Early Modern English
Early Modern English, Early New English is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century. Before and after the accession of James I to the English throne in 1603, the emerging English standard began to influence the spoken and written Middle Scots of Scotland; the grammatical and orthographical conventions of literary English in the late 16th century and in the 17th century are still influential on Modern Standard English. Most modern readers of English can understand texts written in the late phase of the Early Modern English, such as the King James Bible and the works of William Shakespeare, they have influenced Modern English. Texts from the earlier phase of Middle English, such as the late-15th century Le Morte d'Arthur and the mid-16th century Gorboduc, may present more difficulties but are still closer to Modern English grammar and phonology than are 14th-century Middle English texts, such as the works of Geoffrey Chaucer.
The change from Middle English to Early Modern English was not just a matter of changes of vocabulary or pronunciation. An era of linguistic change in a language with large variations in dialect was replaced by a new era of a more standardised language, with a richer lexicon and an established literature. 1476 – William Caxton starts printing in Westminster. 1485 – Caxton publishes Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, the first print bestseller in English. Malory's language, while archaic in some respects, is Early Modern and is a Yorkshire or Midlands dialect. 1491 or 1492 – Richard Pynson starts printing in London. C. 1509 – Pynson becomes the King's official printer. From 1525 – Publication of William Tyndale's Bible translation, banned. 1539 – Publication of the Great Bible, the first officially-authorised Bible in English. Edited by Myles Coverdale, it is from the work of Tyndale, it is read to congregations in churches, which familiarises much of the population of England with a standard form of the language.
1549 – Publication of the first Book of Common Prayer in English, under the supervision of Thomas Cranmer, which standardises much of the wording of church services. Some have argued that since attendance at prayer book services was required by law for many years, the repetitive use of its language helped to standardise Modern English more than the King James Bible did. 1557 – Publication of Tottel's Miscellany. Elizabethan era 1582 – The Rheims and Douai Bible is completed, the New Testament is released in Rheims, France, in 1582, it is the first complete English translation of the Bible, sponsored and carried out by the Catholic Church. Though the Old Testament is ready complete, it is not published until 1609–1610, when it is released in two volumes, it does not make a large impact on the English language at large, it plays a role in the development of English in the world's heavily-Catholic English-speaking areas. Christopher Marlowe, fl. 1586–1593 1592 – The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas Kyd c. 1590 to c. 1612 – Shakespeare's plays written.
1609 – Shakespeare's sonnets published Other playwrights: Ben Jonson Thomas Dekker Beaumont and Fletcher John Webster 1607 – The first successful permanent English colony in the New World, Jamestown, is established in Virginia. Early vocabulary specific to American English comes from indigenous languages. 1611 – The King James Bible is published based on Tyndale's translation. It remains the standard Bible in the Church of England for many years. 1623 – Shakespeare's First Folio published 1630–1651 – William Bradford, Governor of Plymouth Colony, writes in his journal. It will become Of one of the earliest texts written in the American Colonies. 1647 – Publication of the first Beaumont and Fletcher folio. The English Civil War and the Interregnum were times of social and political upheaval and instability; the dates for Restoration literature are a matter of convention and differ markedly from genre to genre. In drama, the "Restoration" may last until 1700, but in poetry, it may last only until 1666, the annus mirabilis, prose, it last until 1688, with the increasing tensions over succession and the corresponding rise in journalism and periodicals, or until 1700, when those periodicals grew more stabilised.
1651 – Publication of Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes. 1660–1669 – Samuel Pepys writes in his diary, which will become an important eyewitness account of the Restoration Era. 1662 – New edition of the Book of Common Prayer based on the 1549 and subsequent editions, which long remains a standard work in English. 1667 – Publication of Paradise Lost by John Milton and of Annus Mirabilis by John Dryden. The 17th-century port towns and their forms of speech gain influence over the old county towns. From around the 1690s onwards, England experienced a new period of internal peace and relative stability, which encouraged the arts including literature. Modern English can be taken to have emerged b
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, he was instead proclaimed Emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a papal coronation for the adoption of the imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Eleanor of Portugal, he ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 to his father's death in 1493. Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459.
His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread; the young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer. At the time, the dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal family, with their sophisticated nobility and court culture, were the rulers of substantial territories on the eastern and northern boundaries of France; the reigning duke, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and, to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian.
After the Siege of Neuss, he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477. Maximilian's wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs; the Duchy of Burgundy was claimed by the French crown under Salic Law, with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the modern Enguinegatte, on 7 August 1479. Maximilian and Mary's wedding contract stipulated that their children would succeed them but that the couple could not be each other's heirs. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded.
After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome. Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and, in 1482, they signed a treaty with Louis XI in Arras that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and Artois to the French crown, they rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened. Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis, thus a large part of the Netherlands stayed in the Habsburg patrimony. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen.
He became ruler of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, as they had occupied the territory under the reign of Frederick. In 1490, Maximilian entered Vienna; as the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. In 1499/1500 he drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile; this brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan; the prolonged Italian Wars resulted in Maximilian joining the Holy League to counter the French. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France.
His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, his progress there was checked. The situation in Italy was not the only problem; the Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, the Cou
The Landsknecht, plural: Landsknechte, were mercenary soldiers who became an important military force through late 15th- and 16th-century Europe. Consisting predominantly of German mercenary pikemen and supporting foot soldiers, they were the universal mercenaries of early modern Europe, sometimes fighting on both sides of a conflict; the Germanic compound Landsknecht combines Land and Knecht to form "servant of the land." The compound Lantknecht was used during the 15th century for bailiffs or court ushers. The word Landsknecht first appeared in the German language circa 1470 to describe certain troops in the army of Charles, Duke of Burgundy; as early as 1500, the term was morphed into Lanzknecht, referring to the unit's use of the pike as its main weapon. Over the Burgundian Wars, the well-organized and supplied armies of Charles the Bold were defeated again and again by the Swiss Confederation, which wielded an ad hoc militia army. Charles's army lacked esprit de corps because of its composition by feudal lords and levied gentry.
The Swiss army, though poorly organized, were motivated and well-trained with their arms. The Swiss pikemen, called Reisläufer defeated and killed Charles, eliminating Burgundy as a European power. Archduke Maximilian I von Habsburg, who inherited Burgundy in 1477 by marrying Mary of Burgundy, was influenced by the Swiss victories; when the French contested the inheritance, Maximilian levied a Flemish army and defeated the French in 1479 at the Battle of Guinegate using Swiss tactics. The dissolution of his levied army at war's end found Maximilian wanting a permanent and organized military force like the Confederation's to protect his domain; the existing Burgundian structure was inadequate to this end and moreover the French wielded a monopoly on the hiring of Reisläufer. Maximilian began amassing 6,000 -- 8,000 mercenaries. One of these units he gave to Eitel Friedrich II, Count of Hohenzollern, who trained them with Swiss instructors in Bruges in 1487 to become the "Black Guard" – the first Landsknechte.
In 1488, Maximilian organized the Swabian League, creating an army of 12,000 infantry and 1,200 cavalry to deter Bavaria and Bohemia. This is considered to be the first Landsknecht army to be raised in Germany. Maximilian raised a strong army for the Austrian-Hungarian War of 1490, succeeded in driving the Hungarians out of the Austria; the Landsknechte in his army refused to serve after sacking Stuhlweissenburg, citing lack of pay and stopping Maximilian's advance on Budapest. To prevent a repeat of Stuhlweissenburg, Maximilian now sought to homogenize the Landsknechte into a professional, German military force. In the 1490s, the well-trained Landsknechte managed to defeat greater Frisian armies. Paul Dolnstein wrote of the siege of Älvsborg Fortress in July 1502, fighting for the King of Denmark: "We were 1800 Germans, we were attacked by 15000 Swedish farmers... we struck most of them dead." In 1521, the Spaniards recruited German infantrymen to defend their country against the French because, as they stated "our infantry does not perform as well in its native country as abroad".
At the Battle of Bicocca and the Battle of Marignano, the Landsknecht performed well, defeating the famed Reisläufer. The Imperial Landsknechte were instrumental in many of the Emperor's victories, including the decisive Battle of Pavia in 1525; the same year, they managed to defeat the peasants' revolt in the Empire. At their peak in the early 16th century, the Landsknechte were considered as formidable soldiers who were brave and loyal. However, these qualities may have declined afterward. From the 1560s on, the reputation of the Landsknechte decreased. In the French Wars of Religion and the Eighty Years War, their bravery and discipline came under criticism, the Spanish elements of the army of Flanders deprecated the battlefield usefulness of the Landsknechte, somewhat unfairly, their status suffered from the rising reputation of the dreaded Spanish tercios which, were far less abundant and more expensive to train. It should be noted that when serving in southern Europe, Landsknechte were still considered as elite troops.
In the army of the Dutch rebels, many German mercenaries were hired but were forced to give up many Landsknecht traditions in order to increase their discipline and their fighting abilities. They are attested as deployed in the armies of Kings John III of Navarre and successor Henry II of Navarre during their campaigns to reconquer Navarre. In the same context, they are found fighting on Charles V's side where they performed strongly, they served in high numbers in the Imperial army during the campaigns of Austria, Germany and in all the Italian wars. The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, but funds were not available to pay the soldiers; the 34,000 Imperial troops mutinied and forced their commander, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, to lead them towards Rome. The Sack of Rome in 1527 was executed by some 6,000 Spaniards under the Duke, 14,000 Landsknechte under Georg von Frundsberg, some Italian infantry and some cavalry; as with the Reisläufer, a regiment of Landsknechte was raised by a lord with a letter patent that named the unit colonel.
This document laid out the size and structure of the unit, the pay of its men, contained its Articles of War. Upon accepting the commission and securing funding, either through a bank loan or a grant from the lord, the colonel assembled his chain of
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Greenwich armour is the plate armour in a distinctively English style produced by the Royal Almain Armoury founded by Henry VIII in 1511 in Greenwich near London, which continued until the English Civil War. The armoury was formed by imported master armourers hired by Henry VIII including some from Italy and Flanders, as well as the Germans who dominated during most of the 16th century; the most notable head armourer of the Greenwich workshop was Jacob Halder, master workman of the armoury from 1576 to 1607. This was the peak period of the armoury's production and it coincided with the elaborately gilded and sometimes coloured decorated styles of late Tudor England; as the use of full plate in actual combat had declined by the late 16th century, the Greenwich armours were created not for battle but for the tournament. Jousting was a favourite pastime of Henry VIII, his daughter Elizabeth I made her Accession Day tilts a highlight of the court's calendar, focused on hyperbolic declarations of loyalty and devotion in the style of contemporary verse epics.
Late in her reign, courtiers gained favour by participating and dressing the part. The workshop produced bespoke armour for the nobility; the book of Greenwich armour designs for 24 different gentlemen, known as the "Jacob Album" after its creator, includes many of the most important figures of the Elizabethan court. In this period a distinctive Greenwich style developed, marked by imitating aspects of fashionable clothing styles, extensive use of gilded and coloured areas, using complex decoration in Northern Mannerist styles. By the time of the mid-17th century, plate armour had adopted a stark and utilitarian form favoring thickness and protection over aesthetics and was only used by heavy cavalry. Therefore, the Greenwich workshop represented the last flourishing of decorative armour-making in England, comprises a unique genre of late-Renaissance art in its own right. Although there were English armourers at work before 1511, indeed they had their own guild in London, it seems that they were both unable to cope with large volume orders, not able to produce work of the finest quality, in the latest styles, found in Europe.
A payment to Milanese armourers at Greenwich, of £6 2/3 and two hogsheads of wine was made in July 1511. Greenwich Palace was still an important royal residence, the birthplace of both Henry and his two daughters. By 1515 there were six German master armourers, with two Flemish masters, two polishers and an apprentice, all working under the English King's Armourer, John Blewbury, a "Clerk of the Stable". All were given damask livery clothes. In 1516 the workshop moved closer to London to a mill in Southwark, while construction of a new mill at Greenwich began. On completion of this in 1520 they returned to Greenwich; the first Greenwich harnesses, created under Henry VIII, were of uniform colouration, either gilded or silvered all over and etched with intricate motifs designed by Hans Holbein. The lines of these armours were not much different from Northern German designs of the same time period. A good example of this early sort of Greenwich style is the harness, thought to have belonged to Galiot de Genouillac, Constable of France, but was created for King Henry.
The armour on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, has a specially designed corset built into the cuirass to support the weight of the burly king's large stomach. This harness has wide sabatons in the Maximilian style. Similar in design, but ungilded, is another tournament harness made for Henry VIII which now resides at the Tower of London and, famous for its large codpiece. After the reign of Henry VIII, the Greenwich armour began to evolve into a different and unique style. There were several defining characteristics of this second wave of armour. One was the mimicking of popular fashions of the time in the styles of the armour to reflect the individual wearer's taste in civilian clothing. From 1560 cuirasses were designed to imitate the curving "peascod" style of doublet, immensely popular among gentlemen during the reign of Elizabeth; this type of cuirass curved outwards in front at a steep angle which culminated at the groin, where it tapered into a small horn-like protrusion.
All-over gilding or silvering was replaced by strips of blued or gilded steel running horizontally across the pauldrons at the edge of each lame, vertically down the cuirass and tassets, which emulated the strips of colourful embroidered cloth that were popular in civilian fashion. Some armours were provided with an extra pair of tassets for use at the barriers which were wide, not unlike the form of a pair of trunkhose; the extant armours of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and that of Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke display these tassets. The armour of William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester is similarly styled. Another defining characteristic of Elizabethan-era Greenwich armour is the extravagant use of colour in general to decorate the steel. Older styles of armour-making, such as Maximilian and Gothic, emphasized the shaping of the metal itself, such as fluting and roping, to create artistic desi
Tassets are a piece of plate armour designed to protect the upper thighs. They take the form of separate plates hanging from faulds, they may be made from segmented. The segmented style of tassets connected by sliding rivets produced during the 16th century is known as almain rivets. From the 16th century onward, the tassets were sometimes integrated with the cuisses to create articulated leg defenses that continued from the lower edge of the breastplate down to the poleyn. Cleveland Museum of Art glossary of arms and armor
The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, expanded into present-day Alsace, northern Switzerland, leading to the establishment of the Old High German language in those regions, by the eighth century named Alamannia. In 496, the Alemanni were incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were Christianized during the seventh century; the Lex Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the eighth century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was nominal. After an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed the Alamannic nobility and installed Frankish dukes. During the and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire, the Alemannic counts became independent, a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishopric of Constance.
The chief family in Alamannia was that of the counts of Raetia Curiensis, who were sometimes called margraves, one of whom, Burchard II, established the Duchy of Swabia, recognized by Henry the Fowler in 919 and became a stem duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. The area settled by the Alemanni corresponds to the area where Alemannic German dialects remain spoken, including German Swabia and Baden, French Alsace, German-speaking Switzerland and Austrian Vorarlberg; the French language name of Germany, Allemagne, is derived from their name, from Old French aleman, from French loaned into a number of other languages. The Spanish name for Germany is Alemania, Welsh is Yr Almaen. According to Gaius Asinius Quadratus, the name Alamanni means "all men", it indicates. The Romans and the Greeks called them as such mentioned; this derivation was accepted by Edward Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and by the anonymous contributor of notes assembled from the papers of Nicolas Fréret, published in 1753.
This etymology has remained the standard derivation of the name. An alternative suggestion proposes derivation from *alah "sanctuary". Walafrid Strabo in the 9th century remarked, in discussing the people of Switzerland and the surrounding regions, that only foreigners called them the Alemanni, but that they gave themselves the name of Suebi; the Suebi are given the alternative name of Ziuwari in an Old High German gloss, interpreted by Jacob Grimm as Martem colentes. The Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213. At that time, they dwelt in the basin of the Main, to the south of the Chatti. Cassius Dio portrays the Alemanni as victims of this treacherous emperor, they had asked for his help, according to Dio, but instead he colonized their country, changed their place names, executed their warriors under a pretext of coming to their aid. When he became ill, the Alemanni claimed to have put a hex on him. Caracalla, tried to counter this influence by invoking his ancestral spirits.
In retribution, Caracalla led the Legio II Traiana Fortis against the Alemanni, who lost and were pacified for a time. The legion was as a result honored with the name Germanica." The fourth-century fictional Historia Augusta, Life of Antoninus Caracalla, relates that Caracalla assumed the name Alemannicus,"at which Helvius Pertinax jested that he should be called Geticus Maximus," because in the year before he had murdered his brother, Geta. Through much of his short reign, Caracalla was known for unpredictable and arbitrary operations launched by surprise after a pretext of peace negotiations. If he had any reasons of state for such actions, they remained unknown to his contemporaries. Whether or not the Alemanni had been neutral, they were further influenced by Caracalla to become thereafter notoriously implacable enemies of Rome; this mutually antagonistic relationship is the reason why the Roman writers persisted in calling the Alemanni barbari," meaning "savages." The archaeology, shows that they were Romanized, lived in Roman-style houses and used Roman artifacts, the Alemannic women having adopted the Roman fashion of the tunica earlier than the men.
Most of the Alemanni were at the time, in fact, resident in or close to the borders of Germania Superior. Although Dio is the earliest writer to mention them, Ammianus Marcellinus used the name to refer to Germans on the Limes Germanicus in the time of Trajan's governorship of the province shortly after it was formed, around 98-99 AD. At that time, the entire frontier was being fortified for the first time. Trees from the earliest fortifications found in Germania Inferior are dated by dendrochronology to 99-100 AD. Ammianus relates that much the Emperor Julian undertook a punitive expedition against the Alemanni, who by were in Alsace, crossed the Main, entering the forest, where the trails were blocked by felled trees; as winter was upon them, they reoccupied a "fortification, founded on the soil of the Alemanni that Trajan wished to be called with his own name". In this context, the use of Alemanni is an anachronism, but it reveals that Ammianus believed they were the same people, consistent with the location of the Alemanni of Caracalla's campaigns.
Germania by Tacitus in Chapter 42 states that the Hermunduri were a tribe located in the region that became