Pocklington is a small market town and civil parish situated at the foot of the Yorkshire Wolds in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The 2011 Census recorded its population as 8,337, it is 22 miles northwest of Hull. The town's skyline is marked by the 15th-century west tower of All Saints' parish church. Pocklington is at the centre of the ecclesiastical Parish of Pocklington, which includes the hamlet of Kilnwick Percy and outlying farms and houses. Pocklington gets its name via the Old English "Poclintun" from the Anglian settlement of Pocel's people and the Old English word "tun" meaning farm or settlement, but though the town's name can only be traced back to around 650 AD, the inhabitation of Pocklington as a site is thought to extend back a further 1,000 years or more to the Bronze Age. Pocklington appears on the 14th century Gough Map, the oldest route map in Great Britain. In the Iron Age Pocklington was a major town of the Parisi tribe and by the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 it was the second largest settlement in Yorkshire after York itself.
Pocklington developed through the Middle Ages. Pocklington owed much of its prosperity in the Middle Ages to the fact that it was a local centre for the trading of wool and lay on the main road to York, an important national centre for the export of wool to the continent. Wool was England's main export in the earlier Middle Ages; the town's coat of arms shield is based on that of the Dolman family, founders of Pocklington School. The arms were granted to the town council in 1980; the crown at the base of the shield is the emblem of the saints, along with the gold cross, symbolises the town's historic connection with Paulinus of York and the Archbishop of York. The town's motto is "Service with Freedom". Pocklington is under East Riding of a unitary authority; the town returns three councillors to the council. Since 2001, Pocklington has been part of the East Yorkshire Parliamentary Constituency; the seat is held by Greg Knight for the Conservative Party. Pocklington's Town Council consists of thirteen elected councillors and is responsible for the cemetery, the Croft play-park and the Arts Centre.
The town council has a policy of naming all new streets using the surnames of the war dead who served at RAF Pocklington. This has given rise to the names Strother Close, Waite Close, Garrick Drive, Turnbull Close and Harper Close. There is some controversy surrounding the policy as a local resident believes that war heroes from Pocklington and nearby Barmby Moor should be honoured in this way. Pocklington is twinned with: Le Pays de Racan, France Trendelburg, Germany Pocklington is a spring line settlement at the foot of the Yorkshire Wolds; the rocks underlying this area were deposited on the bed of a tropical ocean. When the land rose, the chalk wolds were formed from the exoskeletons of micro-organisms covering the sea floor; the landscape around Pocklington therefore varies from flat arable land devoted to agriculture to the south and west, grassy, chalk hills and dry valleys to the north and east. A lot of the more level farming country was, from the Middle Ages onwards, reclaimed from marshland.
Pocklington is bisected by the culverted Pocklington Beck, a small brook that feeds into the Pocklington Canal. The beck and canal are good fishing grounds but a sewerage overflow in 2003 killed thousands of fish and damaged the ecosystem, from which it is now recovered. According to the 2011 UK census, Pocklington parish had a population of 8,337, an increase on the 2001 UK census figure of 7,632; the civil parish is not ethnically diverse, with the 2001 UK census reporting 98.8% of the 7,632 inhabitants being white. The East Riding of Yorkshire has a higher than average level of Christian belief and a much lower rate of observance for other faiths and those of no faith; this can be attributed to the aforementioned lack of ethnic diversity in the area. Pocklington Arts Centre opened in 2000 and offers "a mixed programme of film, drama, lectures and exhibitions". Previous performers at the arts centre include the comedians Jenny Eclair, Clive James, Dave Gorman and Barry Cryer and the musicians Midge Ure and Steve Harley.
The centre puts on "second screenings" of released films. In a tribute to Munich's traditional Oktoberfest, Pocklington hosts its own annual Pocktoberfest. Unlike the original on which it is based, Pocktoberfest is pared down to a single-issue event: beer. In the 2006 event, 19 casks of ale were consumed. Organiser of the 2012 Pocktoberfest, Clare Saunders, arranged for brewers from Germany. Italy, France and the Netherlands to attend the festival, sponsored by C & N Wines and Swirlz Ice Cream Emporium. Pocklington celebrates an annual Flying Man Festival with a multitude of themed events from 12 to 14 May, in memory of the showman Thomas Pelling, the "Flying Man of Pocklington", with a pair of homemade wings, tried to fly from the top of the local church, was killed when he hit one of the church's buttresses. Pocklington RUFC rugby team is based on Burnby Lane; the first rugby game in Pocklington was held on West Green on Wednesday 12 November 1879 between Pocklington Town and District and Pocklington Grammar School.
The first Pocklington rugby club Pocklington F. C. was formed in 1885. The current club, formed in 1928, plays in the North Premier and hosts the traditional "Good Friday Sevens" tournament - Yorkshire's longest-established sevens tournament launched in 1958 and Pocklington's premier sporting event, which sees l
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Thomas Cooke (machinist)
This page is about the scientific instrument maker. For other persons named Thomas Cooke, see Thomas Cooke Thomas Cooke was a British scientific instrument maker based in York, he founded the scientific instrument company. Thomas Cooke was born in Allerthorpe, near Pocklington, East Riding of Yorkshire, the son of James Cook, his formal education consisted of two years at an elementary school, but he continued learning after this and he taught himself navigation and astronomy with the intention of becoming a sailor. His mother dissuaded him from that career and he became a teacher, he made such a success of being an impromptu teacher to the farmers’ sons of the Pocklington district, that only a year he was able to open a village school at Bielby. He continued to teach others by day and learn himself by night, soon moved his school from Bielby to Skirpenbeck. At Skirpenbeck he met his future wife, one of his pupils, five years his junior. Fifty years on she spoke of how her husband developed his brief rudimentary education into becoming a schoolmaster: “He first learned mathematics by buying an old volume from a bookstall with a spare shilling.
He got odd sheets, read books about geometry and mathematics, before he could buy them. But Cooke’s interest in mathematics and science was practical as well academic, he had retained his interest in navigation and instruments, while at Skirpenbeck he made his own first rudimentary telescope – grinding a lens by hand out of the bottom of a glass whisky tumbler mounting in into a frame that he soldered together from a piece of tin. In 1829 he moved to York and worked as a mathematics schoolmaster at the Rev. Schackley's School in Ogleforth, near York Minster, he taught in various ladies' schools to increase his income. His marriage to Hannah was to produce seven children. Two of these Charles Frederick and Thomas subsequently joined him in the business he founded in 1836 at number 50 Stonegate, close to York Minster with the assistance of a loan of £100 from his wife's uncle. Cooke studied optics and became interested in making telescopes, the first of, a refracting telescope with the base of a tumbler shaped to form its lens.
This led to his friends including John Phillips encouraging him to make telescopes and other optical devices commercially. In 1837 he established his first optical business in a small shop at 50 Stonegate and moved to larger premises in Coney Street, he built his first telescope for William Gray. At that time, the excise tax on glass discouraged the making of refracting telescopes, which were imported from abroad. Cooke was thus one of the pioneers of making such telescopes in Britain, he built his reputation. He was not only an optician but had mechanical abilities as well, among other things, manufactured turret clocks for church towers, he founded the firm T. Cooke & Sons. In 1855 he moved to bigger premises, the Buckingham Works at Bishophill in York, where factory methods of production were first applied to optical instruments, he exhibited at the York Exhibition in 1866 demonstrating his three-wheeled, steam powered car which he claimed could carry 15 people at 15 mph for a distance of 40 miles.
One of his finest achievements was the construction of the 25-inch'Newall' refractor for Robert Stirling Newall. For some years the Newall was the largest refracting telescope in the world. On Newall's death it was donated to the Cambridge Observatory and moved in 1959 to Mount Penteli observatory in Penteli, Greece, he made a telescope for the Royal Observatory Greenwich and another for Prince Albert. The firm amalgamated with Troughton & Simms to become Cooke, Troughton & Simms in 1922 and this became part of Vickers, but still run by his sons Thomas & Frederick. Thomas Cooke was succeeded by his sons and Frederick, he is buried in York Cemetery. A telescope made by Thomas Cooke is still in daily use at Carter Observatory – The National Observatory of New Zealand, delivering excellent results; the original 9-inch triplet lens has been replaced by a 9 1/2 doublet made by renowned optician Garry Nankivell. At the observatory in the Museum Gardens, York there is a working 4-inch telescope, built for the Yorkshire Philosophical Society in 1850.
A second unit of the same construction was purchased and installed in the observatory at Bootham School, York in 1854. A third matching instrument, dating from the same period, was donated to Friendsʼ School, Hobart in 1974 by the grandson of Jonathan Backhouse Hodgkin. All three instruments remain in active service. A 5" refractor dating from 1883 is still in use at Coats Observatory, Scotland. A 5" refractor dating from 1880 is still in regular use at Hampshire. There is a 6" Cooke telescope in the Airdrie Public Observatory, North Lanarkshire, Scotland run by the Airdrie Astronomical Association. A 6” Cooke refractor is the main telescope in use at the Hampstead Observatory in London. Known as the ’Wildey telescope’, the telescope can be used by the public on the observatory’s open nights. There is a 6" Cooke telescope in use at the Baxendell Observatory in Hesketh Park, Southport A 6" Cooke refractor exists in the 1929 observatory of the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada, A 6.25" refractor known as the'Lockyer Telescope' is in use at the Norman Lockyer Observatory in Sidmouth, Devon, UK.
The lens, mad
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
East Riding of Yorkshire
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or East Riding, is an area in Northern England and can refer either to the administrative county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, a unitary authority, to the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire or to the easternmost of the three subdivisions of the traditional county of Yorkshire. No two of these areas share the same geographical boundaries despite sharing the same name; the traditional East Riding of Yorkshire includes parts of ceremonial North Yorkshire such as Filey but not Goole, whereas both the administrative and ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire include Goole but not those parts of North Yorkshire. Both the traditional and ceremonial East Riding include Kingston upon Hull, but the administrative East Riding does not as Kingston upon Hull is in its own unitary authority; the traditional East Riding covers a larger area than both the ceremonial and administrative East Riding. The East Riding, North Riding and West Riding were treated as three separate counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions.
In 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, administrative counties with a county council were created on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the Local Government Area and the Lieutenancy of the East Riding of Yorkshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, being succeeded in most of the riding by the newly created Humberside which included parts of the West Riding and parts of Lincolnshire; the modern Local Government Area and the ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire were formed in 1996 from the northern part of Humberside upon its abolition. At the 2011 Census, the population was 334,179; the landscape consists of a crescent of low chalk hills, the Yorkshire Wolds, surrounded by the low-lying fertile plains of Holderness and the Vale of York. The Humber Estuary and North Sea mark its eastern limits. Archaeological investigations have revealed artefacts and structures from all historical periods since the last ice age. There are no industrial centres; the area is administered from the ancient ecclesiastical town of Beverley.
Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area and there is a higher than average percentage of retired people. The economy is based on agriculture and tourism, contributing to the rural and seaside character of the Riding with its historic buildings, nature reserves and the Yorkshire Wolds Way long-distance footpath; the open and maritime aspects and lack of major urban development have led to the high levels of energy generation from renewable sources. Major sporting and entertainment venues are concentrated in Kingston upon Hull, while the seaside and market towns support semi-professional and amateur sports clubs and provide seasonal entertainment for visitors. Bishop Burton is the site of an agricultural college, Hull provides the region's only university. On the southern border, close to Hull, the Humber Bridge spans the Humber Estuary to enable the A15 to link Hessle with Barton-upon-Humber in North Lincolnshire; when the last glacial period ended, the hunter gatherers of the Palaeolithic period followed the animal herds across the land between continental Europe and Britain.
As conditions continued to improve and vegetation became more able to support a greater diversity of animals, the annual range of seasonal movement by Mesolithic communities decreased, people became more fixed to particular localities. Until about 6,000 BC, Mesolithic people appear to have exploited their environment; as communities came to rely on a smaller territorial range and as population levels increased, attempts began to be made to modify or control the natural world. In the Great Wold Valley, pollen samples of Mesolithic date indicate that the forest cover in the area was being disturbed and altered by man, that open grasslands were being created; the Yorkshire Wolds became a major focus for human settlement during the Neolithic period as they had a wide range of natural resources. The oldest monuments found on the Wolds are the Neolithic long barrows and round barrows. Two earthen long barrows in the region are found at Fordon, on Willerby Wold, at Kilham, both of which have radiocarbon dates of around 3700 BC.
From around 2000 to 800 BC, the people of the Bronze Age built the 1,400 Bronze Age round barrows that are known to exist on the Yorkshire Wolds. These are grouped together to form cemeteries. Many of these sites can still be seen as prominent features in the present-day landscape. By the Bronze Age, an open, landscape predominated on the Wolds, it was used for grazing and for arable cultivation. The wetlands on either side of the Wolds in the River Hull valley and the Vale of York were being used for animal rearing at this time. In the Iron Age there were further cultural changes in the area. There emerged a distinctive local tradition known as the Arras Culture, named after a site at Arras, near Market Weighton. There are similarities between the chariot burials of the Arras Culture and groups of La Tene burials in northern Europe, where the burial of carts was practised; the area became the kingdom of the tribe known as the Parisi. After invading Britain in AD 43, the Romans crossed the Humber Estuary in AD 71 to invade the Northumbrian territory of the Parisi tribe.
From their bridgehead at Petuaria they travelled northwards and built roads along the Wolds to Derventio, present day Malton, westwards to the River Ouse where they built the fort of Eboracum. There is evidence of extensive use of the light soils of the Wolds for grain farming in the Roman era. Several Roman villas which were the centres of large agric
National Heritage List for England
The National Heritage List for England is England’s official list of buildings, monuments and gardens, wrecks and World Heritage Sites. It is maintained by Historic England and brings together these different designations as a single resource though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to each. Conservation areas do not appear on the NHLE since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority; the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 established the first part of what the list is today, it established a list of 50 prehistoric monuments which were protected by the state. Further amendments to this act increased the levels of protection and added more monuments to the list; the Town and Country Planning Acts created the first listed buildings and the process for adding properties to it. As of 2018, more than 600,000 properties are listed individually; each year additional properties are added to the National Register as part of the different constituent registers that are part of the list.
The National Heritage List for England was launched in 2011 as the statutory list of all designated historic places including listed buildings and scheduled monuments. The list is managed by Historic England, is available as an on-line database with 400,000 listed buildings, registered parks and battlefields, protected shipwrecks and scheduled monuments. A unique reference number, the NHLE Code, is used to refer to the related database entry, such as 1285296 – this example is for Douglas House. Template:National Heritage List for England — the template used for generating a formatted citation containing the targeted external link. Historic England.org: National Heritage List for England