Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Samuel Montagu, 1st Baron Swaythling
Samuel Montagu, 1st Baron Swaythling was a British banker who founded the bank of Samuel Montagu & Co. He was a philanthropist and Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1900, was raised to the peerage. Montagu was a pious Orthodox Jew, devoted himself to social services and advancing Jewish institutions. Montagu was born in Liverpool as Montagu Samuel, the second son of Louis Samuel, a watchmaker of Liverpool, his wife, Henrietta Israel, daughter of Israel Israel of Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, London, he was educated at the High School of Liverpool Mechanics' Institute as Samuel Montagu. In 1853 he founded the bank of Samuel Montagu as a foreign banker. Montagu's commitment to Jewish causes included both initiatives aimed at improving the lot of Jews in England, his participation in the proto-Zionist "Lovers of Zion" movement, he was involved in founding new synagogues, in establishing the Federation of Synagogues in 1887, an umbrella body for the small Orthodox congregations in the East End of London.
By 1911, the Federation represented 51 London congregations, which made it the largest synagogal body in UK. This rapid growth brought Montagu into conflict with Nathan Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild and the United Synagogue. Montagu's funding helped the Federation secure the services of distinguished rabbinical scholars such as Dr Mayer Lerner of Wurzheim in 1890 and the Maggid of Kamenitsk, Chaim Zundel Maccoby. In 1889 Montagu stated that "one of the principal objects of the Federation was to endeavour to raise the social condition of the Jews in East London and to prevent anything like anarchy and socialism…The blessings of the Patriarchs that they would increase their cattle and amass wealth, the prophecy would never cease out of the land, were in themselves evidence that Judaism did not recognise anything like social equality amongst all classes of people." Historian Geoffrey Alderman has described the Federation as the ‘largest single instrument of Anglicization, as well as social control, that Anglo-Jewry possessed.’ Montagu was elected at the 1885 general election Liberal Member of Parliament for Whitechapel, held the seat until he stood down at the 1900 general election.
His campaign in 1885 was run against his brother-in-law, Lionel Louis Cohen, controversially running as a Conservative. As a Yiddish-speaker, Montagu was able to appeal to the many immigrants within his constituency on religious grounds, arguing in 1886 that he hoped "not a single Jew would vote Conservative". From 1887 to 1890, he was a member of the Silver Commission, he was created a Baronet, of South Stoneham House in the County of Southampton and of Kensington Palace Gardens in the County of London, on 23 June 1894. In September 1888, after the murder of Annie Chapman at the hands of an unknown man called Jack the Ripper, Montagu tried to offer a reward of £100 for the discovery and conviction of the criminal; the Home Office did not accept the offer. Montagu offered it because the Whitechapel murders resulted in some anti-semitic incidents against the East End population. In 1893, on behalf of the English "Lovers of Zion", Montagu presented a petition in favour of Jewish colonisation in Palestine to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.
He asked. The petition was evidence that what was to become political Zionism had taken root in the minds of both Christian researchers of Palestine, Jewish activists in search for solutions to the so-called "Jewish question". Montagu presented land he owned in Jeremys Green Lane, Edmonton—now known as Montagu Road—to the Federation of Synagogues as a burial strip. At that time he was aware of the overcrowding in his constituency, wanted to encourage Jewish families to move to the suburbs. In 1898, he proposed that land south of Salmons Brook, Edmonton—some 25 acres in all—be used to construct 700 houses, to house between 3000 and 4000 people; the houses were to have low rents and to include small gardens, with preference given to those living in Whitechapel. He first proposed the project to the LCC, Edmonton UDC. In 1899, after the proposals were rejected, Montagu subsequently gave £10,000 towards LCC housing on the White Hart Lane estate,Tottenham. Towards the end of his life, Montagu lived at South Stoneham House at Swaythling, a suburb of Southampton.
In 1907, Montagu was raised to the peerage as Baron Swaythling, of Swaythling in the County of Southampton. Montagu died in January 1911, aged 78. Montagu married Ellen Cohen, daughter of Louis Cohen, in 1862, his eldest child Henrietta was known for improving children's education whilst his daughter Lily helped to establish Liberal Judaism. He was succeeded in the baronetcy and barony by his eldest son Louis Montagu, co-founder of the anti-Zionist League of British Jews, his second son Edwin Samuel Montagu followed his father into politics, becoming Secretary of State for India. In 1915 Edwin Montagu married Venetia Stanley, who in accordance with the will of the 1st Baron Swaythling converted to Judaism upon her marriage. Lord Swaythling's nephew was the leading Liberal politician and philosopher Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel, the first High Commissioner of Mandate Palestine. Samuel Montagu was the maternal grandfather of the medical researcher Philip D’Arcy Hart and of the lawyer Walter D'Arcy Hart.
Montagu is the great-grandfather of the 2016 Nobel Prize winning economist Oliver Hart. 1832–1885: Mr Samuel Montagu 1885–1894: Mr Samuel Montagu 1894–1900: Sir Samuel Montagu 1
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Bishop of Winchester
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England. The bishop's seat is at Winchester Cathedral in Hampshire; the Bishop of Winchester is appointed by the Crown, is one of five Church of England bishops who sit ex officio among the 26 Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords, regardless of their length of service. The Diocese of Winchester is one of the most important in England, it was the see of the kingdom of Wessex, with the cathedra at Dorchester Cathedral under Saints Birinus and Agilbert. It was transferred to Winchester in AD 660. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the wealthiest English sees and its bishops have included a number of politically prominent Englishmen, notably the 9th century Saint Swithun and medieval magnates including William of Wykeham and Henry of Blois. A cathedral at Dorchester was founded in 634 by the Roman missionary Saint Birinus, it was the seat of a Bishop of the West Saxons. Winchester was divided in AD 909, with Wiltshire and Berkshire transferring to the new See of Ramsbury.
The domains of the Bishop of Winchester ran from the south coast to the south bank of the River Thames at Southwark, where the bishop had one of his palaces, making it one of the largest as well as one of the richest sees in the land. In more modern times, the former extent of the Diocese of Winchester was reduced by the formation of a new diocese of Southwark in south London, a new diocese of Guildford in Surrey and a new diocese of Portsmouth in Hampshire; the most recent loss of territory was in 2014 when the Channel Islands were removed from the diocese of Winchester after a dispute with Bishop Tim Dakin led to a breakdown in relations. However, this arrangement is expressed to be an interim one and will not become permanent; the Channel Islands remain part of the Diocese of Winchester under a scheme of episcopal delegation. The Bishop of Winchester delegated his episcopal authority in relation to the Channel Islands to the Archbishop of Canterbury who in turn placed the Channel Islands under the pastoral supervision of the Bishop of Dover.
The Channel Islands have not been incorporated within another diocese. Traditionally, in the general order of precedence before 1533, the Bishop of Winchester was given precedence over all other diocesan bishops - that is, the first English bishop in rank behind the archbishops of Canterbury and York, but in 1533, Henry VIII of England raised the rank of the Bishop of London and the Bishop of Durham, relegating Winchester to third. The Bishop of Winchester has always held the office of Prelate of the Order of the Garter since its foundation in 1348; the official residence of the Bishop of Winchester is Wolvesey Palace in Winchester. Other historic homes of the bishops included Farnham Castle, Bishop’s Waltham Palace and a town residence at Winchester Palace in Southwark, Surrey; the bishop is the visitor to five Oxford colleges, including New College, Oxford and St John's College, Oxford. The current Bishop of Winchester, Tim Dakin, was enthroned on 21 April 2012, having been elected on 14 October 2011.
He was consecrated as a bishop at St Paul's Cathedral, London, on 25 January 2012. Deans of Winchester Diocese of Winchester The Bishop of Winchester Academy
Pannage is the practice of releasing livestock-pigs in a forest, so that they can feed on fallen acorns, chestnuts or other nuts. It was a right or privilege granted to local people on common land or in royal forests. In the eastern shires of England, pannage was so prominent a value in the economic importance of woodland that it was employed, as in Domesday Book, as a measurement. Customarily, a pig was given to the lord of the manor for every certain number of pigs loosed de herbagio, as the right of pannage was entered. Edward Hasted quotes the Domesday Survey details for Norton in Kent. "Wood for the pannage of forty hogs". Pannage is no longer carried out in most areas, but is still observed in the New Forest of Southern England, where it is known as common of mast, it is still an important part of the forest ecology, helps the husbandry of the other New Forest livestock – pigs can safely eat acorns as a large part of their diet, whereas excessive amounts may be poisonous to ponies and cattle.
The minimum duration of the New Forest pannage season is 60 days, but the start date varies according to the weather – and when the acorns fall. The Court of Verderers decides. At other times, pigs are not allowed to roam on the forest, with the exception that breeding sows are by custom allowed out, providing that they return to the owner's holding at night and are not a nuisance; the pigs each have several nose rings clipped into their noses to prevent them rooting too much and causing damage to grassland. Pannage had two useful purposes in Medieval times: It was a method of fattening the pigs for slaughterPigs were the "roto-rooters" of their day. In rooting around looking for nuts, they turned the soil and broke it; the advantage of pigs rooting into it was that the soil was kept from packing down and would release nutrients for plant growth. "Pannage". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. 1911. P. 680. Local government website detailing the Common rights in the New Forest New Forest Verderers' Court Pigging out in the forest: the Common of Mast in Britain
Godfrey de Luci
Godfrey de Luci was a medieval Bishop of Winchester. Godfrey de Luci was the second son of his wife Rohese, he had an elder brother Geoffrey, three sisters, Maud and Aveline. Godfrey was dean of St. Martin le Grand in London before being appointed Archdeacon of Derby in the diocese of Lichfield about 1171, he was Archdeacon of Richmond in the diocese of York before 18 August 1184. He held prebends in the dioceses of Exeter, Lincoln and Salisbury, he was a royal justice. Godfrey was nominated to the see of Winchester 15 September 1189 and consecrated as Bishop 22 October 1189. Godfrey was named the guardian of his nephews, sons of his elder brother, but they died without heirs and the lands were divided between their sisters. In 1194, he fell out of favour with King Richard, but by the start of King John's reign he had recovered his lands. Godfrey died on 12 September. British History Online Archdeacons of Richmond accessed on 2 November 2007 British History Online Bishops of Winchester accessed on 2 November 2007 Fryde, E. B..
Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. Turner, Ralph V.. "Exercise of the King's Will in Inheritance of Baronies: The Example of King John and William Briwerre". Albion. 22: 383–401. Doi:10.2307/4051178
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England. The county town is the city of Winchester, its two largest cities and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. First settled about 14,000 years ago, Hampshire's history dates to Roman Britain, when its chief town was Winchester; when the Romans left Britain, the area was infiltrated by tribes from Scandinavia and mainland Europe, principally in the river valleys. The county was recorded in the 11th century Domesday Book, divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent and cloth manufacture in the county, the fishing industry, a shipbuilding industry was established. By the 16th century, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester. By the mid-19th century, with the county's population at 219,210 in more than 86,000 dwellings, agriculture was the principal industry and 10 per cent of the county was still forest. Hampshire played a crucial military role in both World Wars.
The Isle of Wight left the county to form its own in 1974. The county's geography is varied, with upland to 286 metres and south-flowing rivers. There are areas of downland and marsh, two national parks: the New Forest, part of the South Downs, which together cover 45 per cent of Hampshire. Hampshire is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with an unemployment rate lower than the national average, its economy derived from major companies, maritime and tourism. Tourist attractions include the national parks and the Southampton Boat Show; the county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr; the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.
From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. Hampshire was the departure point of some of those who left England to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire; the towns of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Portsmouth, Virginia take their names from Portsmouth in Hampshire. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland; the first inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The majority of the population would have been concentrated around the river valleys. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, sea levels rose. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, with it a neolithic culture.
Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers. Hillforts declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown.
By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta Belgarum, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, a major port; the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia quickly. It is believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace; the part of th