2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Mattawana is a census-designated place located in Bratton Township, Mifflin County in the state of Pennsylvania on the east bank of the Juniata River. The community is located near the junction of U. S. Route 522 and Pennsylvania Route 103, across the river from the borough of McVeytown; as of the 2010 census the population was 276 residents
Dudley is a borough in Huntingdon County, United States. The population was 184 at the 2010 census. Dudley is located in southwestern Huntingdon County at 40°12′21″N 78°10′32″W, in the valley of Shoup Run, a west-flowing tributary of the Raystown Branch Juniata River. Pennsylvania Route 913 passes through the borough, leading east 2.5 miles to Broad Top City and west 2 miles to Coalmont. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough of Dudley has a total area of 0.33 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 192 people, 79 households, 54 families residing in the borough; the population density was 509.8 people per square mile. There were 89 housing units at an average density of 236.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 100.00% White. There were 79 households, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.8% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families.
25.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $33,393, the median income for a family was $40,000. Males had a median income of $28,929 versus $25,313 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $14,984. None of the families and 4.5% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 14.3% of those over 64
Mill Creek, Pennsylvania
Mill Creek is a borough in Huntingdon County, United States. The population was 328 at the 2010 census. Mill Creek was named for the creek; the creek was the main source of power for many of the mills in the settlement years of 1700s and much of 1800s. The borough of Mill Creek is located in east-central Huntingdon County at 40°26′12″N 77°55′52″W, it sits on the northeast side of the Juniata River. U. S. Route 22 passes through the borough, leading northwest 5 miles to Huntingdon, the county seat, southeast 6 miles to Mount Union. Pennsylvania Route 655 leads northeast from Mill Creek 16 miles to Belleville in the Kishacoquillas Valley. Mill Creek borough is bordered to the northwest by Henderson Township, to the southwest by Union Township, to the east by Brady Township. All three of the neighboring townships are in Huntingdon County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.32 square miles, of which 0.30 square miles are land and 0.02 square miles, or 7.65%, are water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 351 people, 126 households, 98 families residing in the borough. The population density was 945.6 people per square mile. There were 139 housing units at an average density of 374.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.15% White, 0.28% African American, 0.57% from two or more races. There were 126 households, out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.2% were non-families. 17.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.09. In the borough the population was spread out, with 30.2% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $28,571, the median income for a family was $30,833. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $11,177. About 17.7% of families and 19.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.4% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. Huntingdon County Career and Technology Center Huntingdon County Career and Technology Center: Annex Building Brady Henderson-Mill Creek Elementary School Mill Creek Volunteer Fire Department Mill Creek, Pennsylvania Detailed Profile Community Website
East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company
The East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company is a for-profit, 3 ft narrow gauge historic railroad headquartered in Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania, 19 miles north of Interstate 76 and 11 miles south of U. S. Route 22, the William Penn Highway. Operating from 1871 to 1956, it is one of the nation's oldest and best-preserved narrow-gauge railroads, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964; the railroad, now preserved for use as a tourist attraction, has not operated public excursions since December 2011 and has operated no excursions since October 2013. The railroad is up for sale from its current owner; the East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company was chartered in 1856. Due to financial constraints and the American Civil War, the railroad was not built by its original charterers, but a new group of investors began to acquire right-of-way in 1867 and was able to construct the railroad as a 3 ft narrow gauge line in 1872–1874. Service began from Mount Union, Pennsylvania to Orbisonia, Pennsylvania in August, 1873, to Robertsdale in November, 1874.
The line was extended to Woodvale and Alvan, with several short branches. At its height, it had over 60 miles of track and 33 miles of main line; the primary purpose of the railroad was to haul semi-bituminous coal from the mines on the east side of the remote Broad Top Mountain plateau to the Pennsylvania Railroad in Mount Union. The railroad carried substantial amounts of ganister rock and passengers with some agricultural goods, road tar and general freight. In its first three decades the railroad supplied much of its coal to the Rockhill Iron Furnace, operated by the railroad's sister company, the Rockhill Iron and Coal Company, in turn hauled the pig iron from the furnace; as the iron industry in the region faded in the early 1900s, the railroad came to subsist on coal traffic for about 90% of its revenue. Large plants for the manufacture of silica brick were developed at Mount Union around the turn of the 20th century, these became major customers for coal and for ganister rock, quarried at multiple points along the railroad.
The EBT was profitable from the 1880s through the 1940s and was able to modernize its infrastructure far more than other narrow gauge railroads. The railroad's roundhouse, one of the oldest railroad roundhouses in the US still in operation, was built in 1882. A coal cleaning plant and a full maintenance shops complex were built, bridges were upgraded from iron and wood to steel and concrete, wood rolling stock was replaced by steel, modern high-powered steam locomotives were bought from the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia. In the 1950s, coal demand plummeted as industries switched to cheap oil and gas; the last nail in the coffin came when the silica brick plants in Mount Union converted to oil and gas and not enough coal could be sold to support the mines and the railroad. The railroad closed as a coal hauler April 14, 1956, along with the coal-mining company was sold for scrap to the Kovalchick Salvage Corporation. Nick Kovalchick, president of Kovalchick Salvage, elected not to scrap the railroad right away, instead letting it sit in place.
In 1960, the twin boroughs of Orbisonia and Rockhill Furnace—the latter being the operating hub for the railroad—celebrated their Bicentennial and asked Kovalchick to put a train out for display. Doing them one better, he rehabilitated four miles of track and two locomotives and operated tourist train rides for several months that summer; the new attraction was so successful that the ride, extended to five miles, opened as a regular tourist operation in 1961. The railroad operated tourist trains every summer through 2011, after which operations were suspended; the EBT was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The railroad was added in 1996 to the National Trust for Historic Preservation's list of America's Most Endangered Places; the majority of the railroad is still owned by Kovalchick Salvage and was for years overseen by Nick's son and his wife, Judy. From May 2009 until April 2011, the EBT was leased for three years to the East Broad Top Railroad Preservation Association, a non-profit founded with the intention of acquiring the railroad and reactivating all 33 miles of the railroad's original main line.
The EBTPA made a number of improvements on site as well as adding numerous special events and in 2011 extended the season and operating days of the week. Maintenance standards and customer service were enhanced; the original three-year lease expired in April 2012 and the owners and the EBTPA were unable to reach an agreement for operations in 2012. The railroad has not operated public excursions since December 2011, however the EBTPA has purchased parts of the railroad and plans to resume operations once its purchase of the railroad is complete; when running, the line operates as a heritage railway, with trains pulled by 3 ft narrow gauge 2-8-2 steam locomotives. Vintage diesels operate as backup power; until 2010 excursions ran June through October, weekends only. In 2011, excursions ran on weekends May 7 through October 30 and Thursday and Friday July 7 through August 12 and October. During special events and holidays trains run other days of the week as well as into November and December; the rides are 10-mile round trips.
The annual Fall Spectacular, when all operating equipment is in use, is the best weekend. The Spectacular is held on the Sunday of Columbus Day weekend in October. There are special events at Community Appreciation Day in early August and the June Openi
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Mifflin County, Pennsylvania
Mifflin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,682, its county seat is Lewistown. The county was created on September 19, 1789, from parts of Cumberland County and Northumberland County and named after Thomas Mifflin, the first Governor of Pennsylvania. Mifflin County comprises PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 415 square miles, of which 411 square miles is land and 3.7 square miles is water. Mifflin County is located in, has its boundaries defined by, the Ridge-and Valley Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania. US Route 322, a major divided highway, connects the county to the rest of the state on its route between Harrisburg and State College. US Route 522 connects the county to the rest of the state on its route between Selinsgrove and Mount Union. Centre County Union County Snyder County Juniata County Huntingdon County US 22 US 22 Bus. US 322 US 522 PA 103 PA 305 PA 333 PA 655 As of the census of 2010, there were 46,682 people and 18,743 households within the county.
The population density was 112.5 people per square mile. There were 21,537 housing units at an average density of 51.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.53% White, 0.64% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. 1.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.8% were of German, 19.2% American, 8.0% Irish and 7.5% English ancestry. 5.7 % report speaking Dutch, or German at home. There were 18,743 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 2.2% from 18 to 19, 5.1% from 20 to 24, 10.4% from 25 to 34, 20.1% from 35 to 49, 20.6% from 50 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. The population was 48.93% male, 51.07% female. The Amish community in Mifflin County established in 1791, had a total population of 3,905 people in 2017, or 8.5% of the county's population. The dominant form of speech in Mifflin County is the Central Pennsylvania accent. Everyone in Mifflin County speaks English; the Amish and some Mennonites speak Pennsylvania German known as Pennsylvania Dutch, a West Central German dialect, quite different from modern Standard German. The Amish and Mennonites can speak English. Few non-Amish or Mennonites in Mifflin County today speak Pennsylvania German, but this was not true in the past; the United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Mifflin County as the Lewistown, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census the micropolitan area ranked 10th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 237th most populous in the United States with a population of 46,682. Stephen T. Dunkle Rob Postal Kevin P. Kodish In August 2016 County Commissioner Lisa Nancollas, a Tea Party Republican, came under fire for anti-Islamic rhetoric posted to her campaign's Facebook account.
She would go on to resign from her position, in April 2017, being replaced by Rob Postal. Rich Irvin, Pennsylvania's 81th Representative District John Hershey, Pennsylvania's 82th Representative District Kerry A. Benninghoff, Pennsylvania's 171th Representative District Jake Corman, Pennsylvania's 34th Senatorial District Tom Marino, Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district Pat Toomey, Republican Bob Casey, Jr. Democrat Major employers in Mifflin County include: Philips Lewistown Hospital Standard Steel Trinity Packaging Overhead Door Corporation Jarden Plastics Marlette Homes Asher’s Chocolates Giant Food Walmart Lowe’s Mifflin County School District First Quality Most of the county is served by the Mifflin County School District, with the exception of Wayne Township and the boroughs of Newton-Hamilton and Kistler, which are part of the Mount Union Area School District. Mifflin County School District Mount Union Area School District Head Start is a federally and state funded preschool program for low income children.
The program serves 3- and 4-year-olds. In order to participate the family income must be below federal poverty guidelines. Coleman Head Start Center McVeytown Head Start Center Sacred Heart provides a private, Catholic education until fifth grade. Belleville Mennonite School, Beth-El Christian Day School, Valley View Christian School provide Mennonite education through grade twelve. Mifflin County Christian Academy located in Decatur Township provides Christian education from kindergarten through grade twelve as well as day care. Several Old Order Amish schools provide education through grade eight. Mifflin-Juniata Career and Technology Center located in Lewistown provides post high school degrees in nursing, auto mechanics and electrical services and numerous other technology driven careers; the Lewistown branch of the South Hills School of Business and Technology offers associate degrees and other certifications in various areas of business and some health care. The Penn State Learning Center in Lewistown offers both four-year degrees.
The Learning Center opened a state-of-the-