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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language. For example, in English, the aspirated form are allophones for the phoneme /t/, while these two are considered to be different phonemes in some languages such as Thai and Hindi. On the other hand, in Spanish, are allophones for the phoneme /d/, while these two are considered to be different phonemes in English; the specific allophone selected in a given situation is predictable from the phonetic context, with such allophones being called positional variants, but some allophones occur in free variation. Replacing a sound by another allophone of the same phoneme does not change the meaning of a word, but the result may sound non-native or unintelligible. Native speakers of a given language perceive one phoneme in the language as a single distinctive sound and are "both unaware of and shocked by" the allophone variations that are used to pronounce single phonemes.

The term "allophone" was coined by Benjamin Lee Whorf circa 1929. In doing so, he placed a cornerstone in consolidating early phoneme theory; the term was popularized by George L. Trager and Bernard Bloch in a 1941 paper on English phonology and went on to become part of standard usage within the American structuralist tradition. Whenever a user's speech is vocalized for a given phoneme, it is different from other utterances for the same speaker; that has led to some debate over how real and how universal phonemes are. Only some of the variation is significant, by being perceivable, to speakers. There are two types of allophones, based on whether a phoneme must be pronounced using a specific allophone in a specific situation or whether the speaker has the unconscious freedom to choose the allophone, used. If a specific allophone from a set of allophones that correspond to a phoneme must be selected in a given context, using a different allophone for a phoneme would cause confusion or make the speaker sound non-native, the allophones are said to be complementary.

The allophones complement each other, one of them is not used in a situation in which the usage of another is standard. For complementary allophones, each allophone is used in a specific phonetic context and may be involved in a phonological process. In other cases, the speaker can select from free variant allophones on personal habit or preference, but free variant allophones are still selected in the specific context, not the other way around. Another example of an allophone is assimilation, in which a phoneme is to sound more like another phoneme. One example of assimilation is consonant voicing and devoicing, in which voiceless consonants are voiced before and after voiced consonants, voiced consonants are devoiced before and after voiceless consonants. An allotone is a tonic allophone, such as the neutral tone in Standard Mandarin. There are many allophonic processes in English: lack of plosion, nasal plosion, partial devoicing of sonorants, complete devoicing of sonorants, partial devoicing of obstruents and shortening vowels, retraction.

Aspiration: In English, a voiceless plosive /p, t, k/ is aspirated if it is at the beginning of the first or a stressed syllable in a word. For example, as in pin and as in spin are allophones for the phoneme /p/ because they cannot distinguish words. English-speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different: the first is aspirated and the second is unaspirated. Many languages treat the two phones differently. Nasal plosion – In English, a plosive has nasal plosion if it is followed by a nasal, whether within a word or across a word boundary. Partial devoicing of sonorants: In English, sonorants are devoiced after a voiceless sound in the same syllable. Complete devoicing of sonorants: In English, a sonorant is devoiced after an aspirated plosive. Partial devoicing of obstruents: In English, a voiced obstruent is devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound within a word or across a word boundary. Retraction: In English, /t, d, n, l/ are retracted before /r/; because the choice among allophones is under conscious control, few people realize their existence.

English-speakers may be unaware of the differences among six allophones of the phoneme /t/: unreleased as in cat, aspirated as in top, glottalized as in button, flapped as in American English water, nasalized flapped as in winter, none of the above as in stop. However, they may become aware of the differences if, for example, they contrast the pronunciations of the following words: Night rate: unreleased Nitrate: aspirated or retracted A flame, held before the lips while those words are spoken flickers more for the aspirated nitrate than for the unaspirated night rate; the difference can be felt by holding the hand in front of the lips. For a Mandarin-speaker, for whom /t/ and /tʰ/ are separate phonemes, the English distinction is much more obvious than for an English-speaker, who has learned since childhood to ignore the distinction. Allophones of English / l / may be noticed. Again, the difference is much more obvious to a Turkish-speaker, for whom /l/ and /ɫ/ are separate phonemes

Ichigo Kurosaki

Ichigo Kurosaki is a fictional character in the Bleach manga series and its adaptations created by Tite Kubo. He is the main protagonist of the series, who receives Soul Reaper powers after befriending Rukia Kuchiki, the Soul Reaper assigned to patrol around the fictional city of Karakura Town; these powers come at the cost of Rukia's own, as a result, Ichigo concedes to work as Rukia's stand-in, fighting to protect people from evil spirits called Hollows and sending good spirits, wholes, to a dimension known as the Soul Society. In addition to the manga series, Ichigo appears in many other pieces of Bleach media, including the anime series, the four featured films, the two original video animations, rock musicals, several video games, light novels and the 2018 live-action film. Kubo said that Ichigo was created to replace Rukia as the protagonist of the series because he felt she wasn't suited for the role, his character has been well received among both reviewers. Ichigo is featured in Weekly Shōnen Jump character popularity polls.

He was ranked as the most popular character in Bleach. The 2007 Japanese Newtype magazine polls ranked Ichigo as one of the top 100 most-loved anime characters. Reviewers of the series have praised his personality, though some consider him to be a stereotypical anti-hero. Merchandise based on Ichigo's likeness has been released, including toys and action figures. In the animated adaptations of Bleach, Ichigo is voiced by Masakazu Morita in Japanese. In the English adaptations, he is voiced by Johnny Yong Bosch. In the live-action film, he is played by Sota Fukushi; when drawing the manga series, Kubo commented that Rukia Kuchiki, the first Bleach character he introduced, was intended to be the protagonist. Through subsequent development of the series, Kubo decided to make her a valued ally and instead introduced Ichigo as the central character. Initial design sketches show Ichigo wearing glasses, having dark hair and softer eyes; when designing Rukia, Kubo modified Ichigo's appearance to contrast with hers, giving Ichigo orange hair, a trademark scowl, removing the glasses.

During the series' first chapter, Ichigo's wristwatch was based on one Kubo himself wore at the time. In chapters, his wristwatch was based on Naoto Fukasawa's W11K cellphone. According to Kubo, along with Orihime Inoue, are the most arduous characters to sketch. While illustrating one of Ichigo's scenes, Kubo found. Kubo has stated that Ichigo's greatest strength is his thoughtful nature. However, he noted it as his greatest weakness, since worrying about his friends tends to put him in danger; when asked in an interview if he had any plans to focus on the love triangle between Ichigo and Rukia, Kubo chose neither to confirm nor deny it as he didn't want to focus on romance. Kubo attributes Ichigo's popularity among readers to the fact that he "looks cool", he mentioned that as people read more about him they will discover that he is a warm and kind-hearted person. Following over fifty volumes of the manga's released, Kubo believes that Ichigo was the most developed character, he said that Ichigo introduces readers to the events in it.

When the Arrancar arc ended, Kubo rebooted the series which resulted in Ichigo losing his Soul Reaper powers. In the same way Ichigo became a Soul Reaper during the series' first chapter. Ichigo is voiced by Masakazu Morita in the Japanese anime, while as a child he is voiced by Yuki Matsuoka. Morita said that Ichigo was one of his favorite characters he played alongside Tidus from Final Fantasy X. Johnny Yong Bosch voices him in the English dub as a teenager, Mona Marshall as a kid. While describing Ichigo as one of his best roles, Morita notes that voicing him can be at times difficult. Bosch has enjoyed voicing Ichigo's character due to his personal interest in the character's morals. However, he experienced difficulty voicing him in some scenes. Sota Fukushi portrays Ichigo in the live-action adaptation of the series which adapts the storyline's first arc, with Johnny Yong Bosch reprising his role in the film's English dub. Ichigo is one of the teenagers having the ability to see ghosts, he meets a Soul Reaper named Rukia Kuchiki from a secret organization called the Soul Society who are in charge of sending souls to the afterlife.

At the same time, Ichigo's family is attacked by a Hollow, a deceased spirit that became a warped soul-eating monster which Soul Reapers deal with. After being wounded in an attempt to shield Ichigo from a Hollow attack, Rukia transmits her Soul Reaper powers to him so he can save his family. In following months, Ichigo acts in Rukia's place as the Soul Reaper in protecting Karakura Town from Hollows as their friendship continues to bloom. Ichigo's past is revealed as he faces the Grand Fisher, a hollow who killed his mother when he was nine years old. In time, the Soul Society sends two high-seated officers to take Rukia back for committing the crime of transferring her Soul Reaper powers to a human. In training with Kisuke Urahara in order to rescue Rukia, Ichigo obtains his own Soul Reaper powers and learns the name of his Zanpakutō, Zangetsu. In his search for Rukia, Ichigo is confronted by members of Gotei 13, the main military force in the Soul Society; as he approaches the prison where Rukia is being held captive, Ichigo does battle with and defeats enemy Soul Reapers including Renji Abarai, Kenpachi Zaraki, Byakuya Kuchiki, who adopted Rukia as his sister.

For his

Karl Salomo Zachariae von Lingenthal

Karl Salomo Zachariae von Lingenthal, German jurist, was born at Meissen in Saxony, the son of a lawyer and was the father of Karl Eduard Zachariae. Von Lingenthal received his early education at the famous public school of St. Afra in Meissen and studied philosophy, history and jurisprudence at the University of Leipzig. In 1792 he went to Wittenberg University as tutor to one of the counts of Lippe, continued his legal studies. In 1794 he became Privatdozent, lecturing on Canon law, in 1798 extraordinary professor, 1802 ordinary professor of feudal law. From that time to his death in 1843, with the exception of a short period in which public affairs occupied him, he poured out a succession of works covering the whole field of jurisprudence, was a copious contributor to periodicals. In 1807 he received a call to Heidelberg beginning its period of splendour as a school of law. There, resisting many calls to Göttingen and other universities, he remained until his death. In 1820 he took his seat, as representative of his university, in the upper house of the newly constituted parliament of Baden.

Though he himself prepared many reforms - notably in the harsh criminal code - he was, by instinct and conviction and opposed to the violent democratic spirit which dominated the second chamber, brought it into conflict with the grand-duke and the German federal government. After the remodelling of the constitution in a "reactionary" sense, he was returned, in 1825, by the district of Heidelberg to the second chamber, of which he became the first vice-president, in which he proved himself more "loyal" than the government itself. With the growth of parliamentary Liberalism, however, he grew disgusted with politics, from which he retired altogether in 1829, he devoted himself wholly to juridical work and to the last days of his life toiled with the ardour of a young student. The German universities enjoyed, in regard to legal questions of international importance, a moral jurisdiction dating from the Middle Ages, Zachariae was consulted as to questions arising in Germany and England. Elaborate "opinions," some of them forming veritable treatises - e.g. on Sir Augustus d'Este's claim to the dukedom of Sussex, Baron de Bode's claim as an English subject to a share in the French indemnity, the dispute as to the debts due to the elector of Hesse-Kassel, confiscated by Napoleon, the constitutional position of the Mecklenburg landowners - were composed by Zachariae.

Large fees which he received for these opinions and the great popularity of his lectures made him rich, he was able to buy several estates. He died on 27 March 1843, he had married in 1811, but his wife died four years leaving him a son, Karl Eduard. Zachariae's writings are multifarious, they deal with every branch of jurisprudence. The first book of much consequence which he published was Die Einheit des Staats und der Kirche mit Rücksicht auf die Deutsche Reichsverfassung, a work on the relations of church and state, with special reference to the constitution of the empire, which displayed the writer's power of analysis and his skill in making a complicated set of facts appear to be deductions from a few principles. In 1805 appeared Versuch einer allgemeinen Hermeneutik des Rechts; this basis he seemed to discover in something resembling Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism. Zachariae's last work of importance was Vierzig Bücher vom Staate, to which his admirers point as his enduring monument, it has been compared to Montesquieu's L'Esprit des lois, The Spirit of the Laws and covers no small part of the field of Buckle's first volume of the History of Civilization.

But though it contains proof of vast erudition and many original ideas as to the future of the state and of law, it lacks logical sequence, is full of contradictions. Its fundamental theory is that the state had its origin, not in a contract, but in the consciousness of a legal duty. What Machiavelli was to the Italians and Montesquieu to the French, Zachariae aspired to become to the Germans. Among other important works of Zachariae are his Staatsrecht, his treatise on the Code Napoléon, Handbuch des Französischen Civilrechts, of which several French editions were published, and, translated into Italian, he referred in his work to the importance of Roman Codification. Zachariae edited with Karl Joseph Mittermaier the Kritische Zeitschrift für Rechtswissenschaft und Gesetzgebung des Auslandes, the introduction which he wrote illustrates his wide reading and his constant desire for new light upon old problems. Though Zachariae's works have been superseded, they were in their day epoch-making, they have been superseded by books which, without them, could not have been written.

For an account of Zachariae and his works, see Robert von Mohl, Geschichte u. Literatur der Staatswissenschaften, Charles Brocher, K. S. Zachariae, sa vie et ses oeuvres. Deutsche Biographie by Wilhelm Fischer, "Zachariae von Lingenthal" in Franz von Holtzendorff's Rechts-Lexicon; this article incorporates text from a