A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Speaker of the Riksdag
The speaker of the Riksdag is the presiding officer of the national unicameral legislature in Sweden. The Riksdag underwent profound changes in 1867, when the medieval Riksdag of the Estates was abolished; the new form of the Riksdag included each with its own speaker. Since the de facto introduction of parliamentarism in 1917, the Riksdag has properly functioned as the institution to which the Prime Minister and the Government are held accountable. In 1971 the institution was transformed into a unicameral legislature with 350 members, reduced to 349 in 1976 to avoid parliamentary deadlocks. Since 1975, in accordance with the Instrument of Government of 1974, it is the speaker and no longer the Monarch who appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister; the current speaker is Andreas Norlén, who has held the gavel since September 2018. The speaker is the head and presiding officer of the Riksdag, is elected by the chamber as the first order of business when the Riksdag re-convenes following a general election.
As such the speaker coordinates the work that takes place in the Riksdag. The office is mandated in the Swedish constitution and the duties of the office are set out on the Instrument of Government and the Riksdag Act; the speaker does not take part in the debates, nor does the speaker participate in the parliamentary committees. While the Speaker is one of the elected representatives of the Riksdag, the speaker is expected to remain unbiased and objective with regards to the political issues that are debated; the speaker has no vote in the Riksdag, but the incumbent could use their vote as a member of the Riksdag if a tie appears. The position of speaker is the second highest. In terms of protocol, the Monarch outranks the speaker. However, since that position is hereditary a person cannot be elected to become the monarch; the Speaker outranks the Prime Minister of Sweden. One of the more important aspects of the work of the speaker is to head negotiations concerning the forming of a new government in case there is a shift of power after an election.
The speaker can dismiss a prime minister, voted out of office, which happened for the first time on 25 September 2018. After the negotitions, the speaker proposes the new prime ministerial candidate to the chamber, following a positive vote, the speaker signs the commission on behalf of the Riksdag; the Prime Minister appoints and dismisses their own cabinet ministers, forming the Government, without the involvement of the Speaker. In case of either a voluntary resignation or a vote of no confidence, the letter of resignation of a prime minister is handed to the speaker. In most other parliamentary systems, including other constitutional monarchies, these duties are instead handled by the head of state. Relieving the Swedish Monarch from exercise of political powers, although not the key objective from the outset, became an important part on the constitutional reform in the 1970s; the speaker is assisted by three deputy speakers who are elected by the chamber. Traditionally, the second and fourth largest parties gets to name of one of their members for these offices.
There is some disagreement whether the largest party or the leading party of the largest party bloc should hold the speakership. Unlike the speaker, the deputy speakers are not replaced by an alternate and remain members of the Riksdag with voting rights. In case all adult members of the Swedish Royal Family who are in the line of succession to the Throne, as prescribed in the Act of Succession, are out of the country, the Speaker assumes the role of Regent ad interim; this would be the case if they were all to decease. The Speaker chairs the Riksdag Board, which deliberates on the organisation of the work of the Riksdag, directs the work of the Riksdag Administration and decides upon matters of major significance concerning the international contacts programme; the Speaker chairs the War Delegation. Marshal of the Realm County Governors of SwedenHistorical predecessor Lantmarskalk, the presiding officer of the Estate of the Nobility in the Riksdag of the Estates before 1866; the Instrument of Government, in English, The Riksdag.
Retrieved on 2012-11-13. The Speaker - At the Riksdag
Margot Elisabeth Wallström is a Swedish politician, member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. She has served as Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Nordic Cooperation since October 2014, she served as the first United Nations Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict from 2010 to 2012, as Vice-President of the European Commission and European Commissioner for Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy from 2004 to 2010, European Commissioner for the Environment from 1999 to 2004, Minister for Consumer Affairs from 1988 to 1991 and Member of the Riksdag for Värmland from 1982 to 1999. Born in Skellefteå, Wallström is a high school graduate without academic degrees. In 1973, she started her career as a banking clerk at the Alfa Savings bank in Karlstad, she worked there from 1977 to 1979, as an accountant from 1986 to 1987. Wallström was the CEO of a regional TV network in Värmland, Sweden from 1993 to 1994. Before taking up her appointment as EU Commissioner she was executive vice-president of Worldview Global Media in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Wallström has had a long career in politics in the Swedish parliament, the Swedish government, the European Commission. At 25, she was elected to parliament, she was Environment Commissioner from 1999 to 2004, in the Swedish government she was Minister for Consumer Affairs and Youth from 1988 to 1991, Minister for Culture from 1994 to 1996, Minister for Social Affairs from 1996 to 1998. During her time in office, Wallström pushed the European Commission's initial proposal for REACH, a regulation requiring manufacturers of industrial chemicals to test and register their products with the European Chemicals Agency before they can be used. In 2004, she approved the importation of a genetically modified corn from the United States for animal feed after a six-year moratorium, arguing in a statement that the corn produced by biotechnology company Monsanto, known as NK603 maize, had been rigorously tested and was considered “as safe as any conventional maize.” In 2004, Wallström became the first member of the European Commission to operate a blog.
The comments section of her site became a hotspot for arguments concerning the policies of the European Union. After the rejection of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe by French and Dutch voters, Wallström pushed forward her "plan D" to reconnect Citizens with the Union, her work on such platforms, including the backing of the oneseat.eu petition, has given her a good reputation in some quarters being dubbed "the Citizens Commissioner" – but has earned her names like "the Propaganda Commissioner" as well from political opponents. The Economist listed her among the least effective commissioners in 2009. In 2006, Wallström presented her a plan to transform the EU's Europe by Satellite video-broadcast service into an EU news agency. Following Sweden's 2006 election, in which the Social Democratic Party lost power, former Prime Minister Göran Persson announced his withdrawal from politics in March 2007. Wallström was regarded as the favourite candidate to succeed Persson as Social Democratic party leader, but made clear that she did not wish to be considered for the position.
The post instead went to Mona Sahlin. Between 2006 and 2007, Wallström served as member of the Amato Group, a group of high-level European politicians unofficially working on rewriting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe into what became known as the Treaty of Lisbon following its rejection by French and Dutch voters. After the election of Mona Sahlin as party leader, Wallström accepted a membership in a group working to develop political strategies for the upcoming election to the European Parliament in 2009; the membership in this group was considered by Swedish liberal Carl B Hamilton to constitute a breach of the oath every member of the European Commission gives, which states that any member of the commission should work for the community's best interest with no influence from politicians. European Commission spokespeople Mikolaj Dowgielewicz and Pia Ahrenkilde-Hansen stated that her new assignment was not in conflict with her commissioner position. In December 2006, Wallström was voted the most popular woman in Sweden, beating royals and athletes in a survey carried out by ICA-kuriren and Sifo.
In the previous year she had attained second place. Wallström was modest in response stating that "it might be because I'm so far away". On 16 November 2007, Margot Wallström, became Chair of the Council of Women World Leaders Ministerial Initiative; this position was held by former U. S. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright. On 31 January 2010, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, announced at the African Union summit in Ethiopia his intention to nominate Wallström as his first United Nations Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict; as a reaction, Wallström said that she felt "honoured" and "humble" to have been chosen for the job, which she started in April 2010. In August 2010, Ban sent Wallström to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to help investigate claims that rebel fighters raped more than 150 women and baby boys over four days within miles of a UN base in the country. Wallström addressed the United Nations Security Council in a September 2010 session on the use of sexual violence as a weapon by both rebel militias and government troops in the eastern provinces of the DRC.
In her speech, she demonstrated that the rapes in the North Kivu and South Kivu pro
Swedish royal family
The Swedish royal family since 1818 has consisted of a number of persons in the Swedish Royal House of Bernadotte related to the King of Sweden. Today those who are recognized by the government are entitled to royal titles and style, perform official engagements and ceremonial duties of state; the extended family of the King consists of other close relatives who are not royal and thus do not represent the country officially. A Swedish royal family, as related to a head of state, has been able to be identified as existent from as early as the 10th century A. D. with more precise detail added during the three centuries that followed. An exceptional case is that of Saint Bridget who outside of Sweden became known as the Princess of Nericia, a title which appears to have been a noble, rather than a royal one, since she was not the daughter of a king. Confirmed monarchs are listed by the Swedish Royal Court; until the 1620s Swedish provinces were granted as territorial appanages to royal princes which, as dukes thereof, they governed semi-autonomously.
Beginning during the reign of Gustav III, as codified in § 34 of the 1772 Instrument of Government, provincial dukedoms have existed in the royal family as nominal non-hereditary titles only, without any inherent property ownership or trust attached to them. The son of a Swedish king has held the princely title as a royal dynast, but on a rare occasion as a rank of nobility, or as a courtesy title for an ex-dynast; the Swedish Royal Court lists the following persons as members of the Royal House: King Carl XVI Gustaf Queen Silvia Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland Prince Daniel, Duke of Västergötland Princess Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland Prince Oscar, Duke of Skåne, Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Princess Sofia, Duchess of Värmland Prince Alexander, Duke of Södermanland Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland,married to Christopher O'Neill Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland Prince Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland Princess Adrienne, Duchess of Blekinge Princess Birgitta, widow of Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern The Royal Court lists the following persons additionally as members of the Royal Family: Princess Margaretha, Mrs. Ambler, widow of John Ambler Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld, widow of Baron Niclas Silfverschiöld Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, married to Consul General Tord Magnuson Marianne Bernadotte, widow of Sigvard Bernadotte Red-framed persons are deceased.
Notes* Member of the Royal House ** Member of the Royal Family Monarchy of Sweden Dukes of Swedish Provinces Swedish Royal Court Complete list of Sweden's royal family, alphabetically, on Swedish Wikipedia
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden
The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final tier for administrative court cases in Sweden, is located in Stockholm. It has a parallel status to that of the Supreme Court of Sweden, the supreme court for criminal and civil law cases, it hears cases which have been decided by one of the four Administrative courts of appeal, which represent the second tier for administrative court cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided, a leave to appeal must be obtained, only granted when the case is of interest as a precedent; the bulk of its caseload consist of taxation and social security cases. Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court are appointed by government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. By law, there shall be fourteen Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court or such a higher a number as may be required, at the government's discretion; as of 2009, there were eighteen Justices in the court.
One of the Justices serves as president and head of the court, is appointed by the government to this function. Since 3 January 2011, Justice Mats Melin serves as the court's president. In total the court has 100 employees; the court was founded in 1909. Before that, the Supreme Court of Sweden handed administrative court matters as well. From 1972 until 2009, the Supreme Administrative Court resided in the Stenbock Palace on the Riddarholmen islet in central Stockholm. Since 2011 the court sits in the Sparre Palace on Riddarholmen. Courts of Sweden: The Supreme Administrative Court
Government of Sweden
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority of Sweden. The short-form name Regeringen is used both in the Fundamental Laws of the Realm and in the vernacular, while the long-form is only used in international treaties; the Government operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag —and other cabinet ministers and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag. Following the adoption of the 1974 Instrument of Government on 1 January 1975—the Government in its present constitutional form was constituted—and in consequence thereof the Swedish Monarch is no longer vested any nominal executive powers at all with respect to the governance of the Realm, but continues to serve as a ceremonial head of state. Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1; the Instrument of Government —one of the Fundamental Laws of the Realm—sets out the main responsibilities and duties of the Government and how it relates to other organs of the State.
Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1. Most state administrative authorities, as opposed to local authorities, sorts under the Government, including the Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Customs Service and the Swedish police. While the Judiciary technically sort under the Government in the fiscal sense, Chapter 11 of the Instrument of Government provides safeguards to ensure its independence. In a unique feature of the Swedish constitutional system, individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; the Government of Sweden is the high contracting party when entering treaties with foreign sovereign states and international organisations, as per 10:1 of the Instrument of Government. In most other parliamentary systems this formal function is vested in the head of state but exercised by ministers in such name. Chapter 6, Article 7 prescribes that laws and ordinances are promulgated by the Government, are subsequently published in the Swedish Code of Statutes.
Following a general election, Speaker of the Riksdag begins to hold talks with the leaders of the parties with representation in the Riksdag, the Speaker nominates a candidate for Prime Minister. The nomination is put to a vote in the chamber. Unless an absolute majority of the members votes "no", the nomination is confirmed, otherwise it is rejected; the Speaker must find a new nominee. This means. After being elected the Prime Minister appoints the cabinet ministers and announces them to the Riksdag; the new Government takes office at a special council held at the Royal Palace before the Monarch, at which the Speaker of the Riksdag formally announces to the Monarch that the Riksdag has elected a new Prime Minister and that the Prime Minister has chosen his cabinet ministers. The Riksdag can cast a vote of no confidence against any single cabinet minister, thus forcing a resignation. To succeed a vote of no confidence must be supported by an absolute majority or it has failed. If a vote of no confidence is cast against the Prime Minister this means the entire government is rejected.
A losing government has one week to call for a general election or else the procedure of nominating a new Prime Minister starts anew. Each appointment of a new Prime Minister is considered to result in a new cabinet, irrespective if the Prime Minister is reappointed or not. However, there is no automatic resignation following a defeat in a general election, so an election does not always result in a new cabinet. Known as the Royal Chancery, the name was changed to the Government Offices on 1 January 1975 with the current Instrument of Government entering into effect; the Instrument of Government mentions in Chapter 7, Article 1 that there is a staff organization supporting the Government known as the Government Offices. The present organizational charter for the Government Offices is found in the ordinance named Förordning med instruktion för Regeringskansliet. Since the issuance of that ordinance in 1996, all the ministries are technically entities within the Government Offices, rather than as separate organisations though they operate as such.
Below follows a short summary of the current structure. Only current ministries and offices are listed below: Government Offices Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Justice Ministry for Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defence Ministry of Health and Social Affairs