an area of several square miles. A specimen of the meteorite was analyzed that same year by François Stanislaus Clöez, professor of chemistry at the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle, who focused on the organic matter found in this meteorite, he wrote that it contained carbon and oxygen, its composition was similar to peat from the Somme valley or to the lignite of Ringkohl near Kassel. An intense scientific discussion ensued, continuing into the 1870s, as to whether the organic matter might have a biological origin. Orgueil is one of five known meteorites belonging to this being the largest; this group is remarkable for having a composition, identical to that of the sun, excluding gaseous elements like hydrogen and helium. Because of its extraordinarily primitive composition and large mass, Orgueil is one of the most-studied meteorites.
One notable discovery in Orgueil was a high concentration of isotopically anomalous xenon called "xenon-HL". The carrier of this gas is fine-grained diamond dust, older than the solar system itself, known as presolar grains. In 1962, Nagy et al. announced the discovery of'organised elements' embedded in the Orgueil meteorite that were purportedly biological structures of extraterrestrial origin. These elements were subsequently shown to be either pollen and fungal spores that had contaminated the sample, or crystals of the mineral olivine. In 1965, a fragment of the Orgueil meteorite, kept in a sealed glass jar in Montauban since its discovery, was found to have a seed capsule embedded in it, whilst the original glassy layer on the outside remained undisturbed. Despite great initial excitement, the seed capsule was shown to be that of a European rush, glued into the fragment and camouflaged using coal dust; the outer "fusion layer" was in fact glue. Whilst the perpetrator is unknown, it is thought that the hoax was aimed at influencing 19th century debate on spontaneous generation by demonstrating the transformation of inorganic to biological matter.
Richard B. Hoover of NASA has claimed that the Orgueil meteorite contains fossils, some of which are similar to known terrestrial species. Hoover has claimed the existence of fossils in the Murchison meteorite. However, NASA has formally distanced itself from Hoover's claims and his lack of expert peer-reviews. Glossary of meteoritics Nagy B, Claus G, Hennessy DJ Organic Particles Embedded in Minerals in Orgueil and Ivuna Carbonaceous Chondrites. Nature 193 p. 1129 Fitch FW, Anders E Organized Element - Possible Identification in Orgueil Meteorite. Science 140 p. 1097 Gilmour I, Wright I, Wright J'Origins of Earth and Life', The Open University, 1997, ISBN 0-7492-8182-0 The Orgueil meteorite from The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology and Spaceflight The Orgueil meteorite hoax
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air, its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium; the most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", obtained from heating limestone; some calcium compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. Pure calcium was isolated in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide by Humphry Davy, who named the element. Calcium compounds are used in many industries: in foods and pharmaceuticals for calcium supplementation, in the paper industry as bleaches, as components in cement and electrical insulators, in the manufacture of soaps.
On the other hand, the metal in pure form has few applications due to its high reactivity. Calcium is the fifth-most abundant element in the human body; as electrolytes, calcium ions play a vital role in the physiological and biochemical processes of organisms and cells: in signal transduction pathways where they act as a second messenger. Calcium ions outside cells are important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes as well as proper bone formation. Calcium is a ductile silvery metal whose properties are similar to the heavier elements in its group, strontium and radium. A calcium atom has twenty electrons, arranged in the electron configuration 4s2. Like the other elements placed in group 2 of the periodic table, calcium has two valence electrons in the outermost s-orbital, which are easily lost in chemical reactions to form a dipositive ion with the stable electron configuration of a noble gas, in this case argon. Hence, calcium is always divalent in its compounds, which are ionic.
Hypothetical univalent salts of calcium would be stable with respect to their elements, but not to disproportionation to the divalent salts and calcium metal, because the enthalpy of formation of MX2 is much higher than those of the hypothetical MX. This occurs because of the much greater lattice energy afforded by the more charged Ca2+ cation compared to the hypothetical Ca+ cation. Calcium, strontium and radium are always considered to be alkaline earth metals. Beryllium and magnesium are different from the other members of the group in their physical and chemical behaviour: they behave more like aluminium and zinc and have some of the weaker metallic character of the post-transition metals, why the traditional definition of the term "alkaline earth metal" excludes them; this classification is obsolete in English-language sources, but is still used in other countries such as Japan. As a result, comparisons with strontium and barium are more germane to calcium chemistry than comparisons with magnesium.
Calcium metal melts at 842 °C and boils at 1494 °C. It crystallises in the face-centered cubic arrangement like strontium, its density of 1.55 g/cm3 is the lowest in its group. Calcium can be cut with a knife with effort. While calcium is a poorer conductor of electricity than copper or aluminium by volume, it is a better conductor by mass than both due to its low density. While calcium is infeasible as a conductor for most terrestrial applications as it reacts with atmospheric oxygen, its use as such in space has been considered; the chemistry of calcium is that of a typical heavy alkaline earth metal. For example, calcium spontaneously reacts with water more than magnesium and less than strontium to produce calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas, it reacts with the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium nitride. When finely divided, it spontaneously burns in air to produce the nitride. In bulk, calcium is less reactive: it forms a hydration coating in moist air, but below 30% relative humidity it may be stored indefinitely at room temperature.
Besides the simple oxide CaO, the peroxide CaO2 can be made by direct oxidation of calcium metal under a high pressure of oxygen, there is some evidence for a yellow superoxide Ca2. Calcium hydroxide, Ca2, is a strong base, though it is not as strong as the hydroxides of strontium, barium or the alkali metals. All four dihalides of calcium are known. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate are abundant minerals. Like strontium and barium, as well as the alkali metals and the divalent lanthanides europium and ytterbium, calcium metal dissolves directly in liquid ammonia to give a dark blue solution. Due to the large size of the Ca2+ ion, high coordination numbers are common, up to 24 in some intermetallic compounds such as CaZn13. Calcium is complexed by oxygen chelates such as EDTA and polyphosphates, which are useful in an
Case Western Reserve University
Case Western Reserve University is a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. It was created in 1967 through the federation of two longstanding contiguous institutions: Western Reserve University, founded in 1826 and named for its location in the Connecticut Western Reserve, Case Institute of Technology, founded in 1880 through the endowment of Leonard Case, Jr.. Time magazine described the merger as the creation of "Cleveland's Big-Leaguer" university. Seventeen Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Case Western Reserve or one of its two predecessors. In U. S. News & World Report's 2018 rankings, Case Western Reserve was ranked 37th among national universities and 146th among global universities. In 2016, the inaugural edition of The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education ranked Case Western Reserve as 32nd among all universities and 29th among private institutions; the campus is 5 miles east of Downtown Cleveland in the neighborhood known as University Circle, an area encompassing 550 acres containing what has been called the greatest concentration of educational and cultural institutions within one square mile of the United States.
Case Western Reserve has a number of programs taught in conjunction with University Circle institutions, including the Cleveland Clinic, the University Hospitals of Cleveland, the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland Institute of Music, the Cleveland Hearing & Speech Center, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, the Cleveland Play House. Severance Hall, home of the Cleveland Orchestra, resides on Case Western Reserve campus. Case Western Reserve is well known for its medical school, business school, dental school, law school, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Department of Biomedical Engineering and its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Case Western Reserve is a member of the Association of American Universities. Case is a leading institution for research in electrochemical engineering; the famous Michelson–Morley interferometer experiment was conducted in 1887 in the basement of a campus dormitory by Albert A. Michelson of Case School of Applied Science and Edward W. Morley of Western Reserve University.
This experiment proved the non-existence of the luminiferous ether and was understood as convincing evidence in support of special relativity as proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905. Michelson became the first American to win a Nobel Prize in science; the commemorative Michelson-Morley Memorial Fountain as well as an Ohio Historical Marker are located on campus, near where the actual experiment was performed. Case Western Reserve University was created in 1967, when Western Reserve University and Case Institute of Technology, institutions, neighbors for 81 years, formally federated. Western Reserve College, named from the Connecticut Western Reserve, was founded in 1826 in Hudson, Ohio. Western Reserve College, or "Reserve" as it was popularly called, was the first college in northern Ohio. Along with Presbyterian influences of its founding, the school's origins were associated with the pre-Civil War Abolitionist movement due to the influence of President Charles Backus Storrs, Elizur Wright, David Hudson.
In fact, Western Reserve was to first university in Ohio and west of the Appalachian Mountains to enroll and graduate an African American student, John Sykes Fayette. The abolitionist views were so strong, Frederick Douglass gave the commencement speech in 1854. In 1838, the Loomis Observatory was built by astronomer Elias Loomis, today remains the second oldest observatory in the United States. In 1852, the Medical School became the second school in the United States to graduate a woman, Nancy Talbot Clark. Five more women graduated over the next four years, including Emily Blackwell, giving Western Reserve the distinction of graduating six of the first eight female physicians in the United States. By 1875, Cleveland had emerged as the dominant population and business center of the region, the city wanted a prominent higher education institution. In 1882, with funding from Amasa Stone, Western Reserve College moved to Cleveland and changed its name to Adelbert College of Western Reserve University.
Adelbert was the name of Stone's son. In 1877, Leonard Case Jr. began laying the groundwork for the Case School of Applied Science by secretly donating valuable pieces of Cleveland real estate to a trust. He asked his confidential advisor, Henry Gilbert Abbey, to administer the trust and to keep it secret until after his death in 1880. On March 29, 1880, articles of incorporation were filed for the founding of the Case School of Applied Science. Classes began on September 15, 1881; the school received its charter by the state of Ohio in 1882. For the first four years of the school's existence, it was located in the Case family's home on Rockwell Street in downtown Cleveland. Classes were held in the family house, while the chemistry and physics laboratories were on the second floor of the barn. Amasa Stone's gift to relocate Western Reserve College to Cleveland included a provision for the purchase of land in the University Circle area, adjacent to Western Reserve University, for the Case School of Applied Science.
The school relocated to University Circle in 1885. During World War II, Case School of Applied Science was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Nav