4 × 100 metres relay
The 4 × 100 metres relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 metres each. The first runners must begin in the same stagger as for the individual 400 m race. A relay baton is carried by each runner. Prior to 2018, the baton had to be passed within a 20 m changeover box, preceded by a 10-metre acceleration zone. With a rule change effective November 1, 2017 that zone was modified to include the acceleration zone as part of the passing zone, making the entire zone 30 metres in length; the outgoing runner cannot touch the baton until it has entered the zone, the incoming runner cannot touch the baton after it has left the zone. The zone is marked in yellow using lines, triangles or chevrons. While the rule book specifies the exact positioning of the marks, the colors and style are only "recommended". While most legacy tracks will still have the older markings, the rule change still uses existing marks. Not all governing body jurisdictions have adopted the rule change.
Transfer of the baton in this race is blind. The outgoing runner reaches a straight arm backwards when they enter the changeover box, or when the incoming runner makes a verbal signal; the outgoing runner does not look backwards, it is the responsibility of the incoming runner to thrust the baton into the outstretched hand, not let go until the outgoing runner takes hold of it without crossing the changeover box and to stop after baton is exchanged. Runners on the first and third legs run on the inside of the lane with the baton in their right hand, while runners on the second and fourth legs take the baton in their left. Polished handovers can compensate for a lack of basic speed to some extent, disqualification for dropping the baton or failing to transfer it within the box is common at the highest level; the United States men and women dominated this event through the 20th century, winning the most Olympic gold medals and the most IAAF world championships. Carl Lewis ran the anchor leg on U.
S relay teams that set six world records from 1983 to 1992, including the first team to break 38 seconds. The current men's world record stands at 36.84 as set by the Jamaican team at the 2012 London Olympic games on 11 August 2012. As the only team to break 37 seconds to date, Jamaica has been the dominant team in the sport, winning two consecutive Olympic Gold Medals as well as four consecutive World Championships; the previous record was 37.04 seconds as set by the Jamaican team at the 2011 World Championships. The fastest electronically timed anchor leg run is 8.65 seconds by Usain Bolt at the 2015 IAAF World Relays. Bob Hayes was hand-timed as running between 8.5 and 8.9 seconds on a cinder track at the 1964 Tokyo Games. The women's world record stands at 40.82 seconds, set by the United States in 2012 at the London Olympics. According to the IAAF rules, world records in relays can only be set if all team members have the same nationality. Correct as of August 2017. Correct as of August 2017.
Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds and received medals. Note: In 2007, Marion Jones was stripped of all her Olympic medals from 2000. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Dq1 The United States team of Mickey Grimes, Bernard Williams, Dennis Mitchell and Tim Montgomery won the 2001 World Championship in a time of 37.96 seconds, but were disqualified after Montgomery admitted to drug use as a result of the BALCO scandal in 2005. Note * Indicates athletes who ran only in the preliminary round and received medals. Dq2 The United States team of Kelli White, Chryste Gaines, Inger Miller, Marion Jones won the 2001 World Championship in a time of 41.71 seconds, but were disqualified after Jones admitted to drug use as a result of the BALCO scandal in 2005. Men's 4 × 100 metres relay world record progression Women's 4 × 100 metres relay world record progression Italy national relays team at the international athletics championships List of fastest anchor legs IAAF list of 4x100-metres-relay records in XML
A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. Since the eighteenth century, gold medals have been awarded in the arts, for example, by the Royal Danish Academy as a symbol of an award to give an outstanding student some financial freedom. Others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO and various academic societies. While some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold. Before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. Before the establishment of standard military awards, e.g. the Medal of Honor, it was common practice to have a medal specially created to provide national recognition for a significant military or naval victory or accomplishment.
In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible. The commanding officer would receive his officers silver medals. Medals have been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities athletics. Traditionally, medals are made of the following metals: Gold Silver BronzeOccasionally, Platinum medals can be awarded; these metals designate the first three Ages of Man in Greek mythology: the Golden Age, when men lived among the gods, the Silver Age, where youth lasted a hundred years, the Bronze Age, the era of heroes. The custom of awarding the sequence of gold and bronze medals for the first three highest achievers dates from at least the 18th century, with the National Association of Amateur Athletes in the United States awarding such medals as early as 1884; this standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given, not medals.
At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a gold medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, an olive wreath made of wild olive leaves from a sacred tree near the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. Herodotus describes a story that explains why there were only a few Greek men at the Battle of Thermopylae since "all other men were participating in the Olympic Games" and that the prize for the winner was "an olive-wreath"; when Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader: "Good heavens! What kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour". Hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal and the second-place finisher received a bronze medal.
In 1900, most winners received trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller; the use of gold declined with the onset of the First World War and with the onset of the Second World War. The last series of Olympic medals to be made of solid gold were awarded at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92.5% silver, must contain a minimum of 6 grams of gold. All Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host. From 1928 through 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli of Greek goddess Nike with Rome's Colloseum in the background and text naming the host city. From the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheater for what were Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
For the 2008 Beijing Olympics medals had a diameter of 70mm and were 6mm thick, with the front displaying a winged figure of victory and the back showed a Beijing Olympics symbol surrounded by an inset jade circle. Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design; the silver and bronze medals have always borne the same designs. The award of a gold medal coupled with the award of silver and bronze medals to the next place finishers, has been adopted in other sports competitions and in other competitive fields, such as music and writing, as well as some competitive games. Bronze medals are awarded only to third place, but in some contests there is some variety, such as International barbershop music contests where bronze medals are awarded for third and fifth place. List of gold medal awards Medals: Going For Gold! - Minerals Council of Australia Royal Canadian Mint Interactive 3D Tour of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Medals
The 200 metres is a sprint running event. On an outdoor race 400 m track, the race begins on the curve and ends on the home straight, so a combination of techniques are needed to run the race. A shorter race, called the stadion and run on a straight track, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games; the 200 m places more emphasis on speed endurance than shorter sprint distances as athletes predominantly rely on anaerobic energy system during the 200 m sprint. In the United States and elsewhere, athletes ran the 220-yard dash instead of the 200 m, though the distance is now obsolete; the standard adjustment used for the conversion from times recorded over 220 yards to 200 m times is to subtract 0.1 seconds, but other conversion methods exist. Another obsolete version of this race is the 200 metres straight, run on tracks that contained such a straight; when the International Amateur Athletic Association started to ratify world records in 1912, only records set on a straight track were eligible for consideration.
In 1951, the IAAF started to recognise records set on a curved track. In 1976, the straight record was discarded; the race attracts runners from other events the 100 metres, wishing to double up and claim both titles. This feat has been achieved by men eleven times at the Olympic Games: by Archie Hahn in 1904, Ralph Craig in 1912, Percy Williams in 1928, Eddie Tolan in 1932, Jesse Owens in 1936, Bobby Morrow in 1956, Valeriy Borzov in 1972, Carl Lewis in 1984, most by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2008, 2012, 2016; the double has been accomplished by women seven times: by Fanny Blankers-Koen in 1948, Marjorie Jackson in 1952, Betty Cuthbert in 1956, Wilma Rudolph in 1960, Renate Stecher in 1972, Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988, Elaine Thompson in 2016. Marion Jones finished first in both races in 2000 but was disqualified and stripped of her medals after admitting to taking performance-enhancing drugs. An Olympic double of 200 m and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, by Michael Johnson from the United States and Marie-José Pérec of France both in 1996.
Usain Bolt is the only man to repeat as Olympic champion, Bärbel Wöckel and Veronica Campbell-Brown are the two women who have repeated as Olympic champion. The men's world record holder is Usain Bolt of Jamaica, who ran 19.19s at the 2009 World Championships. The women's world record holder is Florence Griffith-Joyner of the United States, who ran 21.34s at the 1988 Summer Olympics. The reigning Olympic champions are Elaine Thompson; the reigning World Champions are Dafne Schippers. Races run with an aiding wind measured over 2.0 metres per second are not acceptable for record purposes. Updated 12 December 2018. Only the fastest time for each athlete is listed. A = Altitude Correct as of August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 19.67: Usain Bolt ran 19.30, 19.32, 19.40, 19.55, 19.56, 19.57, 19.58, 19.59, 19.63, 19.66, 19.67. Yohan Blake ran 19.44, 19.54. Tyson Gay ran 19.62. Michael Johnson ran 19.66. Noah Lyles ran 19.67. Correct as of August 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 21.80: Florence Griffith-Joyner ran 21.56, 21.76, 21.77.
Merlene Ottey ran 21.66, 21.77. Marita Koch ran 21.76, 21.78. Marion Jones ran 21.76. Gwen Torrence ran 21.77. Elaine Thompson ran 21.78. Silke Gladisch ran 21.79. Updated February 2019. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 20.22: Frankie Fredericks ran 20.10, 20.18. Wallace Spearmon ran 20.10, 20.19, 20.21. Divine Oduduru ran 20.18, 20.21. Updated 12 December 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 22.45: Irina Privalova ran 22.15, 22.16, 22.26, 22.32, 22.36, 22.41, 22.45. Merlene Ottey ran 22.24, 22.34, 22.37. Veronica Campbell-Brown ran 22.43. A Known as the World Indoor Games IAAF list of 200-metres records in XML All time 200m men records
1999 IAAF World Indoor Championships
The 7th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics were held in the Green Dome Maebashi stadium in Maebashi, Japan from March 5 to March 7, 1999. It was the first time the Championships were staged outside North America. Primo Nebiolo, president of the IAAF, characterized the championships as "the greatest ever". There were a total number of 487 participating athletes from 115 countries. Four medalists were disqualified for doping. Rostislav Dimitrov of Bulgaria came second in the triple jump and was awarded the silver medal, but was disqualified for doping. American sprinter Inger Miller won the bronze but failed a post-race drug test and was stripped of the medal. Vita Pavlysh of Ukraine was stripped of her shot put gold medal. Irina Korzhanenko of Russia was stripped of the shot put silver. 1999 in athletics 1999 IAAF World Indoor Championships Official Website Athletics Australia
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
European Athletics U20 Championships
The European Athletics U20 Championships are the European championships for athletes who are 19 years of age or under, the age range recognised by the IAAF as junior athletes. The event is organized by the European Athletic Association; the history of the biennial athletics competition stems from the European Junior Games, first held in 1964. The event was first sanctioned by the continental governing body, the European Athletic Association at the following edition in 1966 and after a third edition under the games moniker it was renamed to its current title. IAAF World U20 Championships