The Angelus is a Catholic devotion commemorating the Incarnation. As with many Catholic prayers, the name Angelus is derived from its incipit—the first few words of the text: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ; the devotion is practised by reciting as versicle and response three Biblical verses narrating the mystery, alternating with the prayer "Hail Mary". The Angelus exemplifies a species of prayers called the "prayer of the devotee"; the devotion was traditionally recited in Roman Catholic churches and monasteries three times daily: 6:00 am, 6:00 pm. The devotion is used by some Anglican and Lutheran churches; the Angelus is accompanied by the ringing of the Angelus bell, a call to prayer and to spread goodwill to everyone. The angel referred to in the prayer is Gabriel, a messenger of God who revealed to Mary that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. According to Herbert Thurston, "The history of the Angelus is by no means easy to trace with confidence, it is well to distinguish in this matter between what is certain and what is in some measure conjectural."
This is an old devotion, well established 700 years ago. The Angelus originated with the 11th-century monastic custom of reciting three Hail Marys during the evening, or Compline, bell; the first written documentation stems from the Italian Franciscan friar Sinigardi di Arezzo. Franciscan friaries in Italy document the use in 1263 and 1295; the current form of the Angelus prayer is included in a Venetian Catechism from 1560. The older usages seem to have commemorated the resurrection of Christ in the morning, his suffering at noon, the annunciation in the evening. In 1269, St Bonaventure urged the faithful to adopt the custom of the Franciscans of saying three Hail Marys as the Compline bell was rung; the Angelus is not identical to the "Noon Bell" ordered by Pope Calixtus III in 1456, who asked for a long midday bell-ringing and prayer for protection against the Turkish invasions of his time. In his 1956 Apostolic Letter Dum Maerenti Animo about the persecution of the Catholic church in Eastern Europe and China, Pope Pius XII recalls the 500th anniversary of the "Noon Bell", a prayer crusade ordered by his predecessors against what they considered to be dangers from the East.
He again asks the faithful throughout the world, to pray for the persecuted Church in the East during the mid-day Angelus. The custom of reciting it in the morning grew from the monastic custom of saying three Hail Marys while a bell rang at Prime; the noon time custom arose from the noon time commemoration of the Passion on Fridays. The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope Urban II, by some to Pope John XXII in the year 1317; the triple recitation is ascribed to Louis XI of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be recited three times daily. The form of the prayer was standardized by the 17th century; the manner of ringing the Angelus—the triple stroke repeated three times, with a pause between each set of three, sometimes followed by a longer peal as at curfew—seems to have been long established. The 15th-century constitutions of Syon monastery dictate that the lay brother "shall toll the Ave bell nine strokes at three times, keeping the space of one Pater and Ave between each three tollings".
The pattern of ringing on Irish radio and television consists of three groups of three peals, each group separated by a pause, followed by a group of nine peals, for a total of eighteen rings. In his Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus, Pope Paul VI encouraged the praying of the Angelus considering it important and a reminder to faithful Catholics of the Paschal Mystery, in which by recalling the incarnation of the son of God they pray that they may be led "through his passion and cross to the glory of his resurrection." It is common practice that during the recital of the Angelus prayer, for the lines "And the Word was made flesh/And dwelt among us", those reciting the prayer bow or genuflect. Either of these actions draws attention to the moment of the Incarnation of Christ into human flesh. During Paschaltide, the Marian antiphon Regina Cœli with versicle and prayer, substitutes for the Angelus. In some Catholic schools, the Angelus is recited periodically. In most Franciscan and contemplative monasteries, the Angelus continues to be prayed three times a day.
In Germany, particular dioceses and their radio stations ring the Angelus. In addition, Roman Catholic churches ring the Angelus bell thrice daily. In Ireland, the Angelus is broadcast every night before the main evening news at 6:00 pm on the main national TV channel, RTÉ One, on the broadcaster's sister radio station, Radio 1, at noon and 6:00 pm. In 2015, in advertising for a commission to independent film makers to produce versions of the Angelus, RTÉ described the playing of the Angelus as follows: The daily "Angelus" broadcast on RTÉ One is by far RTÉ's longest-running and most watched Religious Programme. It's possibly, the most controversial. For some, the reflective slot, which airs for just one minute in every 1440 per day and on only one RTÉ TV channel, is as much part of Ireland's unique cultural identity as the harp on your passport. RTÉ Audience Research finds that a clear majority of Irish viewers still favours keeping the "Angelus" broadcasts and all, its appeal is summarised by one audience member as follows: "To the person of faith, it's a moment of grace.
What's not to like?"
Our Lady of Sorrows
Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of Dolours, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows, Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are names by which the Virgin Mary is referred to in relation to sorrows in her life. As Mater Dolorosa, it is a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church; the Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion. In common religious Catholic imagery, the Virgin Mary is portrayed in a sorrowful and lacrimating affect, with seven long knives or daggers piercing her heart bleeding. Devotional prayers that consist of meditation began to elaborate on her Seven Sorrows based on the prophecy of Simeon. Common examples of piety under this title are Servite rosary, or the Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady and the Seven Joys of Mary and more "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary"; the feast of Our Lady of Sorrows is liturgically celebrated every 15 September, while a feast of Friday of Sorrows is observed in some Catholic countries.
The Seven Sorrows are events in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary that are a popular devotion and are depicted in art. These Seven Sorrows should not be confused with the five Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary; the Prophecy of Simeon. The escape and Flight into Egypt; the Loss of the Child Jesus in the Temple of Jerusalem. The Meeting of Mary and Jesus on the Via Dolorosa; the Crucifixion of Jesus on Mount Calvary. The Piercing of the Side of Jesus with a spear, His Descent from the Cross; the Burial of Jesus by Joseph of Arimathea. It is a common practice for Catholics to say daily one Our Father and seven Hail Marys for each. Earlier, in 1232, seven youths in Tuscany founded the Servite Order. Five years they took up the sorrows of Mary, standing under the Cross, as the principal devotion of their order. Over the centuries several devotions, orders, arose around meditation on Mary's Sorrows in particular; the Servites developed the three most common devotions to Our Lady's Sorrows, namely the Rosary of the Seven Sorrows, the Black Scapular of the Seven Dolours of Mary and the Novena to Our Sorrowful Mother.
The Black Scapular is a symbol of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Sorrows, associated with the Servite Order. Most devotional scapulars have requirements regarding design; the devotion of the Black Scapular requires. From the National Shrine of Saint Peregrine spread the Sorrowful Mother Novena, the core of, the Via Matris. On February 2, the same day as the Great Feast of the Meeting of the Lord, Orthodox Christians and Eastern Catholics commemorate a wonder-working icon of the Theotokos known as "the Softening of Evil Hearts" or "Simeon's Prophecy", it depicts the Virgin Mary at the moment that Simeon the Righteous says, "Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also....". She stands with her hands upraised in prayer, seven swords pierce her heart, indicative of the seven sorrows; this is one of the few Orthodox icons of the Theotokos. The refrain "Rejoice, much-sorrowing Mother of God, turn our sorrows into joy and soften the hearts of evil men!" is used. The Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows grew in popularity in the 12th century, although under various titles.
Some writings would place its roots in the eleventh century among the Benedictine monks. The first altar to the Mater Dolorosa was set up in 1221 at the Cistercian monastery of Schönau; the formal feast of the Our Lady of Sorrows was originated by a provincial synod of Cologne in 1423. It was designated for the Friday after the third Sunday after Easter and had the title: Commemoratio angustiae et doloris B. Mariae V, its object was the sorrow of Mary during the Death of Christ. Before the sixteenth century this feast was limited to the dioceses of North Germany and Scotland. According to Fr. William Saunders, "... in 1482, the feast was placed in the Roman Missal under the title of Our Lady of Compassion, highlighting the great love our Blessed Mother displayed in suffering with her Son. The word compassion derives from the Latin roots cum and patior which means "to suffer with". After 1600 it was set for the Friday before Palm Sunday. By a Decree of 22 April 1727, Pope Benedict XIII extended it to the entire Latin Church, under the title "Septem dolorum B.
M. V.". In 1954, it still held the rank of major double in the General Roman Calendar. Pope John XXIII's 1960 Code of Rubrics reduced it to the level of a commemoration. In 1668 a second, separate feast was granted for the third Sunday in September, its object of the seven dolours of Mary. By inserting the feast into the General Roman Calendar in 1814, Pope Pius VII extended the celebration to the whole of the Latin Church, it was assigned to the third Sunday in September. In 1913, Pope Pius X moved the feast to the day after the Feast of the Cross, it is still observed on that date. In 1969 the Passion Week celebration was removed from the General Roman Calendar as a duplicate of the feast on 15 September; each of the two celebrations had been called a feast of "The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary" and included recitation of the Stabat Mater as a sequence. Since the 15 September feast that combines and continues both is known as the Feast of "Our Lady of Sorrows" (Latin: Beatae Mariae Virginis
Our Lady of Banneux
Our Lady of Banneux, or Our Lady of the Poor, is the sobriquet given to the apparition of the Virgin Mary to Mariette Beco, an adolescent girl living in Banneux, province of Liège. Between January 15 and March 2, 1933, Beco told her family and parish priest of seeing a Lady in white who declared herself to be the "Virgin of the Poor", saying I come to relieve suffering and Believe in me and I will believe in you. Mariette Beco was twelve years old when she reported Marian apparitions in 1933 in Banneux, Belgium, a hamlet about 15 kilometres southeast of the city of Liège. In this case, the Lady in White declared she was the Virgin of the Poor and said: "Believe in me and I will believe in you." According to Mariette, she first saw the Blessed Virgin on the evening of Sunday, January 16, 1933, as she was looking out the kitchen window. A woman in white stood in the garden and called to her to come out, but her mother would not let her, she is described as a young lady in the yard smiling at her.
The woman was bent forward and wearing a long white gown with a blue sash, a transparent white veil. Three days the woman in white reappeared and told Mariette she was "Our Lady of the Poor"; the lady appeared eight times in all, the last on March 2, 1933. In one of these visions, Mariette said the Lady asked her to plunge her hands into a small spring, telling her the spring was for healing and "for all nations". Over time the site drew pilgrims. Today, the small spring yields about 2,000 gallons of water a day with many reports of miraculous healings. Mariette, became the object of local derision, with her grandmother and aunt making fun of her. Boys followed her around and asking for her blessing, her claims were subject to an official investigation from 1935 to 1937 by an episcopal commission. The evidence collected was submitted to Rome for further analysis. Meanwhile, a hospital was built in 1938. In May 1942, Bishop Kerkhofs of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Liège approved the veneration of Mary under the title of Our Lady of the Poor.
In 1947, approval for the apparitions came from the Holy See. It was declared definite in 1949. After the apparitions, Mariette decided to remain a private person and led a quiet family life. A small chapel stands. Mariette died on December 2, 2011, at the age of 90. In 2008 she made a final statement about her role in the apparitions: "I was no more than a postman who delivers the mail. Once this has been done, the postman is of no importance any more"; as Our Lady of Banneux she has two titles: Our Lady of the Queen of Nations. Her feast day under these titles is January 15. Our Lady of Beauraing Visions of Jesus and Mary Our Lady of Banneux official website YouTube video of Our Lady of Banneux
Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima
The Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima, now known as the World Apostolate of Fátima, is a public international association of the Christian faithful that has as its general purpose "the promotion of the authentic teaching of the Roman Catholic Church and the strict adherence to the tenets of the Gospel. The Blue Army was founded in 1946 by Rev. Fr. Harold V. Colgan, parish priest of St. Mary of Plainfield, New Jersey. Father Colgan had fallen ill and was hospitalized. During his illness he prayed to Our Lady of Fátima that if she should cure him he would spend the rest of his life spreading devotion to her, he attributed his recovery to his prayers and began preaching to his congregation on a regular basis about the Virgin Mary. He summed up the message of Our Lady's apparition as this: Devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Daily recitation of the Rosary and Righteous observance of the duties of one's state of life, his message was successful. The first was a signed promise that one would try to uphold these values and the second was to wear a blue ribbon or blue medal in order to remember the promise.
This was a success and the congregation all enrolled. It was that Fr. Colgan began to think about extending this to other nations, thus was born the Blue Army, from Colgan's own words: "We will be the Blue army of Mary and Christ, against the red of the world and of Satan." Fr. Colgan began preaching his message and gained success with the assistance of writer John Haffert who began delivering conferences on the message of Fátima and the Blue Army. Colgan went to the Vatican in May 1947 to meet Pius XII in order to present his project for approval from the Pontiff; the foundation of the International Blue Army took place at the House of Pontevedra, where Mary is said to have appeared to request Communion of Reparation every First Saturday. There are over 20 million members; the World Apostolate of Fátima has its world headquarters in the Domus Pacis, a pilgrim guest house in Fátima, Portugal. While the Blue Army was founded in 1947, because of its rapid spread around the world, it became necessary to erect a new society.
The Decree of Erection of the World Apostolate of Fatima was signed on 7 October, 2005. On 3 February 2006, the World Apostolate of Fátima held an official ceremony for the consignment of the decree and the approval of its statutes at the Pontifical Council for the Laity in Rome; the Apostolate is broken up into prayer cells. These cells fall under state and national Apostolate centers which in turn are subordinate to the International Secretariat based at Fátima in the Domus Pacis; the International Secretariat exists in order to coordinate the activities of the organization throughout the world and to carry out the policy decisions of the Board of Trustees, an elected group of nine members of the Apostolate who represent various regional centers of the Apostolate. They meet. Membership in its most basic sense is through making a Pledge promising the following: To offer up every day the sacrifices demanded by one's daily duty to the faithful observance of God's law To say five decades of the Rosary daily while meditating on the mysteries To wear the brown scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel as a sign and reminder of personal consecration to Our Lady and On the first Saturday of five consecutive months, with the intention of making reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and receive Holy Communion, recite five decades of the Rosary, keep company with Our Lady for fifteen minutes while meditating on the mysteries of the Rosary.
The official pledge of membership is: I pledge myself to Our Lady and wish, thereby, to join the World Apostolate of Fátima. Dear Queen and Mother, who promised at Fátima to convert Russia and bring peace to all mankind, in reparation for my sins and the sins of the whole world, I solemnly promise to Your Immaculate Heart: To offer up every day the sacrifices demanded by my daily duty To pray at least five decades of the Rosary daily while meditating on the Mysteries To wear the Scapular of Mount Carmel as profession of this promise and as an act of consecration to You, To accomplish the devotion of the Five First Saturdays of the month, including the fifteen-minute meditation on the Mysteries of the Rosary. I shall renew this promise especially in moments of temptation; the daily offering mentioned, is traditionally the following: O my God in union with the Immaculate Heart of Mary. I offer Thee the Precious Blood of Jesus from all the altars throughout the world, joining with it the offering of my every thought and action of this day.
O my Jesus, I desire today to gain every indulgence and merit I can and I offer them, together with myself, to Mary Immaculate – that She may best apply them to the interests of Thy Most Sacred Heart. Precious Blood of Jesus, save us! Immaculate Heart of Mary, pray for us! Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on us! Thus are delineated the primary devotions of the World Apostolate; these are the devotions mandated by the Blessed Virgin Mary during the Apparitions at Fátima. Traditionally this pledge is printed, signed by the person who desires membership, it is traditional that this signed pledge is sent to the international headquarters in Fátima where it is taken and b
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is named after the town where it is reported, or on the sobriquet given to Mary on the occasion of the apparition. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the same site over an extended period of time. In the majority of Marian apparitions only one person or a few people report having witnessed the apparition. Exceptions to this include Zeitoun, Assiut where thousands claimed to have seen her over a period of time; some Marian apparitions and their respective icons have received a Canonical coronation from the Pope, most notably Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Fátima, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of Manaoag, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of Walsingham, many others. Sandra L. Zimdars-Swartz describes an "apparition" as "a specific kind of vision in which a person or being not within the visionary's perceptual range appears to that person, not in a world apart as in a dream...but as part of the environment, without apparent connection to verifiable visual stimuli."
According to Zimdars-Swartz, since the increase in Western Christianity in the tenth and eleventh centuries of devotion to the Mother of God, the figure most seen has been the Virgin Mary. Robert Orsi states that an apparition is a conjunction of transcendence and temporality where the transcendent breaks into time. A public, serial apparition is one in which a seer not only says that they have experienced a vision, but that they expect it will reoccur, people gather to observe. Zimdars-Swatrz notes that this appears to be a recent phenomenon. Up until about the seventeenth century, most reported apparitions happened when the individual was alone, or at least no one else was aware of its occurrence. In some apparitions an image is reported absent any verbal interaction. An example is the reported apparitions at Our Lady of Assiut in which many people reported a bright image atop a building. Photographs at times suggest the silhouette of a statue of the Virgin Mary but the images are subject to varying interpretations, critics suggest that they may just be due to various visual effects.
However, such image-like appearances are hardly reported for visions of Jesus and Mary. In most cases these involve some form of reported communication, and apparitions should be distinguished from interior locutions in which no visual contact is claimed. Interior locutions consist of inner voices. Interior locutions are not classified as apparitions. Physical contact is hardly reported as part of Marian apparitions. In rare cases, a physical artifact is reported in apparitions, such as the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, reported to have been miraculously imprinted on the cloak of Saint Juan Diego. According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the era of public revelation ended with the death of the last living Apostle. A Marian apparition, if deemed genuine by Church authority, is treated as private revelation that may emphasize some facet of the received public revelation for a specific purpose, but it can never add anything new to the deposit of faith; the Church may pronounce an apparition as worthy of belief, but belief is never required by divine faith.
The Holy See has confirmed the apparitions at Guadalupe, Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, Paris, La Salette, Lourdes, Fátima, Pontmain and Banneux. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Marianum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 had been approved as of May 2008. Other apparitions continue to be approved at the local level, e.g. the December, 2010 local approval of the 19th-century apparitions of Our Lady of Good Help, the first recognized apparition in the United States. An authentic apparition is not believed to be a subjective experience, but a real and objective intervention of divine power; the purpose of such apparitions is to emphasize some aspect of the Christian message. The church states that cures and other miraculous events are not the purpose of Marian apparitions, but exist to validate and draw attention to the message. Apparitions of Mary are held as evidence of her continuing active presence in the life of the Church, through which she "cares for the brethren of her son who still journey on earth."Possibly the best-known apparition sites are Lourdes and Fátima Since 1862, over sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures.
Although an independent study of cures reported in the twentieth century noted that the number of reported cures had declined over the years due to advances in medical science as well as criteria that excluded some cures during a period of time, the results of the study published in 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive effective, awaiting a scientific explanation." The Roman Catholic Church has instituted processes for formal investigation and recognition of apparitions. In 1978 the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued "Norms of the Congregation for Proceeding in Judging Alleged Apparitions and Revelations" containing the following provisions: The diocesan bishop can initiate a process on his own initiative or at the request of the faithful to investigate the facts of an
Catholic Mariology refers to Mariology—the systematic study of the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, of her place in the Economy of Salvation—within Catholic theology. Mary is seen as having a singular dignity above the saints; the Catholic Church teaches that she was conceived without original sin, therefore receiving a higher level of veneration than all other saints. Catholic Mariology thus studies not only her life but the veneration of her in daily life, hymns, art and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages; the four dogmas of perpetual virginity, Mother of God, Immaculate Conception and Assumption form the basis of Mariology. However, a number of other Catholic doctrines about the Virgin Mary have been developed by reference to sacred scripture, theological reasoning and Church tradition; the development of Mariology is ongoing and since the beginnings it has continued to be shaped by theological analyses, writings of saints, papal statements, e.g. while two Marian dogmas are ancient, the other two were defined in the 19th and 20th centuries.
In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Catholic Mariology. Other Christian views see Mariology as unbiblical and a denial of the uniqueness of Christ as redeemer and mediator to modern psychological interpretations of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Guan Yin; the study of Mary and her place in the Catholic Church has been undertaken from a number of perspectives and within a number of contexts, in his address to the 2012 Mariological congress, Pope Benedict XVI stated that this study must be "understood and examined from different and complementary viewpoints". Pope Benedict XVI emphasized that the study of Mary cannot be performed in isolation from other disciplines and that Mariology is inherently related to the study of Christ and of the Church, expresses the inner coherence of these disciplines. Pope Benedict XVI has stated that Marian studies have three separate characteristics: first personalizing the Church so it is not seen just as a structure but as a person, secondly the incarnational aspect and the relation to God, third Marian piety which involves the heart and the emotional component.
Mary's position in Church can be compared to the aspect of the Petrine office in a dual sense. This perspective on the duality of the roles of Mary and Peter highlights the subjective holiness of the heart and the holiness of the structure of the Church. In this duality, the Petrine office logically examines the charisms for their theological soundness, while the Marian dual provides a balance in the spiritual and emotional sense via the service of love that the office can never encompass. Mariology and the doctrine of office are thus not "side chapels" in Roman Catholic teachings, but are central and integrating elements of it; as referenced in the encyclical on the Mystical Body of Christ, Pius XII, 1943, her fiat gave consent for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature, thus giving humanity the means to salvation. Mary's rights, Mary's love are essential to salvation. Mariology is a field in which felt pious beliefs of the faithful and hagiography may conflict with theological and critical historical reviews of beliefs and practices.
This conflict was recognized as early as the year 1300 by William of Ware who described the tendency of some believers to attribute everything to Mary. Bonaventura warned against Marian maximalism. "One has to be careful as to not to minimize the honour of our Lord, Jesus Christ." Both minimalist and maximalist have always seen in Mary a sign of the Church and viewed her as a model for all Catholics. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XII, "the most Marian Pope in Church history" warned against both exuberant exaggerations and timid minimalism in the presentation of Mary; the Vatican II dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium was written in 1964 to avoid both Marian maximalism and minimalism. Pope John Paul II was careful to avoid both maximalism and minimalism in his Mariology and avoided taking personal positions on issues which were subject to theological debate. Mariology has been related to Christology and in the Roman Catholic theological and papal writings has been viewed as interwoven with the mystery of Christ.
Pope John Paul II discussed the "precise place of Mary" in the plan of salvation in the encyclical Redemptoris Mater and stated: "Following the line of the Second Vatican Council, I wish to emphasize the special presence of the Mother of God in the mystery of Christ and his Church. For this is a fundamental dimension emerging from the Mariology of the Council". Roman Catholic theologians have explored the interwoven natures of Mariology and Christology. Pope Benedict XVI characterized the relationship by stating that "Christology and Mariology are inseparably interwoven" from their beginnings. In his view, Mariology underscores the nexus of the mysteries of Christology and ecclesiology, reflects they are intrinsically interwoven. Early Christians and numerous saints focused on this connection and popes highlighted the inner link between Marian doctrines and a fuller understanding of Christological themes. Given the Catholic perspective that the Church lives in its relation to Christ, being the Body of Christ, it has a relation to his mother, whose study is the subject of Roman Catholic Mariology.
Pope Saint Pius X in Ad diem illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ."In Roman Catholic theology the study of Mary, while contributing to the study
The Marist Brothers of the Schools known as the Marist Brothers, is an international community of Catholic Religious Institute of Brothers. In 1817, St. Marcellin Champagnat, a priest from France, founded the Marist Brothers, with the goal of educating young people those most neglected. While most of the Brothers minister in school settings, others work with young people in parishes, religious retreats and spiritual accompaniment, at-risk youth settings, young adult ministry and overseas missions. St. Marcellin Champagnat decided to start an institute of consecrated brothers in the Marist tradition, building schools for the underprivileged where they might learn to become "Good Christians and Good people"; the decision was inspired by an event, when as a parish priest he was called to administer the last rites to a dying boy named Jean Baptiste Montagne. Trying to lead the boy through his last moments in prayer, Marcellin was struck by the fact that the young man had no gauge of Christianity or prayer.
From that moment, Champagnat decided to start training brothers to meet the faith needs of the young people of France. On January 2, 1817, the 23-year-old Jean Marie Granjon and Jean Baptist Audras, fourteen and a half years of age, moved into the small house that Fr. Champagnat had rented for them in La Valla and which became the first Marist Brothers community, their day consisted of prayer and study. Marcellin taught them reading and writing, he looked after their formation as religious educators. Other young men joined the undertaking, among them Gabriel Rivat who, as Brother François, would become the Brothers' first Superior General; as a Marist priest, Champagnat had a particular affinity for the Blessed Virgin Mary, so upon conception of the idea of Marist Brothers, Champagnat chose to call his brothers Petits Frères de Marie, emphasising the meekness and humbleness he wished them to pursue, seeking their consecration to her as an exemplar of fidelity to Christ. In 1863, 23 years after Champagnat's death, the Marist Brothers institute received the approbation of the Holy See, whereupon the order received the title of Fratres Maristae a Scholis, hence the post-nominal letters of FMS.
They received a particular mandate to follow the Marist Fathers to the Pacific and administer to the new colonies of the Pacific nations and Australia. This harkens back to a Marist legend about Champagnat. A favourite maxim of St. Marcellin was that he wanted "to make Jesus known and loved" throughout the world, to demonstrate he would run a needle through an apple as an example of how he wanted the message of "Ad Jesum per Mariam" or "To Jesus through Mary" to cross the globe; the end of the needle came out in what would be the equivalent of the Pacific in relation to France where he inserted the needle, so thus the Marist Brothers have a well-recognised presence throughout the Pacific, but in Australia and New Zealand. The Marist Brothers are involved in educational work throughout the world and now conduct primary and secondary schools, industrial schools and retreat houses in 79 countries on five continents: Europe, The Americas and Oceania. From their roots in Lyons, the Brothers today have spread across the globe.
Over their 200-year history, Marist Brothers have had ministries in over 100 different nations. Presently there are 3,500 brothers in 79 countries on 5 continents, working directly and sharing their mission and spirituality with more than 40,000 lay Marists, together educating close to 500,000 children and young people; the international Marist brotherhood is led by a Superior General Br. Br. Ernesto Sánchez, F. M. S. Together with the Vicar General and a General Council, it is his job to guide the growth and administration of the various ministries of the Brothers across the globe, from the General House in Rome; the Marist Brothers are divided into two main administrative units, either "provinces" or "districts", depending on size. Provinces are led by a Provincial, whose job it is to oversee and make deliberations on behalf of the Superior General for the Province he leads. There are presently 5 districts. Depending on the extent of ministries within a certain country, there may be multiple provinces within the one country.
For example, Brazil has three provinces and two districts and Australia has two, as does Mexico. Mission Ad Gentes Marist District of Asia Province of East Asia; these schools are part of this province: Maris Stella High School in Singapore, SMJK Sam Tet in Ipoh, Malaysia, Catholic High School, Malaysia in Petaling Jaya, Catholic High School in Melaka, Notre Dame of Cotabato, Notre Dame of Kidapawan College, Marist School in Marikina City, Notre Dame of Marbel University and Notre Dame of Dadiangas University, Philippines and St. Francis Xavier's College and St. Francis Xavier's School in Hong Kong Province of South Asia. Notable school: Maris Stella College in Negombo; the Marist Brothers' first international missionary mandate was to the Pacific, where they accompanied Marist Fathers in evangelizing and education ministries. Today, Marist brothers own and run many technical colleges in the Central and Western Pacific, educating young men in nations ravaged by war. Marist Brothers arrived in Australia in 1872, where they opened their