The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov and Kotelniki. Opened in 1935 with one 11-kilometre line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union; as of 2018, the Moscow Metro excluding the Moscow Central Circle and Moscow Monorail has 224 stations and its route length is 381 km, making it the fifth longest in the world. The system is underground, with the deepest section 84 metres underground at the Park Pobedy station, one of the world's deepest. It's the busiest metro system in Europe, a tourist attraction in itself; the Moscow Metro, a state-owned enterprise, is 381 km long and consists of twelve lines and 223 stations organized in a spoke-hub distribution paradigm, with the majority of rail lines running radially from the centre of Moscow to the outlying areas. The Koltsevaya Line forms a 20-kilometre long circle which enables passenger travel between these diameters, the new Moscow Central Circle forms a 54-kilometre longer circle that serves a similar purpose on middle periphery.
Most stations and lines are underground. The Moscow Metro uses the Russian gauge of 1,520 millimetres, like other Russian railways, an underrunning third rail with a supply of 825 V DC, except line 13 and 14; the average distance between stations is 1.7 kilometres. Long distances between stations have the positive effect of a high cruising speed of 41.7 kilometres per hour. The Moscow Metro opens at 05:25 and closes at 01:00; the precise opening time varies at different stations according to the arrival of the first train, but all stations close their entrances at 01:00 for maintenance, so do transfer corridors. The minimum interval between trains is 90 seconds during the evening rush hours; as of 2017 the system had an average daily ridership of 6.99 million passengers. Peak daily ridership of 9.71 million was recorded on 26 December 2014. Free Wi-Fi has been available on all lines of the Moscow Metro since 1 December 2014; the network was launched by MaximaTelecom. Of the metro's 224 stations, 88 are deep underground, 123 are shallow, 12 are surface and five are elevated.
The deep stations comprise 55 triple-vaulted pylon stations, 19 triple-vaulted column stations, one single-vault station. The shallow stations comprise 79 spanned column stations, 33 single-vaulted stations, three single-spanned stations. In addition, there are 12 ground-level stations, four elevated stations, one station on a bridge. Two stations have three tracks, one has double halls. Seven of the stations have side platforms. In addition, there were two temporary stations within rail yards. One station is reserved for future service; the stations being constructed under Stalin's regime, in the style of socialist classicism, were meant as underground palaces of the people. Stations such as Komsomolskaya, Kiyevskaya or Mayakovskaya and others built after 1935 in the second phase of the evolution of the network are tourist landmarks, their photogenic architecture, large chandeliers and detailed decoration unusual for an urban transport system; each line is identified by an alphanumeric index and a colour.
The colour assigned to each line for display on maps and signs is its colloquial identifier, except for the nondescript greens and blues assigned to the Kakhovskaya, the Zamoskvoretskaya, the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya, Butovskaya lines. The upcoming station is announced by a male voice on inbound trains to the city center and by a female voice on outbound trains; the metro has a connection to the Moscow Monorail, a 4.7-kilometre, six-station monorail line between Timiryazevskaya and VDNKh which opened in January 2008. Prior to the official opening, the monorail had operated in "excursion mode" since 2004. Sokolnicheskaya line was named Kirovsko-Fruzenskaya Zamoskvoretskaya line was named Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya. Filyovskaya line was named Arbatsko-Filyovskaya. Since the beginning, platforms have been at least 155 metres long to accommodate eight-car trains; the only exceptions are on the Filyovskaya Line: Vystavochnaya, Studencheskaya, Fili, Filyovsky Park and Pionerskaya, which only allows six-car trains.
Trains on the Zamoskvoretskaya, Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya, Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya, Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya and Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya lines have eight cars, on the Sokolnicheskaya line seven cars and on the Koltsevaya and Kakhovskaya lines six cars. The Filyovskaya and Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya lines had six- and seven-car trains as well, but now use four- and five-car trains of another type; the V-type trains were from Berlin U-Bahn C-class trains from 1945 to 1969, until its complete demi
Belorusskaya (Koltsevaya line)
Belorusskaya is a station on the Moscow Metro's Koltsevaya line. It is named after the nearby Belorussky Rail Terminal, it opened in 1952, serving as the terminus of the line before the circle was completed in 1954. Designed by Ivan Taranov, Z. Abramova, A. Markova, Ya. Tatarzhinskaya, the station has low, white marble pylons, an elaborately patterned plaster ceiling, light fixtures supported by ornate scroll-shaped brackets, a variety of decorations based on Belarusian themes. Overhead, twelve octagonal mosaics by G. Opryshko, S. Volkov, I. Morozov depict Belarusian daily life, underfoot the platform is intricately tiled to resemble a Belarusian quilt. A sculptural group by sculptor Matvey Manizer called "Soviet Belorussia" used to stand at the end of the platform before it was removed in 1998 to make room for a second entrance. Another sculptural group, "Belarusian Partisans," by S. M. Orlov, S. M. Rabinovich, I. A. Slonim, is located in the passage between this station and Belorusskaya–Radialnaya.
The station's original vestibule is located at the southwest corner of Belorusskaya Square. A newer entrance opens onto Butirsky Val Street. In 2002, a bomb exploded under one of Belorusskaya's marble benches. From this station passengers can transfer to Belorusskaya on the Zamoskvoretskaya line, whose metro entrance in closest to Aeroexpress, direct train to Sheremetevo Airport
Moscow Belorussky railway station
Belorussky railway terminal is a passenger terminal at the Moscow–Passenger–Smolenskaya railway station of the Moscow Railway. Informally the whole station can be called as Moscow Belorusskaya, it is one of nine railway terminals of Moscow. It was opened in 1870 and rebuilt in its current form in 1907–1912. Belorussky railway terminal serves long distance trains to regions west and south-west of Moscow, one train each to the north-east and to the south; the station serves local commuter trains to Usovo, Golitsyno, Kubinka I, Mozhaisk and Zvenigorod as well as the Aeroexpress service to Sheremetyevo Airport. The station is not a terminus station. A transit line continues on the Alekseevskaya Line. In addition, the station provides through service to Kurskaya stations; until 18 May 2015 a suburban train service continued to Gagarin, until the end of 2012 to Vyazma. Now the farthest station of commuter train service on this line is Mozhaisk. 1500 passengers per hour use Belorussky station. Belorussky railway station is included in the Moscow Regional Directorate of the Directorate of railway stations.
This station is part of the Moscow-Smolensk unit of DTSS-3, Moscow Directorate of Rail Traffic Control. Construction of the railway from Moscow to Smolensk, to Minsk and Warsaw, started in the second half of the 1860s. Construction of the station, known as Smolensky, began in late April 1869. A grand opening of the Moscow-Smolensk railway took place on 19 September 1870, the station became the sixth in Moscow. In November 1871 after the extension of the railway to Belarus, the station was renamed Belorussky Station. On 15 May 1910 the right wing of the new station opened, on 26 February 1912 the left wing opened; the station was designed by architect Ivan Strukov. On 4 May 1912 the railway was renamed the Alexander Railway, the station was renamed Alexander Station. In August 1922 the Alexander and the Moscow-Baltic railways were merged into the Moscow-Belarus-Baltic, so the station was renamed Belorussian-Baltic station. In May 1936 and, after yet another reorganization of the railways, the station received its present name – Belorussky Station.
In September 2007 OAO "Aeroexpress" began the reconstruction of the rail link to Sheremetyevo Airport. The cost of reconstruction at the Belorussky station was estimated at US$7.7 million and involved the construction of a new terminal, which has become one of the main links in rail traffic between Moscow and the airport. The new Belorussky terminal is located in the fourth hall of the railway station and occupies an area of 600 square metres Passengers departing from Sheremetyevo can check in for flights using the self-service kiosks; the terminal was opened on 27 August 2009. In June 2008 construction of a new railway terminal complex at Sheremetyevo was completed. New purpose-built rolling stock, the electric ED4MKM-Aero developed by ZAO "Transmashholding" serves the line. Baggage check-in at the city terminal was abolished on 1 December 2010 in connection with the sharp increase in the number of passengers; the one-way cost of the trip is 500 rubles. Suburban commuter trains connect Belorussky station with the towns of Barvikha, Odintsovo, Zvenigorod, Mozhaysk.
Some suburban commuter trains proceed to Savyolovsky Rail Terminal to the Savyolovo direction destinations and to Kursky Rail Terminal to Kursk direction destinations. Belorussky station is connected to Savyolovsky Rail Terminal and Sheremetyevo International Airport by Aeroexpress trains. A film "Belorussky station" was created in 1970 by Andrey Smirnov. Official Belorussky station website Российские Железные Дороги — Russian Railways Aeroexpress Беларуская Чыгунка — Belarusian Railways Lietuvos Geležinkeliai — Lithuanian Railways Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA — Polish State Railways České dráhy — Czech Railways
Vodny Stadion (Moscow Metro)
Vodny Stadion is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line. It was built in 1964 according to the standard pillar-trispan design; the pillars are clad in bluish marble and the walls are tiled in white with two stripes of blue at the base. The two entrances to the station are located near the intersection of Kronshtadtsky Boulevard and the Golovinskoye highway; the architects for this station were Yu. Kolesnikova, M. Markovsky; the stadium is mostly abandoned. The station is named for the Dinamo Water Stadium at the nearby Khimki Reservoir
Moscow Paveletsky railway station
Paveletsky station is one of Moscow's nine main railway stations. Called Saratovsky Railway Station, it was named after the settlement of Pavelets, when the railroad heading south-east from Moscow reached that point in 1899; the ornate building of the station, completed in 1900 and extensively reconstructed in the 1980s, remains one of the biggest Moscow railway stations. In 1924, it was the place; the Lenin Funeral Train is still a permanent exhibit at the Museum of the Moscow Railway. The Aeroexpress train links Paveletsky station with Domodedovo Airport; the station is operated by the Moscow Railway. The old building of the station was built in 1900, its architect was Alexander Krasovsky. In 1899 the Ryazan-Ural Railway reached Moscow. From Paveletsky station suburban electric trains depart towards Kashira and Uzunovo. Express electric trains depart to Domodedovo Airport; the major directions of long-distant trains are Almaty, Baku, Balashov, Saratov, Volgograd, Yelets. In the Russian Empire the Ryazano-Uralskaya Railway Company controlled the largest private railway, which connected 12 densely populated provinces.
Still it did not have any connection with Moscow. So the Administration of the railway sent in an application to the Government for permitting to build a new branch between Moscow and Pavelets. In 1897 Nicholas II granted his permission to build the branch; the branch was finished 8 1⁄2 months earlier. But the new railway road did not have a terminal in Moscow; the station was built according to the architectural canons of the time: it was a symmetric building with a heightened center, large windows and comfortable doorways. There were entrances, a vestibule, luggage space, waiting rooms for public, booking-offices, a telegraph, a pharmacy, a bar at the front. There was a large operation hall in the center which separated rooms for the first and second class passengers from the rooms for the third class passengers; the station was a brick building on a quarrystone foundation. It had many attics above the flanking buildings; the length of the station building was 83.7 metres. External walls were quite solid for a low building.
External walls were revetted with special brick, the socle was revetted with ashlar, there were stucco mouldings in the vestibule and hall cornices. The solidity and reliability was felt in everything. At the railway side there were service rooms, gendarme rooms, main tsar's rooms and outlets to the platforms; the railway station was comfortable for its time, it was efficiently sited, had original heating services and a smart amphora turret used as a flagstaff. The station was opened on 1 September 1900. A thanksgiving service with water consecration took place to mark the station's opening; the chief engineer V. V. Timofeev invited some other chiefs, station personnel and businessmen — future consignors of goods to the celebrations; until the 1940s, the station was known as Saratovsky Railway Station. The railway between Moscow and Pavelets functioned several months prior to the opening of the station, the trains were rerouted to Kursky railway station; the old Paveletsky station was a part of the ensemble of the city square.
When in 1980 it was decided to reconstruct the station the demands to the project were strict. It was necessary to provide up-to-date comfort for passengers and to retain the square skyline; the reconstruction was realized by Mostransstroy trust. Architects A. Gurkov, S. Kuznetsova and A. Vorontsov solved the complicated constructive problem; the new Paveletskiy station was re-opened on 3 November 1987. The new station is six times larger four times by carrying capacity than the old one, it is capable to receive and station in its halls about 10,000 people at an hour. Now it is a large transport complex. From the square the building seems to have one floor, but in fact there are three levels of passenger rooms, a technical level, up-to-date service systems inside. The museum of the Moscow Railway incorporates the former Museum of Lenin’s funeral train, including the locomotive and cars of Lenin's funeral train; the museum documents the history of the Moscow Railway, has outdoor exhibits at the Moscow Rizhsky railway station.
Suburban commuter trains connect Paveletsky station with stations and platforms of the Paveletsky suburban direction of Moscow Railway, in particular, with the towns of Vidnoye, Stupino and Ozherelye, as well as with the Domodedovo Airport. In addition to regular suburban trains, Paveletsky station is connected to Domodedovo International Airport by Aeroexpress trains, they were launched on 3 August 2002. They are not operated by Russian Railways. Paveletsky station Official site Вокзал на Зацепе Moscow Photos - Paveletsky Railway Station
Belorusskaya (Zamoskvoretskaya line)
Belorusskaya is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya line. Designed by architects Ivan Taranov and Nadezhda Bykova, it was opened in 1938 as part of the second stage of the Moscow Metro; the station is named after the nearby Belorussky Rail Terminal, from which westward trains towards Belarus and western Europe depart. The station is decorated with national Belarusian motives, which include the facing of rectangular pylons faced with pink marble from Birobidzhan on the exterior and with black davalu marble in the passageway to the platforms. Bronze floor-lamps decorate the pylon niches, in the end of the central hall is a bust of Vladimir Lenin; the station underwent several modernisations which altered its original design. The floor being based on Belarusian national ornaments, was replaced with square tiles of black and grey marble; the walls initially covered with indigo ceramic tiles were replaced by indigo marble in 2004. In 1952, a series of staircases was added to the southern side of the central hall, a transfer to Belorusskaya station on the Koltsevaya line was opened.
In 1958 the first cruise control system in the Moscow Metro was tested on Belorusskaya, with a photoelement installed on a train. The station receives 139,700 passengers per day from the Koltsevaya line and 45,950 from its vestibule, built into the Belorussky Rail Terminal
In the United Kingdom and in Australia, a bay platform is a dead-end railway platform at a railway station that has through lines. It is normal for bay platforms to be shorter. Bay and island platforms are so named because they resemble the geographic features of the same name. Examples of stations with bay platforms include Carlisle railway station. Chicago's CTA O'Hare Airport Station features a bay platform with one track on the bay and a track on each side of the platform; the Hoboken and 33 St Stations on the PATH train line have bay platforms. Ferry Avenue on the PATCO Speedline has a bay platform. However, in the New York City Subway, such platforms are thought of as side or island platforms connected at the ends, rather than bay platforms. Trains which use a bay platform have to reverse direction and depart in the direction from which they arrived. Dock platforms are similar to bay platforms but are shorter and used to unload freight