Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area
The Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area known as Champaign–Urbana and Urbana–Champaign as well as Chambana, is a metropolitan area in east-central Illinois. It is the 191st largest metropolitan area in the U. S, it is composed of three counties, Champaign and Piatt. The Office of Management and Budget has designated the three-county Champaign–Urbana area as one of its metropolitan statistical areas, which are used for statistical purposes by the Census Bureau and other agencies; the area has a population of 231,891 as determined by the 2010 U. S. Census; the area is anchored by the principal cities of Champaign and Urbana and is home to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system.. Journalists treat the metropolitan area as just one city. For example, in 1998, Newsweek included the Champaign-Urbana Metropolitan Area in its list of the top ten tech cities. Champaign-Urbana ranked tenth as one of the top twenty-five green cities in the United States, in a survey made by Country Home magazine.
A number of major developments have changed downtown Champaign since the beginning of the 21st century. Beginning in the 1990s, city government began to aggressively court development, including by investing millions of dollars in public funds into downtown improvements and by offering developers incentives, such as liquor licenses, to pursue projects in the area; the 9-story M2 on Neil project is such an example. The project began in 2007 by taking down the facade of the deteriorated Trevett-Mattis Banking Co. which occupied the building site. The facade was retained on the M2 building. Residents first began to lease space in the M2 in the winter of 2009; the M2 includes not just condos for residential occupation, but retail and office space in its lower floors, a common trend in new developments in the urban core. Across the street, a 9-story Hyatt Place boutique hotel opened in the summer of 2014. In the Campustown area adjoining the University of Illinois, the new 24-story highrise apartment building 309 Green was ostensibly completed in the fall of 2007 but had partial occupancy at least through the fall of 2008.
It is 256 feet tall, making it a full 3 stories higher than the older 21-story Tower at Third, the first contribution to the Urbana–Champaign skyline. The Burnham 310 Project, at 18 stories, taller, was finished in the fall of 2008 and includes student luxury apartments and a County Market grocery store. Burnham 310 connects downtown Champaign to Campustown. In 2013-14, four other mixed-use buildings have been built in Campustown, with heights of 26, 13, 8, 5 stories. On the University of Illinois campus, Memorial Stadium has gone under major renovation, with construction of new stands and luxury suites. Across Kirby Avenue, the Assembly Hall, first built in 1963 and renamed the State Farm Center as part of a major renovation begun in 2014, continues to be the home of Illini basketball and is expected to resume hosting concerts and other performing arts after renovation is completed in late 2016. In the late 2000s, the restoration of the Champaign County Courthouse bell tower capped the expansion and renovation of Courthouse facilities and provided a striking focal point in downtown Urbana.
These, among other developments, have given the Twin Cities a more urban feel. The outlying parts of the metropolitan area differ from the suburban areas of many other metropolitan areas. Instead of a sprawling suburban skirt that encircles the urban area, the urban area abuts large swaths of farmland, with small to medium-sized villages that originated as farming communities. But, as the willingness of professionals to commute longer distances has increased in recent decades, new residential developments have arisen on their edges, dotting the surrounding landscape; some of these villages are home to as many as 5,000 residents or more, but most are smaller. Most of these outlying communities, such as Savoy, Mahomet, St. Joseph, arguably Rantoul and Monticello as well, are dependent on Champaign and Urbana for economic and infrastructure support. Predominantly, these cities and villages lie in Champaign County; these areas are populated to a substantial extent with commuters who work in Champaign or Urbana, but reside outside the two cities.
Because higher paid professors and technology professionals who work for the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, the many clinics and hospitals in town, or in the Research Park, are more to maintain cars for commuting longer distances and to afford owner-occupied single-family housing, these areas lacking in mass transit and high-density rental projects have a higher median household income than Champaign or Urbana. In addition to residential developments in the surrounding agricultural communities, residential neighborhoods are growing up in unincorporated areas within a short radius of the city limits, while the cities themselves are expanding to annex areas of new development. While the annexed areas benefit from municipal services, developments that are willing to forego city sewer systems and police protection can enjoy the lower tax rates the surrounding townships levy, as fewer services are provided. Areas under construction extend as far as around Rising Road west of I-57 and north and east of Willard Airport.
Some of this land is in Champaign Township, while some has been annexed to either Champaign or Savoy. Additional land development is occurring north of I-74 in la
A grain elevator is an agrarian facility complex designed to stockpile or store grain. In grain trade, the term grain elevator describes a tower containing a bucket elevator or a pneumatic conveyor, which scoops up grain from a lower level and deposits it in a silo or other storage facility. In most cases, the term grain elevator describes the entire elevator complex, including receiving and testing offices and storage facilities, it may mean organizations that operate or control several individual elevators, in different locations. In Australia the term grain elevator describes only the lifting mechanism. Before the advent of the grain elevator, grain was handled in bags rather than in bulk. Dart's Elevator was a major innovation, it was invented by Joseph Dart, a merchant, Robert Dunbar, an engineer, in 1842 and 1843, in Buffalo, New York. Using the steam-powered flour mills of Oliver Evans as their model, they invented the marine leg, which scooped loose grain out of the hulls of ships and elevated it to the top of a marine tower.
Early grain elevators and bins were built of framed or cribbed wood, were prone to fire. Grain-elevator bins and silos are now made of steel or reinforced concrete. Bucket elevators are used to lift grain to a distributor or consignor, from which it falls through spouts and/or conveyors and into one or more bins, silos, or tanks in a facility; when desired, silos and tanks are emptied by gravity flow, sweep augers, conveyors. As grain is emptied from bins and silos it is conveyed and weighted into trucks, railroad cars, or barges, shipped to grain wholesalers, and/or local end-users, such as flour mills and ethanol and alcohol distilleries. In Australian English, the term "grain elevator" is reserved for elevator towers, while a receival and storage building or complex is distinguished by the formal term receival point or as a "wheat bin" or "silo". Large-scale grain receival and logistics operations are known in Australia as bulk handling. In Canada, the term "grain elevator" is used to refer to a place where farmers sell grain into the global grain distribution system, and/or a place where the grain is moved into rail cars or ocean-going ships for transport.
There are several types of grain elevators under Canadian law, defined in the Canadian Grain Act, Section 2. Primary elevators receive grain directly from producers for forwarding, or both. Process elevators store grain for direct manufacture or processing into other products. Terminal elevators receive grain on or after official inspection and weighing and clean and treat grain before moving it forward. Transfer elevators transfer grain, inspected and weighed at another elevator. In the Eastern Division, transfer elevators receive and store eastern or foreign grain, it was both necessity and the prospect of making a lot of money that gave birth to the steam-powered grain elevator in Buffalo, New York, in 1843. Due to the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, Buffalo enjoyed a unique position in American geography, it stood at the intersection of two great all-water routes: one extending from New York Harbor, up the Hudson River, to Albany and, beyond it, the Port of Buffalo. All through the 1830s, Buffalo benefited tremendously from its position.
In particular, it was the recipient of most of the increasing quantities of grain, being grown on farms in Ohio and Indiana, shipped on Lake Erie for transshipment to the Erie Canal. If Buffalo hadn't been there, or when things got backed up there, that grain would have been loaded onto boats at Cincinnati and shipped down the Mississippi River to New Orleans. By 1842, it was clear, they still relied upon techniques, in use since the European Middle Ages: work teams of stevedores would use block and tackles and their own backs to unload or load each and every sack of grain, stored or was to be stored in the boat's hull. It would take several days, sometimes a week, to service a single grain-laden boat. Grain shipments were going down the Mississippi River, not over the Great Lakes/Erie Canal system. A merchant named Joseph Dart, Jr. is credited as being the one who adapted Oliver Evans' grain elevator for use in a commercial framework, but the actual design and construction of the world's first steam-powered "grain storage and transfer warehouse" was executed by an engineer named Robert Dunbar.
Thanks to the historic Dart's Elevator, which worked seven times faster than its non-mechanized predecessors, Buffalo was able to keep pace with—and thus further stimulate—the rapid growth of American agricultural production in the 1840s and 1850s, but after the Civil War, with the coming of the railroads. It wasn't by accident that the world's second and third grain elevators were built in Toledo and Brooklyn, New York, in 1847. Fledgling American cities, they were connected through an emerging international grain trade of unprecedented proportions. Grain shipments from farms in Ohio were loaded onto ships by elevators at Toledo.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Monticello is a city in Piatt County, United States. The population was 5,138 at the 2000 census, 5,374 at a 2009 estimate, it is the county seat of Piatt County. Monticello is located at 40°1′41″N 88°34′23″W. According to the 2010 census, Monticello has a total area of 3.829 square miles, of which 3.8 square miles is land and 0.029 square miles is water. Monticello is located in East Central Illinois between the cities of Decatur and Champaign, Illinois. Monticello is nearly equidistant from Chicago, St. Louis, Indianapolis. Robert Allerton Park, which belongs to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and includes 1500 acres of woodland and prairie areas, a meadow, a conference and retreat center, formal sculpture gardens, hiking trails, lodging facilities, a summer camp location, a Georgian style mansion, is located just outside Monticello; the Allerton Natural Area within the park was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1970. Monticello's first non-native resident was George Haworth.
Haworth came to the area in 1822 to serve as a U. S. liaison agent to local Native American tribes. Haworth did not remain. Soon more settlers arrived. In 1837, residents decided to form a new town. Abraham Marquiss, William Barnes, James McReynolds, James A. Piatt Jr. formed a joint stock company and purchased land from James A. Piatt. Upon McReynold's suggestion, the town was christened Monticello – after the home of Thomas Jefferson. Monticello became a town on July 1, 1837. Townsfolk held a celebration on July 4; the first house in the new town was built by a Mr. Cass who used the building as his home and a grocery store; the second house was a log cabin built by John Tenbrooke. In 1839, Nicholas DeVore built the "Old Fort", used as a hotel. Monticello continued to grow; the citizens of Monticello were unhappy with the distance required to travel to the county seat for their legal issues. Due to the petitions of George Patterson and others, a new county was established on Jan 27 1841: Piatt County – named in honor the first permanent settler, James A. Piatt.
As it was the only town in the area at that time, Monticello was named the county seat. The county began legal functions on April 5, 1841 in the "Old Fort." In 1843, the first courthouse was built on land donated by William H. Piatt. Monticello's star resident arrived in 1885. Dr. William B. Caldwell came to practice medicine in Monticello but his homemade mixture of senna and pepsin brought Monticello to a level of national prominence; the Pepsin Syrup Company was founded in 1893, became the leading employer in the city for decades until its closure in 1985. The building in which it operated has since been demolished; the site is now used as an unofficial soccer practice field. In 1987 the 150th birthday of the town was celebrated with an open air reenactment and other festivities; the Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through the town in 1838. In a 2012 episode of the Comedy Central program The Daily Show, host Jon Stewart used the town in a joke segment, referring to it as Dogshit Bluffs; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,138 people, 2,146 households, 1,446 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,724.7 people per square mile. There were 2,226 housing units at an average density of 747.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.01% White, 0.08% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population. There were 2,146 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91. Home to Kirby Hospital. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,754, the median income for a family was $57,287. Males had a median income of $41,074 versus $24,130 for females; the per capita income for the city was $23,257. About 2.3% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.6% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Robert Allerton, art collector and philanthropist Robert C. Burke, United States Marine who posthumously received Medal of Honor for heroism in Vietnam in 1968 Harry Combes, former basketball player and head coach at the University of Illinois Rolla C. McMillen, former U. S. Representative Allen F. Moore, former U. S. Representative Andrew Peterson, Contemporary Christian music artist Monticello, 150 years by Swango, Lynn. Monticello, Illinois travel guide from Wikivoyage MonticelloIllinois.net Monticello Railway Museum Allerton Park
Bismarck is a village in Newell Township, Vermilion County, United States. It is part of Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 542 at the 2000 census. The original settlement in this immediate area was to the west of Bismarck's location, where the Hubbard Trail and the North Fork of the Vermilion River crossed, it was called Franklin when it was founded in 1837, but it lasted only a few years. In 1843, Brothers John and Samuel Myers built a mill near the site of Franklin, a town called Myersville grew up there. In 1872, the C&EI Railroad went through the area; the town moved toward the railroad on land donated by Charles S. Young and Dr. John B. Holloway. Young named the town Bismarck after the German statesman and chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who he so admired. On September 13, 1997, the community celebrated its 125th birthday. Festivities, which were attended by about 2,000 people, included a parade, historical exhibits at the local grade school, multiple performances. In 1998, the village of Bismarck was incorporated.
The members of the first village board were Mayor Eleanor White, Julie Boersma, Pat Kentner, Chuck Mockbee, Lyle Milner, Diane Holycross, Don Evans, Alvina Van Pelt, Betty Lewis. Bismarck is located at 40°15′45″N 87°36′36″W, about eight miles north of the county seat of Danville. According to the 2010 census, Bismarck has a total area of all land. Public schools include Bismarck Henning Grade School, Bismarck Henning Junior High School, Bismarck Henning High School; as of the census of 2000, there were 542 people, 204 households, 158 families residing in the village. The population density was 797.8 people per square mile. There were 210 housing units at an average density of 309.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.63% White, 0.18% Native American, 0.18% from two or more races. There were 204 households out of which 42.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.6% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families.
19.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.08. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $41,731, the median income for a family was $45,000. Males had a median income of $36,750 versus $21,667 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,255. About 3.4% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government