Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family; the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world." Rockefeller Foundation's activities have included: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom. Construction of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under Ernst Rüdin over the next several years. Funding an experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron, 751 of which were pills, without their consent.
In a 1969 article published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment. As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied with annual grants of $173 million. On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation, he assumed the position March 1, succeeding Judith Rodin who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy and Public Relations began in 1904, influenced by Ida Tarbell's book published about Standard Oil crimes, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which prompted him to whitewash the Rockefeller image.
His initial idea to set up a large-scale foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". It was in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment, they applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.
However, because of the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation – two years after the Carnegie Corporation – with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes; the total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history." The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work.
On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade on the sciences, public health and medical education, it was located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway shifting to the GE Building, along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public heal
Global health is the health of populations in the global context. Problems that transcend national borders or have a global political and economic impact are emphasized. Thus, global health is about worldwide health improvement, reduction of disparities, protection against global threats that disregard national borders. Global health is not to be confused with international health, defined as the branch of public health focusing on developing nations and foreign aid efforts by industrialized countries. Global health can be measured as a function of various global diseases and their prevalence in the world and threat to decrease life in the present day; the predominant agency associated with global health is the World Health Organization. Other important agencies impacting global health include World Food Programme; the United Nations system has played a part with cross-sectoral actions to address global health and its underlying socioeconomic determinants with the declaration of the Millennium Development Goals and the more recent Sustainable Development Goals.
Global health employs several perspectives that focus on the determinants and distribution of health in international contexts: Medicine describes the pathology of diseases and promotes prevention and treatment. Public health emphasizes the health of populations. Epidemiology helps identify risk causes of health problems. Demography provides data for policy decisions. Economics emphasizes the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches for the optimal allocation of health resources. Other social sciences such as sociology, development studies, anthropology, cultural studies, law can help understand the determinants of health in societies. Both individuals and organizations working in the domain of global health face many questions regarding ethical and human rights. Critical examination of the various causes and justifications of health inequities is necessary for the success of proposed solutions; such issues are discussed at the bi-annual Global Summits of National Ethics/Bioethics Councils, next in March 2016 in Berlin, with experts from WHO and UNESCO, by invitation of the German Ethics Council.
The 19th century held major discoveries in public health. The Broad Street cholera outbreak of 1854 was central to the development of modern epidemiology; the microorganisms responsible for malaria and tuberculosis were identified in 1880 and 1882, respectively. The 20th century saw the development of preventive and curative treatments for many diseases, including the BCG vaccine and penicillin in the 1920s; the eradication of smallpox, with the last occurring case recorded in 1977, raised hope that other diseases could be eradicated as well. Important steps were taken towards global cooperation in health with the formation of the United Nations and the World Bank Group in 1945, after World War II. In 1948, the member states of the newly formed United Nations gathered to create the World Health Organization. A cholera epidemic that took 20,000 lives in Egypt in 1947 and 1948 helped spur the international community to action; the WHO published its Model List of Essential Medicines, the 1978 Alma Ata declaration underlined the importance of primary health care.
At a United Nations Summit in 2000, member nations declared eight Millennium Development Goals, which reflected the major challenges facing human development globally, to be achieved by 2015. The declaration was matched by unprecedented global investment by donor and recipient countries. According to the UN, these MDGs provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas. However, progress has been uneven and some of the MDGs were not realized including maternal and child health and reproductive health. Building on the MDGs, a new Sustainable Development Agenda with 17 Sustainable Development Goals has been established for the years 2016-2030; the first goal being an ambitious and historic pledge to end poverty. On 25 September 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In 2015 a book titled "To Save Humanity" was published, with nearly 100 essays regarding today's most pressing global health issues.
The essays were authored by global figures in politics and advocacy ranging from Bill Clinton to Peter Piot, addressed a wide range of issues including vaccinations, antimicrobial resistance, health coverage, tobacco use, research methodology, climate change, access to medicine, media coverage of health research. Measures of global health include disability-adjusted life year, quality-adjusted life years, mortality rate; the DALY is a summary measure that combines the impact of illness and mortality by measuring the time lived with disability and the time lost due to premature mortality. One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of "healthy" life; the DALY for a disease is the sum of the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years lost due to disability for incident cases of the health condition. QALYs combine expected survival with expected quality of life into a single number: if an additional year of healthy life is worth a value of one a year of less healthy life is worth less than one.
QALY calculations are based on measurements of the value that individuals place on expected years of survival. Measurements can be made in several way
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society". According to the World Health Organization, an explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future. There are many categories of health policies, including global health policy, public health policy, mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, personal healthcare policy, pharmaceutical policy, policies related to public health such as vaccination policy, tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy, they may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access to care, quality of care, health equity. Health-related policy and its implementation is complex. Conceptual models can help show the flow from health-related policy development to health-related policy and program implementation and to health systems and health outcomes. Policy should be understood as more than a national law or health policy that supports a program or intervention.
Operational policies are the rules, regulations and administrative norms that governments use to translate national laws and policies into programs and services. The policy process encompasses decisions made at a national or decentralized level that affect whether and how services are delivered. Thus, attention must be paid to policies at multiple levels of the health system and over time to ensure sustainable scale-up. A supportive policy environment will facilitate the scale-up of health interventions. There are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or other group to adopt a specific policy. Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. Most political debates surround personal health care policies those that seek to reform healthcare delivery, can be categorized as either philosophical or economic.
Philosophical debates center around questions about individual rights and government authority, while economic topics include how to maximize the efficiency of health care delivery and minimize costs. The modern concept of healthcare involves access to medical professionals from various fields as well as medical technology, such as medications and surgical equipment, it involves access to the latest information and evidence from research, including medical research and health services research. In many countries it is left to the individual to gain access to healthcare goods and services by paying for them directly as out-of-pocket expenses, to private sector players in the medical and pharmaceutical industries to develop research. Planning and production of health human resources is distributed among labour market participants. Other countries have an explicit policy to ensure and support access for all of its citizens, to fund health research, to plan for adequate numbers and quality of health workers to meet healthcare goals.
Many governments around the world have established universal health care, which takes the burden of healthcare expenses off of private businesses or individuals through pooling of financial risk. There are a variety of arguments against universal healthcare and related health policies. Healthcare is an important part of health systems and therefore it accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world. Many countries and jurisdictions integrate a human rights philosophy in directing their healthcare policies; the World Health Organization reports that every country in the world is party to at least one human rights treaty that addresses health-related rights, including the right to health as well as other rights that relate to conditions necessary for good health. The United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts that medical care is a right of all people: UDHR Article 25: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing and medical care and necessary social services, the right to security in the event of unemployment, disability, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control."In some jurisdictions and among different faith-based organizations, health policies are influenced by the perceived obligation shaped by religious beliefs to care for those in less favorable circumstances, including the sick.
Other jurisdictions and non-governmental organizations draw on the principles of humanism in defining their health policies, asserting the same perceived obligation and enshrined right to health. In recent years, the worldwide human rights organization Amnesty International has focused on health as a human right, addressing inadequate access to HIV drugs and women's sexual and reproductive rights including wide disparities in maternal mortality within and across countries; such increasing attention to health as a basic human right has been welcomed by the leading medical journal The Lancet. There remains considerable controversy regarding policies on who would be paying the costs of medical care for all people and under what circumstances. For example, government spending on healthcare is sometimes used as a global indicator of a government's commitment to the health of its people. On the other hand, one school of thought emerging from the United States rejects the notion of health care financing through taxpayer funding as incompatible with the
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent. When this system is exposed to molecules that are foreign to the body, called non-self, it will orchestrate an immune response, it will develop the ability to respond to a subsequent encounter because of immunological memory; this is a function of the adaptive immune system. Therefore, by exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way, its body can learn to protect itself: this is called active immunization; the most important elements of the immune system that are improved by immunization are the T cells, B cells, the antibodies B cells produce. Memory B cells and memory T cells are responsible for a swift response to a second encounter with a foreign molecule. Passive immunization is direct introduction of these elements into the body, instead of production of these elements by the body itself. Immunization is done through various techniques, most vaccination. Vaccines against microorganisms that cause diseases can prepare the body's immune system, thus helping to fight or prevent an infection.
The fact that mutations can cause cancer cells to produce proteins or other molecules that are known to the body forms the theoretical basis for therapeutic cancer vaccines. Other molecules can be used for immunization as well, for example in experimental vaccines against nicotine or the hormone ghrelin in experiments to create an obesity vaccine. Immunizations are widely stated as less risky and an easier way to become immune to a particular disease than risking a milder form of the disease itself, they are important for both adults and children in that they can protect us from the many diseases out there. Immunization not only protects children against deadly diseases but helps in developing children's immune systems. Through the use of immunizations, some infections and diseases have completely been eradicated throughout the United States and the World. One example is polio. Thanks to dedicated health care professionals and the parents of children who vaccinated on schedule, polio has been eliminated in the U.
S. since 1979. Polio is still found in other parts of the world so certain people could still be at risk of getting it; this includes those people who have never had the vaccine, those who didn't receive all doses of the vaccine, or those traveling to areas of the world where polio is still prevalent. Active immunization/vaccination has been named one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century". Before the introduction of vaccines, people could only become immune to an infectious disease by contracting the disease and surviving it. Smallpox was prevented in this way by inoculation, which produced a milder effect than the natural disease; the first clear reference to smallpox inoculation was made by the Chinese author Wan Quan in his Douzhen xinfa published in 1549. In China, powdered smallpox scabs were blown up the noses of the healthy; the patients would develop a mild case of the disease and from on were immune to it. The technique did have a 0.5–2.0% mortality rate, but, less than the 20–30% mortality rate of the disease itself.
Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700. According to Voltaire, the Turks derived their use of inoculation from neighbouring Circassia. Voltaire does not speculate on where the Circassians derived their technique from, though he reports that the Chinese have practiced it "these hundred years", it was introduced into England from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in 1721 and used by Zabdiel Boylston in Boston the same year. In 1798 Edward Jenner introduced inoculation with a much safer procedure; this procedure, referred to as vaccination replaced smallpox inoculation, now called variolation to distinguish it from vaccination. Until the 1880s vaccine/vaccination referred only to smallpox, but Louis Pasteur developed immunization methods for chicken cholera and anthrax in animals and for human rabies, suggested that the terms vaccine/vaccination should be extended to cover the new procedures; this can cause confusion if care is not taken to specify which vaccine is used e.g. measles vaccine or influenza vaccine.
Immunization can be achieved in an active or passive manner: vaccination is an active form of immunization. Active immunization can occur when a person comes in contact with, for example, a microbe; the immune system will create antibodies and other defenses against the microbe. The next time, the immune response against this microbe can be efficient. Artificial active immunization is where the microbe, or parts of it, are injected into the person before they are able to take it in naturally. If whole microbes are used, they are pre-treated; the importance of immunization is so great that the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has named it one of the "Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century". Live attenuated vaccines have decreased pathogenicity, their effectiveness depends on the immune systems ability to replicate and elicits a response similar to natural infection. It is effective with a single dose. Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles, rubella, MMR, yellow fever, varicella and influenza.
Passive immunization is where pre-synthesized elements of the immune system are transferred to a person so th
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
This is a Chinese name. Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, OBE, JP is a Chinese-Canadian physician, who served as the Director-General of the World Health Organization delegating the People's Republic of China for 2006–2017. Chan was elected by the Executive Board of WHO on 8 November 2006, was endorsed in a special meeting of the World Health Assembly on the following day. Chan has served as Director of Health in the Hong Kong Government, representative of the WHO Director-General for Pandemic Influenza and WHO Assistant Director-General for Communicable Diseases. In 2014 she was ranked as the 30th most powerful woman in the world according to Forbes. Born in Hong Kong as Margaret Fung Fu-chun, Chan was trained as a home economics teacher at the Northcote College of Education, now the Education University of Hong Kong, she earned her BA degree in home economics at Brescia University College an affiliated institution of the University of Western Ontario in 1973 and her MD degree at UWO in 1977. She earned her MSc degree at the National University of Singapore in 1985.
Chan completed the Program for Management Development at Harvard Business School in 1991. Chan joined the Hong Kong government in December 1978 as a medical officer. In November 1989, she was promoted to Assistant Director of the Department of Health. In April 1992, she was promoted to Deputy Director and, in June 1994, was named the first woman in Hong Kong to head the Department of Health, her profile was raised by her handling, in those positions, of the 1997 H5N1 avian influenza outbreak and the 2003 SARS outbreak in Hong Kong. After the first victim of the H5N1, Chan first tried to reassure Hong Kong residents with her infamous statements like, "I ate chicken last night" or "I eat chicken every day, don't panic, everyone"; when many more H5N1 cases appeared, she was criticized for misleading the public. She became "a symbol of ignorance and arrogance epitomizing the mentality of'business as usual' embedded in the ideological and institutional practices within the bureaucracy after the hand-over."
In the end, she was credited for helping bring the epidemic under control by the slaughter of 1.5 million chickens in the region in the face of stiff political opposition. Her performance during the SARS outbreak, which led to 299 deaths, attracted harsh criticism from the Legislative Council of Hong Kong and many SARS victims and their relatives, she was criticised by the Legislative Council for her passiveness, for believing in misleading information shared by the mainland authority, for not acting swiftly. Her lack of political wisdom was evident in her indifference to media reports and widespread public fear at that time. On the other hand, the SARS expert committee established by the Hong Kong Government to assess its handling of the crisis, opined that the failure was not Chan's fault, but due to the structure of Hong Kong's health care system, in which the separation of the hospital authority from the public health authority resulted in problems with data sharing. Chan left the Hong Kong Government in August 2003 after 25 years of service to join the World Health Organization.
From 2003 until 2005, Chan served as the Representative of the WHO Director-General for Pandemic Influenza and Assistant Director-General for Communicable Diseases. Chan finished her second term as Director-General of the World Health Organization on June 30, 2017. Appointed to the post in November 2006, her first term ran through to June 2012. In her appointment speech, Chan considered the "improvements in the health of the people of Africa and the health of women" to be the key performance indicator of WHO and she wants to focus WHO's attention on "the people in greatest need." On 18 January 2012, Chan was nominated by the WHO's Executive Board for a second term and was confirmed by the World Health Assembly on 23 May 2012. In her acceptance speech, Chan indicated that universal coverage is a'powerful equaliser' and the most powerful concept of public health. Chan's new term began on 1 July 2012 and continued until 30 June 2017. In February 2007, Chan provoked the anger of humanitarian and civil society groups by questioning the quality of generic medicines while on a visit to Thailand.
In 2010 Chan was criticised for "crying wolf" about the 2009 flu pandemic, which turned out to be much milder than expected. After a visit to North Korea in April 2010, Chan said malnutrition was a problem in the country but that North Korea's health system would be the envy of many developing countries because of the abundance of medical staff, she noted there were no signs of obesity in the country, a newly emerging problem in other parts of Asia. Chan's comments marked a significant departure from that of her predecessor, Gro Harlem Brundtland, who said in 2001 that North Korea's health system was near collapse; the director-general's assessment was criticised, including in a Wall Street Journal editorial which called her statements "surreal." The editorial further stated, "Ms. Chan is either winking at the reality to maintain contact with the North or she allowed herself to be fooled."Under Chan’s leadership, the WHO slashed its budget by nearly $1 billion and cut 300 jobs at its headquarters, because of financial constraints in donor countries.
Shortly after, the WHO was accused of deferring to the Syrian government of President Bashar al-Assad when polio made a comeback in that country in late 2013. In 2014 and 2015 Chan was again criticised because of the slow response of the WHO to the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. In 2018, Chan joined the Task Force on Fiscal Policy for Health, a group convened by Michael R. Bloomberg and Lawrenc