Social democracy is a political and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist economy. The protocols and norms used to accomplish this involve a commitment to representative and participatory democracy, measures for income redistribution and regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Social democracy thus aims to create the conditions for capitalism to lead to greater democratic and solidaristic outcomes. Due to longstanding governance by social democratic parties and their influence on socioeconomic policy development in the Nordic countries, in policy circles social democracy has become associated with the Nordic model in the latter part of the 20th century. Social democracy originated as a political ideology that advocated an evolutionary and peaceful transition from capitalism to socialism using established political processes in contrast to the revolutionary approach to transition associated with orthodox Marxism.
In the early post-war era in Western Europe, social democratic parties rejected the Stalinist political and economic model current in the Soviet Union, committing themselves either to an alternative path to socialism or to a compromise between capitalism and socialism. In this period, social democrats embraced a mixed economy based on the predominance of private property, with only a minority of essential utilities and public services under public ownership; as a result, social democracy became associated with Keynesian economics, state interventionism and the welfare state while abandoning the prior goal of replacing the capitalist system with a qualitatively different socialist economic system. With the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right by the 1980s, most social democratic parties have incorporated Third Way ideology, which aims to fuse liberal economics with social democratic welfare policies. Modern social democracy is characterized by a commitment to policies aimed at curbing inequality, oppression of underprivileged groups and poverty, including support for universally accessible public services like care for the elderly, child care, health care and workers' compensation.
The social democratic movement has strong connections with the labour movement and trade unions which are supportive of collective bargaining rights for workers as well as measures to extend decision-making beyond politics into the economic sphere in the form of co-determination for employees and other economic stakeholders. During late 19th and early 20th centuries, social democracy was a movement that aimed to replace private ownership with social ownership of the means of production, taking influences from both Marxism and the supporters of Ferdinand Lassalle. By 1868–1869, Marxism had become the official theoretical basis of the first social democratic party established in Europe, the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany. In the early 20th century, the German social democratic politician Eduard Bernstein rejected the ideas in classical and orthodox Marxism that proposed a specific historical progression and revolution as a means to achieve social equality, advanced the position that socialism should be grounded in ethical and moral arguments for social justice and egalitarianism, was to be achieved through gradual legislative reform.
Influenced by Bernstein, following the split between reformists and revolutionary socialists in the Second International social democratic parties rejected revolutionary politics in favor of parliamentary reform while remaining committed to socialization. In this period, social democracy became associated with reformist socialism. Under the influence of politicians like Carlo Rosselli in Italy, social democrats began disassociating themselves from Marxism altogether and embraced liberal socialism, appealing to morality instead of any consistent systematic, scientific or materialist worldview. Social democracy made appeals to communitarian and sometimes nationalist sentiments while rejecting the economic and technological determinism characteristic of both Marxism and economic liberalism. By the post-World War II period, most social democrats in Europe had abandoned their ideological connection to Marxism and shifted their emphasis toward social policy reform in place of transition from capitalism to socialism.
The origins of social democracy have been traced to the 1860s, with the rise of the first major working-class party in Europe, the General German Workers' Association founded by Ferdinand Lassalle. 1864 saw the founding of the International Workingmen's Association known as the First International. It brought together socialists of various stances and occasioned a conflict between Karl Marx and the anarchists led by Mikhail Bakunin over the role of the state in socialism, with Bakunin rejecting any role for the state. Another issue in the First International was the role of reformism. Although Lassalle was not a Marxist, he was influenced by the theories of Marx and Friedrich Engels and he accepted the existence and importance of class struggle. However, unlike Marx's and Engels's The Communist Manifesto, Lassalle promoted class struggle in a more moderate form. While Marx viewed the state negatively as an instrument of class rule that should only exist temporarily upon the rise to power of the proletariat and dismantled, Lassalle accepted the state.
Lassalle viewed the state as a means through which workers could enhance their interests and transform the society to create an economy based on worker-run cooperatives. Lassalle's strategy was electoral and reformist, with Lassalleans contending that the working c
Arturo Umberto Illia
Arturo Umberto Illia Francesconi was an Argentine politician and physician, President of Argentina from 12 October 1963, to 28 June 1966. He was a member of the centrist Radical Civic Union. Arturo Umberto Illia was born August 4, 1900, in Pergamino, Buenos Aires Province, to Emma Francesconi and Martín Illia, Italian immigrants from the Lombardy Region, he enrolled in the School of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires in 1918. That year, he joined the movement for University reform in Argentina, which first emerged in the city of Córdoba, set the basis for a free and public university system less influenced by the Catholic Church; this development changing the concept and administration of higher education in Argentina, in a good portion of Latin America. As a part of his medical studies, Illia begun working in the San Juan de Dios Hospital in the city of La Plata, obtaining his degree in 1927. In 1928 he had an interview with President Hipólito Yrigoyen, the longtime leader of the centrist UCR, the first freely-elected President of Argentina.
Illia offered him his services as a physician, Yrigoyen, in turn, offered him a post as railroad physician in different parts of the country, upon which Illia decided to move to scenic Cruz del Eje, in Cordoba Province. He worked there as a physician from 1929 until 1963, except for three years in which he was Vice-Governor of the province. On February 15, 1939, he married Silvia Elvira Martorell, had three children: Emma Silvia, Martín Arturo and Leandro Hipólito. Martín Illia was elected to Congress in 1995, served until his death in 1999. Gabriela Michetti, elected Vice President in 2015, is a great-grandniece of Illia. Arturo Illia became a member of the Radical Civic Union when he reached adulthood, in 1918, under the strong influence of the radical militancy of his father and of his brother, Italo; that same year, he began his university studies, with the events of the aforementioned Universitarian Reform taking place in the country. From 1929 onwards, after moving to Cruz del Eje, he began intense political activity, which he alternated with his professional life.
In 1935 he was elected Provincial Senator for the Department of Cruz del Eje, in the elections that took place on November 17. In the Provincial Senate, he participated in the approval of the Law of Agrarian Reform, passed in the Córdoba Legislature but rejected in the National Congress, he was head of the Budget and Treasury Commission, pressed for the construction of dams, namely Nuevo San Roque, La Viña, Cruz del Eje and Los Alazanes. In the elections that took place on March 10, 1940, he was elected Vice-Governor of Córdoba Province, with Santiago del Castillo, who became governor, he occupied this post until the provincial government was replaced by the newly installed dictatorship of General Pedro Ramírez, in 1943. From 1948 to 1952, Illia served in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies. Working in a Congress dominated by the Peronist Party, he took an active part in the Public Works and Medical Assistance Commissions. After the fall of the government of Juan Perón in 1955, a long period of political instability took over Argentina.
During this period, the army became the Praetorian Guard over the politics of the country, though elections still took place, these were marked by a considerable lack of legitimacy, since Peronism was banned during this period. From 1955 to 1963 the country had five presidents, of which only Arturo Frondizi was democratically elected. Frondizi governed the country from May 1, 1958, until his overthrow on March 29, 1962, in a military coup. Frondizi's removal was precipitated by his lifting the ban on Peronism ahead of the March 1962 mid-term elections. Among those affected was Illia, though a UCR candidate, was thus barred from office following his election as Governor of Córdoba. After the fall of Frondizi, the President of the Senate, José María Guido, became interim President of the country, starting a process of'normalization' which led to new elections on July 7, 1963; the 1963 elections were made possible by support from the moderate, "Blue" faction of the Argentine military, led by the Head of the Joint Chiefs, General Juan Carlos Onganía and by the Internal Affairs Minister, General Osiris Villegas.
Together, they exercised control over Guido's puppet presidency – though they shared his commitment to elections. The UCR, out of power since Yrigoyen's 1930 overthrow, had been divided since their contentious 1956 convention into the mainstream "People's UCR" and the center-left UCRI; the leader of the UCRP, Ricardo Balbín, withdrew his name from the March 10 nominating convention and instead supported a less conservative, less anti-Peronist choice, the party nominated Dr. Illia for President and Entre Ríos Province lawyer Carlos Perette as his running-mate. A military ban on the Popular Front organized by Perón and Frondizi led to their joint call for blank voting as a means of protest; the moderately anti-Peronist UCRP was hampered by former President Pedro Aramburu's candidacy, which made opposition to Perón central to its platform. However, Illia would win, despite carrying only a fourth of the vote, he "defeated" the blank vote option by 4 points; the results were: People's Radical Civic Union: 2,441,000 Intransigent Radical Civic Union: 1,593,000 UDELPA-PDP alliance: 1,346,000 Others: 2,272,000 Blank and invalid votes: 2,058,000In the electoral college on Ju
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Rodolfo Terragno is an Argentine politician and lawyer, former Senator and journalist. Terragno was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1943 and obtained a Law Degree from the University of Buenos Aires in 1967, founding the law firm of Terragno & Associates, he married Sonia Pascual Sánchez. He became a prestigious journalist, appointed editor-in-chief for the newsmagazine Confirmado between 1967 and 1968, was a columnist for La Opinión newspaper, an editor in Cuestionario magazine. Terragno became Adjuct Professor of Law at his alma mater in 1973. Intimidation by the dictatorship installed in 1976 led to his exile in Caracas, where he became editor-in-chief of El Diario de Caracas. In 1980, he was appointed researcher for the Institute of Latin American Studies in London and for the London School of Economics, posts he held until 1982, he remained in London as editor-in-chief of Letters, until 1987. Affiliated to the centrist Radical Civic Union since 1961, he was appointed Minister of Public Works by President Raúl Alfonsín in 1987, whereby he initiated a modest program of privatizations.
Terragno received the Ordre National du Mérite from French President François Mitterrand, in 1987. Elected Congressman in 1993, he campaigned against the Olivos Pact negotiated between UCR leader Raúl Alfonsín and President Carlos Menem, who sought the deal in a bid to amend the Argentine Constitution to allow himself reelection, he sought the UCR's Vice-Presidential nomination in a ticket with Federico Storani, but was defeated by Alfonsín's choice: Río Negro Province Governor Horacio Massaccesi. Loyal to the struggling UCR, he agreed to be Massaccesi's Chief of Staff-designate in March, a move that did not stave off defeat in the May 1995 elections. Out of Congress, he sought and won election as President of the UCR, helping negotiate a successful alliance with the center-left Frepaso; the Alliance's victory in the 1997 midterm elections paved the way for their victory in 1999. Terragno resigned from Congress to accept the influential post of Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers for President Fernando de la Rúa, though fallout over a bribery scandal involving the President led to his resignation in October 2000.
He was elected Senator for Buenos Aires in 2001 and served until 2007, by which time he sat on a splinter UCR ticket. Terragno began efforts to join Vice President Julio Cobos in an alliance with ARI leader Elisa Carrió in January 2009, though no agreement was reached. La Simulación El Peronismo de los'70 Falklands/Malvinas Maitland & San Martín Bases para un Modelo de Crecimiento, Empleo y Bienestar El Nuevo Modelo Proyecto 95 La Argentina del Siglo 21 The Challenge of Real Development. Muerte y Resurrección de los Políticos Memorias del Presente Contratapas Los 400 Días de Perón Los Dueños del Poder Official website Biography at the National Senate
Leandro N. Alem
Leandro Nicéforo Alem was an Argentine politician, a founder and leader of the Radical Civic Union. Alem was the uncle and political teacher of Hipólito Yrigoyen, he was an active Freemason. Born in Buenos Aires, his father was the chief of Governor of Buenos Aires Province Juan Manuel de Rosas' political police, the Mazorca, he was executed after the battle of Caseros. The young Leandro changed his surname from Alen to Alem to mitigate associations with him. In 1859, being only 18 years old, he took part in the battles of Cepeda and Pavón, in 1865, he joined the war against Paraguay. After this he returned to Buenos Aires to finish his law studies, he had democratic, anti-authoritarian ideas, in 1868, he joined Adolfo Alsina's Autonomist Party, where he showed a skill for incisive rhetorics in public debates. Alem was elected diputado at the provincial legislature of Buenos Aires in 1871. In 1874, he went on to become National Deputy, Senator, he opposed the federalization of the city of Buenos Aires, required by the Constitution.
When it was passed by the legislature, he resigned to it and became the intellectual leader of a group of discontents that sought to produce changes in Argentine politics. In 1877, he and his friend Aristóbulo del Valle founded the Republican Party. In 1889, Argentina was within a deep political and economic crisis, worsened by the corruption and abuse of power of President Miguel Juárez Celman. In this context, Alem organized the Civic Union of the Youth. In July 1890, Alem was one of the leaders of the Revolución del Parque revolt that forced Juárez Celman to resign; when Vice-President Carlos Pellegrini took charge in his stead, Alem renewed his opposition, lending support to uprisings against the national government in the provinces. After a failed uprising in 1893, Alem saw. Feeling disappointed and betrayed, he committed suicide on 1 July 1896, by shooting himself in his right temple inside a carriage. Today, his remains are buried in the Memorial of the Fallen in the 1890 Revolution, in the La Recoleta Cemetery of Buenos Aires.
There are two cities called Leandro N. Alem in Argentina, one in the province of Misiones and another one in the north-west of Buenos Aires. There is a small town in San Luis with this name. Parque Alem, one of two large parks in Rosario, Santa Fe, is named after Alem, has a heroic statue of him, trying to bend a quebracho log, representing the motto of the Radical Civic Union, Se quiebra pero no se dobla; the sculptor was Guillermo Gianninazzi. Leandro Alem, el fundador - A romantic biography. Links to poems, eulogies, etc. Biography at Clarín's website
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa