click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alliance

An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alliance are called allies. Alliances form in many settings, including political alliances, military alliances, business alliances; when the term is used in the context of war or armed struggle, such associations may be called allied powers when discussing World War I or World War II. A formal military alliance is not required for being perceived as an ally—co-belligerence, fighting alongside someone, is enough. According to this usage, allies become so not when concluding an alliance treaty but when struck by war; when spelled with a capital "A", "Allies" denotes the countries who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I, or those who fought against the Axis Powers in World War II. The term has been used by the United States Army to describe the countries that gave assistance to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

The Allied Powers in World War I were the United Kingdom, the Russian Empire, Serbia and Japan, joined by Italy, Romania, the United States and Brazil. Some, such as the Russian Empire, withdrew from the war before the armistice due to revolution or defeat. After the end of World War II and during the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed as a political and military alliance that promotes democratic values. More the term "Allied forces" has been used to describe the coalition of the Gulf War, as opposed to forces the Multi-National Forces in Iraq which are referred to as "Coalition forces" or, as by the George W. Bush administration, "the coalition of the willing". Scholars are divided as to the impact of alliances. Several studies find. One study questions these findings, showing that alliance commitments deterred conflict in the prenuclear era but has no statistically meaningful impact on war in the postnuclear era. Another study finds that while alliance commitments deter conflict between sides with a recent history of conflict, alliances tend to provoke conflicts between states without such a history.

A 2000 study in the Journal of Conflict Resolution found that allies fulfill their alliance commitments 75% of the time. Most research suggests. A 2004 study did however question. A 2018 study updated and extended the data from the 2000 Journal of Conflict Resolution study and found that allies only fulfill their commitments about 50% of the time from 1816 to 2003. According to the study, "States honored their alliance commitments 66% of the time prior to 1945 but the compliance rate drops to 22% from 1945 to 2003. Moreover, the rates of fulfillment for defense pacts and nonaggression pacts are lower than offensive alliances and neutrality agreements." According to a 2017 poll by WIN/GIA, the United States was the most preferred ally internationally. Russia and China, who preferred one another, both trailed America globally. Four countries, Greece and Turkey, preferred Russia, despite being members of NATO. In Pakistan, 72% of respondents preferred ties to China, the largest margin of any country surveyed, while 46% of Bangladesh preferred India.

A total of 22 countries indicated a preference for the United Kingdom at a rate of 10% or more, but the United States was the only country to prefer the Britain over any other, at a rate of 43%. Five counties preferred France at a rate of 10% or more, led by Belgium at a rate of 25%. A single country, Iraq expressed no preference, while three other countries, Lebanon and Slovenia, expressed no preference at a rate of 11% or more, although at a smaller rate than their preference for Russia on the part of Lebanon and Slovenia, China on the part of Palestine. Kosovo reported the most unified opinion, preferring the United States at a rate of 92%, while Russia's most unified supporters were Mongolia and Serbia. In total, 21 countries expressed a preference for America at a rate of 50% or more. Neutral country Allies of World War I Allies of World War II Airline alliance Business alliance Military alliance Political alliance Therapeutic alliance, the relationship between a healthcare professional and a client Beer, Francis A..

Alliances: Latent War Communities in the Contemporary World. New York: Holt and Winston; the dictionary definition of ally at Wiktionary "Alliance". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. 1911. P. 695

Guizhou cuisine

Guizhou cuisine, or Qian cuisine, consists of cooking traditions and dishes from Guizhou Province in southwestern China. Guizhou cuisine shares many features with Sichuan cuisine and Hunan cuisine in bringing the sensation of spiciness and pungency. What makes Guizhou cuisine unique is the emphasis of a mixed sour-and-spicy taste, as compared to the numbing-and-hot sensation featured in Sichuan cuisine and the dry-hot taste featured in Hunan cuisine. There is an ancient local saying, "Without eating a sour dish for three days, people will stagger with weak legs"; the saying reflects. The combination of sour and spicy flavours is found in Shaanxi cuisine. Guizhou cuisine differs from Shaanxi cuisine in that it lacks the emphasis on the salty taste, a common trait found in most northern Chinese cuisines. In addition, the unique sourness featured in Guizhou cuisine comes from the local tradition of fermenting vegetables or grains, not from using vinegar products. Guizhou cuisine comprises many local varieties and dishes from ethnic minorities, such as the Miao people.

Some famous local cuisines are represented by large cities like Guiyang and Liupanshui. Guizhou cuisine has matured since the beginning of the Ming dynasty. Guizhou is famous for producing high quality Chinese liquor, baijiu. One of the most famous and expensive baijiu in China, Maotai is from Guizhou. Guizhou cuisine features dishes specially cooked to match the flavour of locally produced liquor, such as preserved vegetables and steamed cured meat. Guizhou cuisine features yancai; the pickled vegetables are refreshing and healthy, more bring the sour sensation. Fresh vegetables are dried without exposure to sunlight after being cleaned. Afterwards, they are salted and sealed in containers for four or five days to allow proper fermentation. Pickled cabbage and radish are served as side dishes, popular to be consumed with noodles and rice-noodles; the sour soup broth, representative of Guizhou cuisine with unique sourness, is a cooking heritage from the Miao people. It is the secret to create the famous Guizhou dish'fish in sour soup'.

The broth is made from the fermentation of rice, rice wine, wild tomatoes, red pepper and ginger. Spicy dipping sauce is crucial in daily dinning of Guizhou people, it is made by mixing chili pepper, ginger, green scallion, sesame oil or soy sauce, according to personal preference. One unique ingredient used in Guizhou dipping sauce is Houttuynia, loved by local people but not accepted by other Chinese with its distinct taste. Various types of spiciness in Guizhou cuisine come from the art of using chili peppers in different ways by locals. Hu-la is created by heat-drying crushed chili pepper. Ciba-la refers to both the uncooked mashed chili pepper paste and the chili sauce by simmering the paste in oil. Zao-la is made by preserving minced chili pepper with garlic. Laoguo-la is spice-flavored chili flakes; the renowned chili sauce brand, Lao Gan Ma, is originated from Guizhou. There are two fried rice dishes originated from Guizhou and popular on the dining tables of locals: Fried rice with egg and zao-la, Guai-lu fried rice.

Notable dishes in Guizhou cuisine: fish in sour soup, stir-fried chicken with ciba-la, stir-fried Houttuynia with Chinese bacon, crispy whole fish with zao-la, braised trotter in brown sauce, stir-fried Qingyan tofu, etc. Notable appetizers and street food in Guizhou cuisine: Siwawa, love tofu and Changwang noodles

Austin John

Austin John Winkler is an American singer and musician best known for being the former lead singer of the American rock band Hinder. Winkler was one of the founding members of Hinder and recorded a total of one EP, four studio albums and released twenty-four singles to radio while with them during his 12-year tenure with the band. Since his departure from Hinder, Winkler has continued his career, but as a solo artist, under the name Austin John. Austin's first release as a solo artist, a six-song EP titled Love Sick Radio was released on April 22, 2016. Before forming Hinder with alongside bandmates Cody Hanson and Joe "Blower" Garvey, Winkler sang in an Oklahoma City cover band up until July 2001. While playing at a college party, Winkler met Hanson and Garvey and shortly thereafter the three formed Hinder. Hinder released their debut EP titled Far From Close in 2003 under the independent label Brickden Records, the EP went on to sell around 5,000 copies. After the release of Far From Close, Hinder was offered record deals from Atlantic Records, Roadrunner Records, Universal Records signing with Universal Records in early 2005.

Hinder released their debut single "Get Stoned" on July 26, 2005 and released their debut album Extreme Behavior on September 27, 2005. The album went on to spawn a total of eight singles, including the number one smash hit "Lips of an Angel" and gain triple-platinum status in the US. From 2005 to 2007, the band went on numerous tours and supporting in promotion of the album touring with the likes of Nickelback, Three Days Grace, Breaking Benjamin, Papa Roach, Powerman 5000, Buckcherry, Puddle of Mudd, Fuel, Chevelle, Rev Theory and Saving Abel. After shooting a music video for Hinder's version of the song "Born to be Wild" for NASCAR, Winkler began dating actress and model Jami Miller, a dancer in the video. In late 2007, the two became engaged. On December 21, 2007, Winkler was arrested for suspicion of DUI after leaving his engagement party; the two became married on July 30, 2008. The two wed in Hawaii. Winkler wrote a song for their wedding titled "The Love I Live For"; the song was never released but it can be found on YouTube.

The band released their sophomore album titled Take It to the Limit on November 4, 2008, to support the album in the winter of 2009, the band joined Mötley Crüe on their Saints of Los Angeles Tour for the winter leg of the tour only. While still embarking on their own headlining tour to promote the album, in the summer of 2009, the band joined Nickelback on the summer leg of their Dark Horse Tour alongside Papa Roach and Saving Abel. On December 7, 2010, Winkler released his third studio album with Hinder titled All American Nightmare. Starting in January 2011, the band went on their North American "All American Nightmare Tour" with supporting acts Saving Abel, My Darkest Days and Kopek; the tour started in early January 2011 and lasted till the fall of 2011. On August 9, 2012, Hinder revealed that their fourth studio album would be titled Welcome to the Freakshow and would be out in the fall. On August 30, 2012, Hinder released "Save Me" as the first single from the album. Welcome to the Freakshow would be released on December 4, 2012.

Winkler revealed that the album was recorded during a dark drug binge for him and that after the band finished recording he checked himself into rehab. Welcome to the Freakshow would be the last album to feature Winkler as the lead vocalist for the band. During the band's "Welcome to the Freakshow" summer tour, on July 10, 2013, Winkler announced that he would be leaving the tour to check himself into rehab to fight his battle with drug abuse and alcoholism; the same day, it was announced that Jared Weeks of Saving Abel would be filling in for him during the remainder of the tour. In August 2013, a video posted on YouTube by Hugo Ferreira of the band Tantric revealed that Ferreria and Winkler had established a good friendship and that Winkler was help writing songs for Tantric's upcoming album 37 Channels. Tantric's 37 Channels album was released on September 17, 2013 and Winkler was featured on two tracks titled "Bullet" and "Fault". On November 10, 2013, it was announced via Loudwire that Hinder had parted ways with Winkler, stating "We hold no animosity towards Austin, wish him the best," says Hanson via press release.

"Although it was a difficult decision, it was the best thing for everyone involved and time for us to move on. This summer and fall tour was a tough one. We want to thank the fans for all their overwhelming support." It was confirmed by Winkler through a statement. Right after the announcement, Winkler posted on his official Instagram page that he was trying to let all the fans know what was going on but he had not been allowed to post on Hinder's Facebook page in over four months. Soon after the announcement that he and Hinder had parted ways, Winkler stated he would continue his career as a solo artist. On October 17, 2014, Winkler posted via his official Instagram account that he had signed to Universal Music Group as a solo artist. On November 8, 2014, Winkler performed as a special guest alongside Tantric at the Whisky a Go Go in West Hollywood, California on a stop while on their Blue Room Archives tour. Winkler performed the song "Fault" with Tantric, Winkler co wrote the song with Tantric lead singer Hugo Ferreira in the summer of 2013, the song is featured on the album 37 Channels with Winkler providing guest vocals.

On April 10, 2015, Winkler announced through his official Facebook page that he would be holding talent auditions for the instrument members of his solo band in Los Angeles, contestants must be twenty-one through twenty-seven years old. With the announcement of the auditions fo

19th-century Anglo-Saxonism

19th-century Anglo-Saxonism, or racial Anglo-Saxonism, was a racial belief system developed by British and American intellectuals and academics in the 19th century. It is viewed by historians as an ideological successor to the earlier Alfredism and veneration for Anglo-Saxon institutions in the 17th and 18th centuries. Racialized Anglo-Saxonism contained both competing and intersecting doctrines, such as Victorian-era Old Northernism and the Teutonic germ theory which it relied upon in appropriating Germanic cultural and racial origins for the Anglo-Saxon "race". Predominantly a product of certain Anglo-American societies, organisations of the era: An important racial belief system in late 19th- and early 20th-century British and US thought advanced the argument that the civilization of English-speaking nations was superior to that of any other nations because of racial traits and characteristics inherited from the Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain. In 2017, Mary Dockray-Miller, an American scholar of Anglo-Saxon England, stated that there was an increasing interest in the study of 19th-century Anglo-Saxonism.

Anglo-Saxonism is regarded as a predecessor ideology to the Nordicism of the 20th century, less anti-Celtic and broadly sought to racially reconcile Celtic identity with Germanic under the label of Nordic. In terminology, Anglo-Saxonism is by far the most used phrase to describe the historical ideology of rooting a Germanic racial identity, whether Anglo-Saxon, Norse or Teutonic, into the concept of the English, Scottish or British nation, subsequently founded-nations such as the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In both historical and contemporary literature however, Anglo-Saxonism has many derivations, such as the used phrase Teutonism or Anglo-Teutonism, which can be used as form of catch-all to describe American or British Teutonism and further extractions such as English or Scottish Teutonism, it is occasionally encompassed by the longer phrase Anglo-Saxon Teutonism, or shorter labels Anglism or Saxonism, along with the most used term of Anglo-Saxonism itself. American medievalist Allen Frantzen credits historian L. Perry Curtis's use of Anglo-Saxonism as a term for "an unquestioned belief in Anglo-Saxon'genius'" during this period of history.

Curtis has pointed toward a radical change from 16th- and 17th-century adulation of Anglo-Saxon institutions towards something more racial and imperialist. Historian Barbara Yorke, who specializes in the subject, has argued that the earlier self-governance oriented Anglo-Saxonism of Thomas Jefferson's era had by the mid-19th century developed into "a belief in racial superiority". According to Australian scholar Helen Young, the ideology of 19th-century Anglo-Saxonism was "profoundly racist" and influenced authors such as J. R. R. Tolkien and his fictional works into the 20th century. Marxist writer Peter Fryer has claimed that "Anglo-Saxonism was a form of racism that arose to justify the British conquest and occupation of Ireland"; some scholars believe the Anglo-Saxonism championed by historians and politicians of the Victorian era influenced and helped to spawn the Greater Britain Movement of the mid-20th-century. In 2019, the International Society of Anglo-Saxonists decided to change its name due to the potential confusion of their organization's name with racist Anglo-Saxonism.

At the passing of the 19th-century Anglo-Saxonism era, progressive intellectual Randolph Bourne's essay Trans-National America reacted positively to integration, while mocking the "indistinguishable dough of Anglo-Saxonism" in the context of early 20th-century migration to the United States, Bourne manages to express an anxiety at the American melting pot theory. In 1647, English MP John Hare, who served during the Long Parliament, issued a pamphlet declaring England as a "member of the Teutonick nation, descended out of Germany". In the context of the English Civil War, this anti-Norman and pro-Germanic paradigm has been identified as the earliest iteration of "English Teutonism" by Professor Nick Groom, who has suggested the 1714 Hanoverian succession, where the German House of Hanover ascended the throne of Great Britain, is the culmination of this Anglo-Saxonist ideology. Racialized Anglo-Saxonism was founded on "Teutonic germ theory". Many historians and political scientists in Britain and the United States supported it in the 19th-century.

The theory supposed that American and British democracy and institutions had their roots in Teutonic peoples, that Germanic tribes had spread this "germ" within their race from ancient Germany to England and on to North America. Advocacy in Britain included the likes of John Mitchell Kemble, William Stubbs, Edward Augustus Freeman. Within the U. S. future president Woodrow Wilson, along with Albert Bushnell Hart and Herbert Baxter Adams were applying historical and social science in advocacy for Anglo-Saxonism through the theory. In the 1890s, under the influence of Frederick Jackson Turner, Wilson abandoned the Teutonic germ theory in favor of a frontier model for the sources of American democracy. Anglo-Saxonism of the era sought to emphasize Britain's cultural and racial ties with Germany referring to Teutonic peoples as a source of strength and similarity. Contemporary historian Robert Boyce notes that many 19th-century British politicians promoted these Germanic links, such as Henry Bulwer, 1st Baron Dalling and Bulwer who said that it was "in the free forests of Germany that the infant genius of our liberty was nursed", Thomas Arnold who claimed that "Our English race is the German race.

Hugh Findlay

Hugh Findlay was one of the first two Mormon missionaries to enter India and initiated Mormon missionary work in the Shetland Islands. Findlay was baptized in Dundee, Scotland, on July 1, 1844, by missionaries from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, he married Isabella Ratray that same year. Between 1847 and 1848, Isabella and the two little boys she and Findlay had together and Ephraim, died in what was a diphtheria epidemic. Both boys were under two years old. Orson Pratt recorded the following about a case of "miraculous healing" involving Findlay in Scotland: I have a girl, aged three years, who had for eighteen months been afflicted with convulsive fits... the child was fearful to behold in continual convulsions by night and day. On the 25th of December last, Elder Hugh Findlay called and anointed her with oil in the name of the Lord and prayed for her, from that day until now she has never had a fit... For the truth of which, witness our hands... While in England, Findlay engaged in public debates with anti-Mormon ministers from other faiths.

He was serving as a district president in England when Lorenzo Snow called him and William Willes to serve a mission in South Asia. Findlay and Willes arrived in 1851, seeking to build on reports from early members of the Plymouth Brethren that India would be a fertile ground for proselytization; however immediately they were met by opposition from the established Protestant denominations, the press, military officers and chaplains. Findlay labored first in Bombay, it took Findlay six months to baptize his first six converts. While in Bombay, he was restricted from all military areas and was forbidden to preach to military personnel. In April 1852, he moved on to Poona, 90 miles distant, where he was granted permission to proselyte; the local cantonment commander reasoned that "the less these people are opposed the less harm they would do." Findlay was able to organize a branch of twelve members in Poona by mid-September 1852, a mixture of "European and native." However, in October Findlay was asked to leave the cantonment.

He found new quarters in a small shelter in Poona, where he continued to hold meetings with the branch. Several months he completed a chapel directly across the street. After being banished from the cantonment, Findlay focused his efforts exclusively on the native population, he studied the Marathi language and spent considerable time discussing religion with a group of Brahmin intellectuals. Findlay's brother Allan joined him as a missionary in India. Allan McPherson Findlay, a baker by trade, was born in New Milns, Scotland, in 1830, was baptized in November 1846, he accepted Findlay's urgent request to join him in Bombay and Poona, without any official call from the church. He arrived on September 1853, about two years after Findlay. Hugh Findlay and his fellow missionaries found little success in India, he served in Bombay for several years, most of it alone. Brigham Young ordered the mission closed in 1855. Historians have concluded the mission's significance lies is in its failure to secure more than a handful of converts, in contrast with other missions at the time that were successful.

Findlay completed his mission and departed Bombay on March 15, 1855. He and a few fellow Mormons emigrated by way of Hong Kong to the United States, arriving that year, he married 23-year-old Catherine Ann Partington on March 1856, in the Endowment House. Brigham Young performed the ceremony; the couple helped settle Riverdale, where Hugh made a living by manufacturing and selling matches. They had nine children together. In 1857 Findlay began practicing plural marriage when he married 16-year-old Mary Ellen Smith, with whom he had seven children. In 1858, he became Riverdale's first school teacher, in 1860 he joined a bishopric in Riverdale as a counselor, he was at one time the president of the "17th Ward Silk Producing Society". In June 1862, Hugh Findlay's 19-year-old brother-in-law, Jared Smith, was killed in the Morrisite War. Smith had been engaged to a 19-year-old Danish immigrant; the next month, Findlay married Ane Marie. They raised them as if they were Jared's. By 1864, Findlay was in Salt Lake City selling matches at a store on Main Street.

An 1865 Deseret News advertisement noted he sold other products as well, including stereoscopic boxes. Allan emigrated to the U. S. via Liverpool, sailing on the Ship Thornton to New York City. On the second day at sea, 26-year-old Allan married Jessie Ireland, a 28-year-old whom the ship's manifest identified as a spinster, although they had been dating for about ten years, they rendezvoused in New York with Allan and Hugh's mother headed west. Although they crossed the plains with the ill-fated Willie Handcart Company, all three survived and made it to Salt Lake City. In the Fall of 1869, Brigham Young called Findlay and his families to help settle the Bear Lake country, they arrived on May 22, 1870, along with Henry Howell helped settle Fish Haven, where he served as Bishop. Ane Marie died in Fish Haven in 1872 at age 29. In 1878 the church called him to open a mission in the Shetland Islands, an archipelago northeast of Scotland, he arrived on January 4, 1879, on March 31 baptized the islands' first two converts.

On May 5, 1879, Orson Pratt received a letter f

Ust-Shchuger

Ust-Shchuger known as Ust-Shchugor, is a rural locality in the Komi Republic, located at an elevation of 85 meters near the confluence of the Pechora and Shchuger Rivers. The Shchugor River was once a minor route into Siberia. From its headwaters one could cross the Ural Mountains to reach the Severnaya Sosva River thereby allowing travel from the Pechora River to the Ob River, it holds the European low temperature record of −58.1 °C, recorded on December 31, 1978. Государственный Совет Республики Коми. Закон №13-РЗ от 6 марта 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Коми», в ред. Закона №171-РЗ от 26 декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднении населённого пункта Верхняя Седка, расположенного на территории Прилузского района Республики Коми, и внесении в связи с этим изменений в некоторые Законы Республики Коми». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика", №44, 16 марта 2006 г