Egyptian Revival architecture
Egyptian revival is an architectural style that uses the motifs and imagery of ancient Egypt. It is attributed to the public awareness of ancient Egyptian monuments generated by Napoleon's conquest of Egypt and Admiral Nelson's defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1798; the size and monumentality of the façades'discovered' during his adventure cement the hold of Egyptian aesthetics on the Parisian elite. Napoleon took a scientific expedition with him to Egypt. Publication of the expedition's work, the Description de l'Égypte, began in 1809 and was published as a series through 1826. However, works of art and architecture in the Egyptian style had been made or built on the European continent and the British Isles since the time of the Renaissance; the most important example is Gian Lorenzo Bernini's obelisk in the Piazza Navona in Rome. It influenced the obelisk constructed as a family funeral memorial by Sir Edward Lovatt Pierce for the Allen family at Stillorgan in Ireland in 1717, one of several Egyptian obelisks erected in Ireland during the early 18th century.
Others may be found at County Kildare. The Casteltown Folly in County Kildare is the best known, albeit the least Egyptian-styled. Egyptian buildings had been built as garden follies; the most elaborate was the one built by Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg in the gardens of the Château de Montbéliard. It included an Egyptian bridge across which guests walked to reach an island with an elaborate Egyptian-influenced bath house. Designed by the duke's court architect, Jean Baptiste Kleber, the building had a billiards room and a "bagnio". New after the Napoleonic invasion was a sudden increase of the number of works of art and the fact that, for the first time, entire buildings began to be built to resemble those of ancient Egypt. In France and Britain this was at least inspired by successful war campaigns undertaken by each country while in Egypt. According to David Brownlee, the 1798 Karlsruhe Synagogue, an early building by the influential Friedrich Weinbrenner was "the first large Egyptian building to be erected since antiquity."
According to Diana Muir Appelbaum, it was "the first public building in the Egyptian revival style." The ancient Egyptian influence was shown in the two large engaged pylons flanking the entrance. Among the earliest monuments of the Egyptian revival in Paris is the Fontaine du Fellah in Paris, built in 1806, it was designed by François-Jean Bralle. A well-documented example, destroyed after Napoleon was deposed, was the monument to General Louis Desaix in the Place des Victoires was built in 1810, it featured a nude statue of the general and an obelisk, both set upon an Egyptian revival base. Another example of a still standing site of Egyptian Revival is the Egyptian Gate of Tsarskoe Selo, built in 1829. A street or passage named the Place du Caire or Foire du Caire was built in Paris in 1798 on the former site of the convent of the "Filles de la Charité". No. 2 Place du Caire, from 1828, is in overall form a conventional Parisian structure with shops on the ground floor and apartments above, but with considerable Egyptianizing decoration including a row of massive Hathor heads and a frieze by sculptor J. G. Garraud.
One of the first British buildings to show an Egyptian revival interior was the newspaper office of the Courier on the Strand in London. It was built in 1804 and featured a cavetto cornice and Egyptian-influenced columns with palmiform capitals. Other early British examples include the Egyptian Hall in London, completed in 1812, the Egyptian Gallery, a private room in the home of connoisseur Thomas Hope to display his Egyptian antiquities, illustrated in engravings from his meticulous line drawings in his book Household Furniture, were a prime source for the regency style of British furnishings. Egyptian revival architecture enjoyed considerable popularity in other countries as well; the first Egyptian revival building in the United States was the 1824 synagogue building of Congregation Mikveh Israel Synagogue in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania It was followed by a series of major public buildings in the first half of the 19th century including the 1835 Philadelphia County Prison, Pennsylvania, United States, the 1836 Fourth District Police Station in New Orleans and the 1838 New York City jail known as the Tombs.
Other public buildings in Egyptian style included the 1844 Old Whaler's Church in Sag Harbor, New York, the 1846 First Baptist Church in Essex, the 1845 Egyptian Building of the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond and the 1848 United States Custom House in New Orleans. The most notable Egyptian structure in the United States was the Washington Monument, begun in 1848, this obelisk featured doors with cavetto cornices and winged sun disks removed; the National World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri is another example of Egyptian revival architecture and art. The South African College in the then-British Cape Colony features an "Egyptian building" constructed in 1841; the Great Synagogue was Australia's first Egyptian revival building, followed by the Hobart Synagogue, the Launceston Synagogue and the Adelaide Hebrew Congregation, all by 1850. The earliest obelisk in Australia was erected at Macquarie Place, Sydney in 1818; the expeditions that led to the discovery in 1922 of the treasure of Tutankhamun's tomb by the a
Wildlife of Egypt
The wildlife of Egypt is composed of the flora and fauna of this country in northeastern Africa and southwestern Asia, is substantial and varied. Apart from the fertile Nile Valley, which bisects the country from south to north, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few scattered oases, it has long coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Each geographic region has a diversity of plants and animals each adapted to its own particular habitat. Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west and Sudan to the south. To the east lies the Red Sea, the Sinai Peninsula, the Asian part of the country, bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel. Egypt is a transcontinental nation, providing a land bridge between Asia; this is traversed by the Suez Canal which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea. This results in the flora and fauna having influences from both Africa and Asia, the marine life from both the Atlantic / Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea / Indian Ocean.
The River Nile enters Egypt as it flows through Lake Nasser, formed by the building of the Aswan Dam. In its lower reaches, the river is about the alluvial plain about 10 km wide; the annual flooding of the Nile no longer occurs and the fertility of the Nile Valley is now maintained by irrigation rather than the deposition of silt. Much of the Nile is bordered by flat land but in some places there are low cliffs. Where the river flows into the Mediterranean, there is an extensive fan-shaped delta area with channels and salt marshes. To the west of the Nile lies the Western Desert, occupying about two thirds of the area of the country, it consists of high stony and sandy plains with rocky plateaux in places. In the extreme southwest of the country on the border with Libya and Sudan, is Jebel Uweinat, a mountainous region and in the northwest lies the Qattara Depression, a large area of land some 133 m below sea level. Another depression, the Faiyum Oasis lies south west of Cairo and is connected to the Nile by a channel.
To the east of the Nile lies the much smaller Eastern Desert, a high mountain ridge running parallel with the Red Sea, seamed with wadis on either flank. At the border with Sudan this rises to the rocky massif of Gebel Elba; the Sinai Peninsula is a mountainous area cleft by canyon-like wadis that flow towards the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. In general, Egypt is a dry country; the Western Desert receives only occasional rainfall, the winters being mild and the summers hot. The Eastern Desert receives some precipitation in the south in the form of orographic rainfall from winds that have crossed the Red Sea; the winters here are mild and the summers hot, Gebel Elba is cooler and wetter than other parts. The northern areas of the country close to the coast, receive some precipitation from Mediterranean weather systems; the Nile is the lifeline of Egypt, the land bordering the river being rendered fertile by the irrigation it receives. Crops grown in the Nile Valley include cotton, sugarcane, oil seed crops and groundnuts.
Date palms grow here as well as sycamore and Acacia. Fruit trees are planted here and eucalyptus has been introduced; the rich delta soil is used for the cultivation of grapes and flowers. The papyrus reeds that used to line the river are now restricted to the far south of the country, as are the crocodiles and hippopotamuses that used to be plentiful. Large parts of the Western Desert are devoid of vegetation; the plants that do grow are adapted to the arid conditions and tend to be small and wiry, have small, leathery leaves, long shallow roots to exploit any available water, prickles or thorns to deter herbivores, sometimes thick stems or leaves to store water. They include acacia trees, succulents, spiny shrubs, grasses; some plants adopt an ephemeral life style, sprouting or springing into life when rain falls reaching the flowering stage and producing long-lived durable seed. In depressions in the Western Desert, some plant communities are dominated by Zygophyllum album, Nitraria retusa and Tamarix nilotica.
In the Siwa Oasis there are small lakes, reedbeds dominated by Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, saltmarshes with Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Juncus rigidus, Alhagi maurorum, Cladium mariscus and Cressa cretica. In the mountains of the Eastern Desert grows the tree Balanites aegyptiaca, the open patchy woodland being remnants of forests that used to cover this region. In the Gulf of Suez coastal area the rainfall is supplemented by condensation from clouds. Water may flow down runnels and collect in potholes. Here mosses and various vascular plants grow, Ficus pseudosycamorus and stunted date palms grow from cracks; the flora of the Sinai Peninsula mountains is varied and is of Irano-Turanian origin. Here soil and plant litter accumulates in crevices and depressions in the rock and provides anchorage for roots; the commonest plant is Artemisia inculta, rocky slopes support shrubs, semi-shrubs and trees. At one time Egypt had a cooler, wetter climate. Nor does the country have many endemic species, these being limited to the Egyptian weasel, pallid gerbil, Mackilligin's gerbil, Flower's shrew, Nile Delta toad, two but
Culture of Egypt
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations in Middle Africa. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly unique and stable culture that influenced cultures of Europe. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time Christianity, Christian culture. Arabic is Egypt's official language, it came to Egypt in the 7th century, the Egyptian Arabic dialect today has become the modern speech of the country. Of the many varieties of Arabic, it is the most spoken second dialect, due to the influence of Egyptian cinema and media throughout the Arabic-speaking world. Egypt's position in the heart of the Arab world has had reversed influence, adopting many words and proverbs from neighboring Arabic speaking areas such as the Maghreb area and the Mashriq. Today the daily Egyptian Arabic adopted several French, Greek, Turkish and English words to its dictionary, as well as keeping several other words from its own ancient languages such as Coptic and Demotic.
The Egyptian language, which formed a separate branch among the family of Afro-Asiatic languages, was among the first written languages and is known from the hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus. The Coptic language, the most recent stage of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church; the "Koiné" dialect of the Greek language was important in Hellenistic Alexandria, was used in the philosophy and science of that culture, was studied by Arabic scholars. In the lower Nile Valley, around Kom Ombo and Aswan, there are about 300,000 speakers of Nubian languages Nobiin, but Kenuzi-Dongola; the Berber languages are represented by Siwi, spoken by about 20,000 around the Siwa Oasis. Other minorities include 60,000 Greek speakers in Alexandria and Cairo as well as 10,000 Armenian speakers. Many Egyptians believed that when it came to a death of their Pharaoh, they would have to bury the Pharaoh deep inside the Pyramid; the ancient Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the third millennium BC.
Religious literature is best known for its hymns to and its mortuary texts. The oldest extant Egyptian literature is the Pyramid Texts: the mythology and rituals carved around the tombs of rulers; the secular literature of ancient Egypt includes the'wisdom texts', forms of philosophical instruction. The Instruction of Ptahhotep, for example, is a collation of moral proverbs by an Egto seem to have been drawn from an elite administrative class, were celebrated and revered into the New Kingdom. In time, the Pyramid Texts became Coffin Texts, the mortuary literature produced its masterpiece, the Book of the Dead, during the New Kingdom; the Middle Kingdom was the golden age of Egyptian literature. Some notable texts include the Tale of Neferty, the Instructions of Amenemhat I, the Tale of Sinuhe, the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor and the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. Instructions became a popular literary genre of the New Kingdom, taking the form of advice on proper behavior; the Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any are well-known examples from this period.
During the Greco-Roman period, Egyptian literature was translated into other languages, Greco-Roman literature fused with native art into a new style of writing. From this period comes the Rosetta Stone, which became the key to unlocking the mysteries of Egyptian writing to modern scholarship; the great city of Alexandria boasted its famous Library of half a million handwritten books during the third century BC. Alexandria's center of learning produced the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint. Drep During the first few centuries of the Christian era, Egypt was the ultimate source of a great deal of ascetic literature in the Coptic language. Egyptian monasteries translated many Syriac words, which are now only extant in Coptic. Under Islam, Egypt continued to be a great source of literary endeavor, now in the Arabic language. In 970, al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo, which to this day remains the most important center of Sunni Islamic learning. In 12th-century Egypt, the Jewish Talmudic scholar Maimonides produced his most important work.
In contemporary times, Egyptian novelists and poets were among the last to experiment with modern styles of Arabic-language literature, the forms they developed have been imitated. The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular. Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Many Egyptian books and films are available throughout the Middle East. Other prominent Egyptian writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist works and activism, Alifa Rifaat who writes about women and tradition. Vernacular poetry is said to be the most popular literary genre amongst Egyptians, represented most by Bayram el-Tunsi, Ahmed Fouad Negm, Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. About 75% of Egypt's population is Muslim, with a Sunni majority. About 22% of the population is Coptic Christian. Sunni Islam sees Egypt as an important part of its religion due to not only Quranic verses mentioning the country, but due to the Al-Azhar University, one of the earliest of the world universities, the longest functioning.
It was created as a school for religion works. The Egyptians were one of th
Economy of Egypt
The economy of Egypt was a centralised economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. In the 1990s, a series of International Monetary Fund arrangements, coupled with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in the Gulf War coalition, helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance. Since 2000, the pace of structural reforms, including fiscal, monetary policies, taxation and new business legislations, helped Egypt move towards a more market-oriented economy and prompted increased foreign investment; the reforms and policies have strengthened macroeconomic annual growth results which averaged 8% annually between 2004 and 2009 but the government failed to equitably share the wealth and the benefits of growth have failed to trickle down to improve economic conditions for the broader population with the growing problem of unemployment and underemployment. Egypt has a rather stable mixed economy enjoying average growth, averaging 3%–5% in the past quarter-century.
The economy embarked on various stages of development during which the public and private sectors played roles varying in relative importance as follows: Import Substitution and Nationalization: during which the first programme of industrialization in 1957 was established and led by the public sector in heavy industries such as iron and steel, chemical industries, heavy machinery. Nationalization reduced the relative importance of the private sector. There was no stock trading to speak of, all banks and financial institutions were under the public sector, foreign direct investment was banned. Inter-War: adversely affected the performance of the economy and public sector role in import substitution. Openness Euphoria: during which policies were introduced to encourage Arab and foreign investment through a series of incentives and liberalizing trade and payment. External Debt Crisis: the external debt crisis and Paris Club rescheduling and debt reduction. Economic Reform: reform policies were introduced to meet the terms of international institutions and donors, including wider incentives to the role of the private sector in all economic activities.
The Post Global Financial Crisis: soaring food prices for grains, led to calls for the government to provide more immediate assistance to the population of more than 40% in the "poverty tunnel" and to strike a "new deal" on agriculture policy and reform. Egypt faced the long term supply- and demand-side repercussions of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Post-Revolution: the Egyptian economy suffered from a severe downturn following the 2011 revolution and the government faced numerous challenges to restore growth and investor confidence. Egypt's foreign exchange reserves fell from $36 billion in December 2010 to only $16.3 billion in January 2012 as a result of propping up the Egyptian pound against the dollar. Concerns about social unrest and the country's ability to meet its financial targets provoked rating agencies to lower the country's credit rating on several occasions. In 2016 Egypt floated its currency and embarked on a homegrown economic reform program supported by a $12 billion IMF loan in a bid to restore macroeconomic stability and growth.
By early, 2019, Egypt had received 10 of the 12 billion requested. Under comprehensive economic reforms initiated in 1991, Egypt has relaxed many price controls, reduced subsidies, reduced inflation, cut taxes, liberalized trade and investment. Manufacturing had become less dominated by the public sector in heavy industries. A process of public sector reform and privatization has begun to enhance opportunities for the private sector. Agriculture in private hands, has been deregulated, with the exception of cotton and sugar production. Construction, non-financial services, domestic wholesale and retail trades are private; this has promoted a steady increase of the annual growth rate. The Government of Egypt tamed inflation bringing it down from double-digit to a single digit. GDP is rising smartly by 7% per annum due to successful diversification. Gross domestic product per capita based on purchasing-power-parity increased fourfold between 1981 and 2006, from US$1355 in 1981, to US$2525 in 1991, to US$3686 in 2001 and to an estimated US$4535 in 2006.
Based on national currency, GDP per capita at constant 1999 prices increased from EGP 411 in 1981, to EGP 2098 in 1991, to EGP 5493 in 2001 and to EGP 8708 in 2006. Based on the current US$ prices, GDP per capita increased from US$587 in 1981, to US$869 in 1991, to US$1461 in 2001 and to an estimated US$1518 in 2006. According to the World Bank Country Classification, Egypt has been promoted from the low income category to lower middle income category; as of 2013, the average weekly salaries in Egypt reached LE641, which grew by 20% from the previous year. The reform programme is a work in progress. Noteworthy that the reform record has improved since Nazif government came to power. Egypt has made substantial progress in developing its legal and investment infrastructure. Indeed, over the past five years, Egypt has passed and admitted over 15 legislative pieces; the economy is expected to grow by about 4% to 6% in 2009/2010. Surging domestic inflationary pressures from both economic growth and elevated international food prices led the Central Bank of Egypt to increase the over
Belly dance referred to as Arabic dance, is an Arabic expressive dance which originated in Egypt and that emphasizes complex movements of the torso. It has evolved to take many different forms depending on the country and region, both in costume and dance style; the term "belly dance" is a translation of the French term "danse du ventre", applied to the dance in the Victorian era, referred to Egyptian and Middle Eastern female dances. In Arabic, the dance is known as Raqs Baladi in Egyptian Arabic. Belly dance is a torso-driven dance, with an emphasis on articulations of the hips. Unlike many Western dance forms, the focus of the dance is on isolations of the torso muscles, rather than on movements of the limbs through space. Although some of these isolations appear similar to the isolations used in jazz ballet, they are sometimes driven differently and have a different feeling or emphasis. In common with most folk dances, there is no universal naming scheme for belly dance movements; some dancers and dance schools have developed their own naming schemes, but none of these is universally recognized.
Many of the movements characteristic of belly dance can be grouped into the following categories: Percussive movements: Staccato movements, most of the hips, used to punctuate the music or accent a beat. Typical movements in this group include hip drops, vertical hip rocks, outwards hip hits, hip lifts and hip twists. Percussive movements using other parts of the body can include lifts or drops of the ribcage and shoulder accents. Fluid movements: Flowing, sinuous movements in which the body is in continuous motion, used to interpret melodic lines and lyrical sections in the music, or modulated to express complex instrumental improvisations; these movements require a great deal of abdominal muscle control. Typical movements include horizontal and vertical figures of 8 or infinity loops with the hips, horizontal or tilting hip circles, undulations of the hips and abdomen; these basic shapes may be varied and embellished to create an infinite variety of complex, textured movements. Shimmies and vibrations: Small, continuous movements of the hips or ribcage, which create an impression of texture and depth of movement.
Shimmies are layered over other movements, are used to interpret rolls on the or riq or fast strumming of the oud or qanun. There are many types of varying in size and method of generation; some common shimmies include relaxed, up and down hip shimmies, straight-legged knee-driven shimmies, tiny hip vibrations, twisting hip shimmies, bouncing'earthquake' shimmies, relaxed shoulder or ribcage shimmies. In addition to these torso movements, dancers in many styles will use level changes, travelling steps and spins; the arms are used to frame and accentuate movements of the hips, for dramatic gestures, to create beautiful lines and shapes with the body in the more balletic, Westernised styles. Other movements may be used as occasional accents, such as low kicks and arabesques and head tosses. Belly dancing is believed to have had a long history in the Middle East, but reliable evidence about its origins is scarce, accounts of its history are highly speculative. Several Greek and Roman sources including Juvenal and Martial describe dancers from Asia Minor and Spain using undulating movements, playing castanets, sinking to the floor with "quivering thighs", descriptions that are suggestive of the movements that are today associated with belly dance.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, European travellers in the Middle East such as Edward Lane and Flaubert wrote extensively of the dancers they saw there, including the Awalim and Ghawazee of Egypt. In the Ottoman Empire belly dance was performed by both women in the Sultan's palace. Belly dance in the Middle East has two distinct social contexts: as a folk or social dance, as a performance art; as a social dance, belly dance is performed at celebrations and social gatherings by ordinary people, in their ordinary clothes. In more conservative or traditional societies, these events may be gender segregated, with separate parties where men and women dance separately. Professional dance performers were the Awalim, Köçekler; the Maazin sisters may have been the last authentic performers of Ghawazi dance in Egypt, with Khayreyya Maazin still teaching and performing as of 2009. In the modern era, professional performers are not considered to be respectable in the Middle East, there is a strong social stigma attached to female performers in particular, since they display their bodies in public, considered haram in Islam.
Many bellydancers work in Cairo. The modern Egyptian belly dance style are said to have originated in Cairo's nightclubs been used in Egyptian cinema. Many of the local dancers went on to appear in Egyptian films and had a great influence on the development of the Egyptian style and became famous like Samia Gamal and Taheyya Kariokka both of whom helped attract the eyes to Egyptian style worldwide. Egyptian belly dance is noted for its precise movements. Turkish belly dance is referred to in Turkey as Oryantal Dans, or simply'Oryantal'; the Turkish style of bellydance is lively and playful, with a greater outward projection of energy than the more contained Egyptian style. Turkish dancers are known for their energetic, athletic
Raqs sharqi is the classical Egyptian style of belly dance that developed during the first half of the 20th century. Based on the traditional ghawazi and other folk styles and formed by eastern and western influences, such as marching bands, Latin dance, etc. this hybrid style was performed in the cabarets of interbellum period Egypt and in early Egyptian cinema. The style is considered the classical style of belly dance, although that term referred to the ghawazi style, today covers a much wider range of Middle Eastern dance as well as Western styles developed from them. Raqs sharqi was developed by Samia Gamal, Tahiya Karioka, Naima Akef, other dancers who rose to fame during the golden years of the Egyptian film industry; this has come to be considered the classical style of dance in Egypt by the 1950s. These dancers were famous not only for their role in Egyptian films, but for their performances at the "Opera Casino" opened in 1925 by Badia Masabni; this venue was a popular place for influential musicians and choreographers from both the US and Europe, so many of the developments pioneered here can be considered new developments in the dance.
Dancers who were influenced by these artists are Sohair Zaki, Fifi Abdou, Nagwa Fouad and Dalilah. All rose to fame between 1960 and 1980, are still popular today; some of these dancers were the first to choreograph and perform dances using a full'orchestra' and stage set-up, which had a huge influence upon what is considered the'classical' style. Though the basic movements of Raqs Sharqi are unchanged, the dance form continues to evolve. Nelly Mazloum and Mahmoud Reda are noted for incorporating elements of ballet, their influence can be seen in modern Egyptian dancers who stand on relevé as they turn or travel in a circle or figure eight. Since the 1950s, it has been illegal in Egypt for belly dancers to perform publicly with their midriff uncovered or to display excessive skin, it is therefore becoming more common to wear a long, figure-hugging lycra one-piece gown with strategically placed cut-outs filled in with sheer, flesh-coloured fabric. If a separate bra and skirt are worn, a belt is used and any embellishment is embroidered directly on the tight, sleek lycra skirt.
A sheer body stocking must be worn to cover the midsection. Egyptian dancers traditionally dance in bare feet, but these days wear shoes and high heels. Egyptians do not consider it a respectable profession, despite attempts by several groups to change the perception, despite the fact that most Egyptians continue to employ native Egyptian dancers for wedding receptions and other celebratory events. Most belly dancers performing for tourists in Egypt today are foreigners, both from Europe and from elsewhere in the Arab world. Belly dancers in Egypt have restrictions placed on their costume and movements. No floor work is permitted, their midriff must be covered. State television in Egypt no longer broadcasts belly dancing. A plan to establish a state institute to train belly dancers in Egypt came under heavy fire in 2009 as it "seriously challenges the Egyptian society's traditions and glaringly violates the constitution," said Farid Esmail, a member of parliament
Egyptian National Police
Egyptian National Police or ENP is a department of the Ministry of Interior of Egypt. In the early Twentieth Century, holder of the post of Interior Minister was called: "The Interior Superintendent"; the title was used until 1919 when World War I broke out and Britain declared Egypt as a protectorate. As a consequence, some political posts and titles were changed and the "superintendent" was among the titles included. Tahseen Rushdi Bashi was the first person to hold the title of Interior Minister in Egypt; as time went on, many Prime Ministers assumed the post of Interior Minister – in addition to their Premiership- being among the posts having major control over the internal events. The post enabled its holder to control elections, select executives and have an eye on political opponents; when Saad Zaghloul Pasha assumed the Interior Minister post in 1934 – along with his premiership- the Ministry was characterized with a political trend. He tended to dismiss persons who opposed his ideas and began to employ and promote those who struggled with him.
Since, for a long time, the Ministry employees were left under the mercy of political changes and election results. But when the famous thinker and lawyer Mr. Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed was appointed as an Interior Minister, stability prevailed the Ministry; when Egypt was proclaimed a republic in 1953, Gamal Abdel Nasser. Interior Minister's post – like other major posts in Egypt- was assumed for a long time by non-Egyptian ministers with no police or security background, it is a must that the Interior Minister be a descendant of Egyptian parents and a graduate of Police College. Premiers are no longer capable of assuming both posts as Interior Minister's post has become separate due to the enormous and significant tasks it entails; the Interior Minister has to relinquish his title as a police general and his name is only preceded by the title. The Ministry of Interior divides the functions of the police and public security among four Deputy Ministers of Interior while the Minister of Interior himself retained responsibility for state security and overall organization.
There are four Deputy Ministers: Public Security responsible for public safety, Immigration, port security, criminal investigation. Special Police responsible for prison administration, the Central Security Forces, civil defense, police transport, police communications, traffic police, Tourism and Antiquities Police. Personnel Affairs was responsible for police-training institutions, personnel matters for police and civilian employees, the Policemen's Sports Association. Administrative and Financial Affairs responsible for general administration, budgets and legal matters. In each of the 27 Governorates of Egypt, the presidentially appointed governor and a director of police command all police and maintain public order. Both the governor and the director of police report to the Ministry of Interior on all security matters; the governor reports directly to the minister or to a deputy while the director of police reports through regular police channels. In the governorate's subdivisions there are district police commandants with the authority and functions that were similar to the director at the governorate level.
The urban police have more modern facilities and equipment, such as computers and communications equipment, while the smaller more remote village police have less sophisticated facilities and equipment. The police became motorised and it is now rare to see an officer on foot patrol except in city or town centres, rarely alone. An increasing number of urban centres police bicycle units are used to provide a quick response in congested areas, pedestrianised areas and parkland, as well as carrying out patrols. All commissioned officers were graduates of the Police Academy at Cairo where police had to complete four years at the academy; the Police Academy is a modern institution equipped with laboratory and physical-training facilities. The police force sent some officers abroad for schooling; the Police Academy offers a four-year program which includes: security administration, criminal investigation, military drills, civil defense, fire fighting, forensic medicine, cryptology, first aid, sociology and foreign languages.
Included are: political orientation, public relations, military subjects, marksmanship and field exercises. Graduates are commissioned first lieutenants. Advanced officer training was given at the Academy's Institute for Advanced Police Studies, completion of, required for advancement beyond the rank of lieutenant colonel; the academy's three-month course for enlisted personnel is conducted in a military atmosphere but emphasizes police methods and techniques. Some police officers the special operations officers, are well trained by the Egyptian Armed Forces in Al-Sa'ka Military School. Egyptian police rank insignia are the same as those used by the Egyptian Army. Commissioned police ranks resemble those of the Egyptian Army; the highest-ranking Egyptian police officer is a Lieutenant General and officer ranks descend only to first lieutenant. Enlisted police ranks include master sergeant, sergeant and private. Egyptian police uniforms are similar t