Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Freeport of Copenhagen
The Free Port of Copenhagen is a bonded area in the northern part of Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. The original grounds, now known as Søndre Frihavn, has since been released for other uses, the free port is now located in Nordhavnen and is part of Copenhagen Malmö Port. In a plan from 1862 it was decided to dig out the area to access for the largest ocean-going wessels. A suggestion to make all of Amager into a zone was abolished. Construction began in 1891, prompted by Germanys construction of the Kiel Canal that was begun in 1887, the new free port was inaugurated on 9 November 1894. A private limited company, Københavns Frihavns-Aktieselskab, was given a concession on operating the port by the Ministry of Interior Affairs. All shares in the Free Port Company was taken over by Port Authority in 1951, in 1915–15, the free port was expanded with a new basin, Jronløn Basin, located to the north. It made it blocked the access to the Kalkbrænderihavnen dock, making it necessary to dig out a new canal to it.
The next expansion of the port took place between 1919 and 1931, creating the harbour basin now known as Orient Basin. The free port left its original grounds in 1885, an architectural competition was launched for the future use of the area. Among the entries were a proposal from Jørn Utzon which included a highrise and several buildings on Langelinie Pier. The Amerika Plads area was redeveloped in the 2000s, the free port is now located in Nordhavnen and is part of Copenhagen Malmö Port. It consists of a West Quay (now America Quay, a South Quay (now India Quay, a shorter pier, extended north from South Quay, separating the harbour into an east and a west basin. Only the west side of East Pier was part of the free port, the east side of the pier was used for recreational purposes as a replacement of the promenade which had previously followed the coastline. The two sides were separated from each other by the Langelinie Promenade, a raised promenade constructed on top of a row of low warehouses.
The dock is to the north closed by the Marble Pier, in 1931, after the second expansion had been completed, the free port covered a total area of 82.5 hectares of which 49.1 hectares were land and 33.4 hectares were water. The total length of the quays was approximately 4,770 metre with water depth between 7.5 m to 9.5 m, the Custom Guard Building was built in 1894 to designs by Erik Schiødt. It was expanded in 1918 by J. C. M, agerskov and again in 1932 with a three storey extension designed by John Dich
Midtermolen is a pier which extends north from India Quay in the Southern Free Port of Copenhagen, dividing the dock into an east and west basin. The wharf was constructed as part of the free port which was constructed in 1894. The Silo Warehouse which was completed at its tip that same year was the new port areas most imposing building until it was demolished after a fire in 1969, the building was designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup with inspiration from Christian IVs Renaissance buildings. Its core was an 11 storeys high grain silo while the sides served as regular warehouses, the official time signal was from 1909 until World War II located on the roof of the building. It consisted of a ball which was raised every morning and dropped at 13,00, in 1994, a new headquarters for East Asiatic Company was inaugurated at the tip of the pier. The company had originally based in Asia House at present day Indiakaj. The new 19,000 square metre headquarters at Midtermolen, known as Company House, was designed by PLH Arkitekter, Company House now serve as headquarters for the insurance company Alm